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VOL.   I. 


W.  LINDSAY  ALEXANDER,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Theology.  Congregational 
Union,  Edinburgh. 

JAMES  BEGG,  D.D.,  Minister  of  Newington  Free  Church,  Edinburgh. 

THOMAS  J.  CRAWFORD,  D.D.,  S.T.P.,  Professor  of  Divinity,  University, 

D.  T.  K.  DRUMMOND,  M.A.,  Minister  of  St  Thomas's  Episcopal  Church, 

WILLIAM  H.  GOOLD,  D.D.,  Professor  of  Biblical  Literature  and  Church 
History,  Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,  Edinburgh. 

ANDREW  THOMSON,  D.D.,  Minister  of  Broughton  Place  United  Presby- 
terian Church,  Edinburgh. 

<5mrral  ©Oitor. 
REV.  THOMAS  SMITH.  M.A..  Edinburgh. 



(Sftitefc,  fcuitlj  gUirarir, 



VOL.   I. 












I.  The  Preface, 

II.  Memoir  of  Brooks, 
Appendix  to  Memoir, 


xv— six 

.    XX-XXXY11 


III.  Precious  Remedies  against  Satan's  Devices,              .              .  1 

Epistle  Dedicatory,       ......  8-7 

A  Word  to  the  Reader,              .             .             .              .             .  8,  9 

A  Table  shewing  the  principal  things  in  this  Treatise : — 

The  words  opened,  and  the  point  proved,  from              .              .  1U-12 

I.  In  the  next  place  is  shewed,  The  several  devices  that  Satan 
hath  to  draw  souls  to  sin  : — 

Satan's  first  device  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is,  To  present  the 
bait,  and  hide  the  hook.  Four  remedies  against  this 
device,  from      ......       12-16 

His  second  device  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is,  By  painting 
sin  with  virtue's  colours.  Four  remedies  against  this 
device,  from      .  .  ...  .  .       16-18 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
By  extenuating  and  lessening  of  sin.  Seven  remedies 
against  this  device  of  Satan,  from  .  .  19-28 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin 
is,  By  presenting  to  the  soul  the  best  men's  sins,  and  bi/ 
hiding  from  the  soul  their  virtues.  Four  remedies  against 
this  device  of  Satan,  from  ....       2-1-27 

The  fifth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
By  presenting  God  to  the  soul  as  one  made  up  all  of  mercy. 
Five  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .       27-81 

The  sixth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
By  persuading  the  soul  that  the  work  of  repentance  is  an 
easy  work.     Six  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .       81-88 


The  seventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin 
is,  By  making  the  soul  bold  to  venture  upon  the  occasions 
of  sin.     Four  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .       38-41 

The  eighth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
By  present ing  to  the  soul  the  outward  mercies  thai  vain  men 
enjoy,  and  the  outward  miseries  that  they  are  freed  from, 
wliilst  they  have  walked  in  the  ways  of  sin.  Eight  remedies 
against  this  device,  from  ....       41-47 

The  ninth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
By  presenting  to  the  soul  the  crosses,  the  losses,  reproaches, 
sorrows,  and  sufferings  that  daily  attend  those  that  walk  in 
the  icays  of  holiness.  Seven  remedies  against  this  device, 
from  ...  ...       47-54 

The  tenth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  souls  of  men 
to  sin  is,  By  working  them  to  be  frequently  in  comparing 
themselves  and  their  ways  with  those  that  are  reputed  to  be 
worse  than  themselves.  Three  remedies  against  this  de- 
vice, from  ......       54-56 

The  eleventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin 
is,  By  polluting  and  defiling  the  souls  and  judgments  of  men 
with  such  dangerous  errors,  that  do  in  their  proper  tendency 
tend  to  carry  the  souls  of  men  to  all  looseness  and  wicked- 
ness.    Seven  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .       56-61 

The  twelfth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin 
is,  To  work  it  to  affect  wicked  company.  Four  remedies 
against  this  device,  from  ....       61-62 

II.  Secondly,  As  Satan  hath  his  several  devices  to  draw  souls 
to  sin,  so  he  hath  his  several  devices  to  keep  souls  from  holy 
duties,  to  keep  them  off  from  religious  services,  and  they 
are  these  that  follow  : — 

The  first  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  souls  from  holy 
duties,  and  to  keep  them  off  from  religious  services,  is,  By 
presenting  the  world  in  such  a  dress,  and  in  such  a  garb  to 
the  soul,  as  to  ensnare  the  soul,  and  to  win  upon  the  affec- 
tions of  the  soul.  He  presents  the  world  to  them  in  its 
beauty  and  bravery,  which  proves  a  bewitching  sight  to  a 
world  of  men.     Eight  remedies  against  his  device,  from         68-70 

The  second  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  souls  from  the 
ordinances  or  holy  duties  is,  By  presenting  to  them  the 
dangers,  the  losses,  and  the  sufferings  that  do  attend  the  per- 
formances of  such  and  such  religious  services.  Five  remedies 
against  this  device,  from  ....       70-74 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  souls  from  holy 
duties,  and  to  keep  them  off  from  religious  services,  is, 
By  presenting  to  the  soul  the  difficulty  of  performing  them. 
Five  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .       74-77 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  off  from 
holy  exercises,  from  religious  exercise,  is,  By  working  them 
to  make  false  inferences  from  those  blessed  and.  glorious 
things  that  Christ  hath  done.  Five  remedies  against  this 
device,  from      ......       77-81 

The  fifth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  souls  off  from 
religious  services,  and  to  keep  souls  off  from  holy  and 


heavenly  performances,  is,  By  presenting  to  them  the  paucity 
and  poverty  of  those  that  walk  in  the  ways  of  God.  Six 
remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .  .       81-84 

The  sixth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  off  from 
religious  services  is,  By  presenting  before  them  the  examples 
of  the  greatest  part  of  the  world,  that  walk  in  the  ways  of 
their  own  hearts,  and  that  make  light  and  slight  of  the  ways 
of  God.     Three  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .        84-86 

The  seventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  from  holy 
and  heavenly  services  is,  By  casting  in  a  multitude  of 
vain  thoughts,  whilst  the  soul  is  in  waiting  on  God.  Seven 
remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .  86— 8i) 

The  eighth  device  of  Satan  to  keep  souls  from  holy  and 
heavenly  services  is,  Bg  working  them  to  rest  in  their  holy 
performances.     Four  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .       89-91 

III.  In  the  third  place  is  shewed  the  several  devices  Satan  hath 
to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting,  and  questioning  condition ; 
and  they  are  these  that  follow  : — 

The  first  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  .  souls  in  a  sad, 
doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  causing  them 
to  pore  more,  and  mind  more  their  sins  than  their  Saviour. 
Six  remedies  against  this  device,  from     .  .  .       91-94 

The  second  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad, 
doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  working  them 
to  make  false  definitions  of  their  graces.  Four  remedies 
against  this  device,  from  ....       95-97 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad, 
doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  working  the 
sold  to  make  inferences  from,  the  cross  actings  of  providence. 
Four  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .       97-99 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  souls  in  a 
sad,  doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  suggesting 
that  their  graces  are  not  true,  but  counterfeit.  Two  remedies 
against  this,  and  in  the  handling  of  these  two  remedies, 
ten  differences  are  shewed  between  renewing  grace  and 
restraining  grace,  betwixt  sanctifying  grace  and  tem- 
porary grace,  from        .....     99-104 

The  fifth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad, 
doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  suggesting  to 
them  that  that  conflict  that  is  in  them,  is  not  a  conflict  that 
is  only  in  saints,  but  such  a  conflict  that  is  to  be  found  in 
the  hearts  of  hypocrites  and  profane  souls.  Six  remedies 
against  this  device,  from  ....  104-107 

The  sixth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  souls  in  a 
sad,  doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  suggesting 
to  the  soul,  that  certainly  the  soul  is  not  good,  because  the 
soul  cannot  joy  and  rejoice  in  Christ,  as  once  it  could. 
Five  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .  .  107-110 

The  seventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  souls  in  a 
sad,  doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  suggesting 
to  the  soul  its  often  relapses  into  the  same  sin,  which  for- 
merly he  hath  pursued  with  particular  sorrow,  grief,  shame, 


and  tears,  and  prayed  and  resolved  against.     Six  remedies 
against  this  device,  from  ....   110-113 

The  eighth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  souls  in  a 
sad,  doubting,  and  questioning  condition  is,  By  persuad- 
ing them  that  their  estates  is  not  [food,  their  hearts  are  not 
upright,  their  //races  are  not  sound,  because  they  are  so 
followed,  vexed,  and  tormented  with  temptations.  Several 
remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .  .   113-117 

IV.  In  the  fourth  place  is  shewed  the  several  ways  and  devices 
that  Satan  hath  to  destroy  all  sorts  and  ranks  of  men  in  the 
world : — 
First,  He  hath  his  devices  to  destroy  the  great  and  honourable 
of  the  earth ;  and  that, 

First,  By  working  them  to  make  it  their  business  to  seek  how 
to  greaten  themselves,  to  enrich  themselves,  to  secure  them- 
selves.    Six  remedies  against  this  device,  from    .  .   117-122 

The  second  grand  device  that  Satan  hath  to  destroy  the 
great  and  honourable  of  the  earth  is,  By  engaging  them 
against  the  people  of  the  Most  High.  Four  remedies  against 
this  device,  from  .....  122-125 

Secondly,  Satan  hath  his  devices  to  destroy  the  learned  and 
the  wise,  and  that  sometimes,  By  working  them  to  pride 
themselves  in  their  parts  and  abilities,  and  to  rest  upon,  and 
make  light  and  slight  of  those  that  want  their  parts  and 
abilities,  though  they  excel  them  in  grace  and  holiness. 
Four  remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .   125-128 

Thirdly,  Satan  hath  his  devices  to  ensnare  and  destroy  the 
saints,  and  that,  By  working  them  first  to  be  strange,  and 
then  to  be  bitter  and  jealous,  and  then  to  divide.  Twelve 
remedies  against  this  device,  from  .  .  .   128-136 

Fourthly,  Satan  hath  his  devices  to  destroy  poor  ignorant 
souls,  and  that  sometimes,  By  drawing  them  to  affect 
ignorance,  and  to  neglect,  slight,  and  despise  the  means  of 
knowledge.     Four  remedies  against  this  device,  from        .   136-138 

An  appendix  touching  five  more  several  devices  that  Satan 
hath  to  keep  poor  souls  from  believing  in  Christ,   from  re- 
ceiving,  from  embracing,  from  resting,  leaning,  or  relying 
upon  Christ  for  everlasting  happiness  and  blessedness  accord- 
ing to  the  gospel.     And  remedies  against  those  devices, 
from    .......  139-14!) 

Seven  characters  of  false  teachers  by  whom  Satan  labours  to 

delude  poor  souls,  from  ....  149-152 

To  prevent  some  objections,  six  propositions  or  conclusions 

concerning  Satan  and  his  devices  are  laid  down,  from      .   153-154 
Five  reasons  of  the  point  are  laid  down,  from         .  .  156,  157 

Lastly,  several  sweet  and  profitable  uses  of  the  point,  from    157-164 
The  Stationer  to  the  Reader,  ....  165 

True  Copy  of  a  Letter,      .....  165,  166 



IV.  Apples  of  Gold,         ......  167 

Epistle  Dedicatory,      ......  169-174 

The  explication  of  the  words,  from        .  .  .  .  175-178 

Chaptee  I. 

Doct.  That  is  a  very  desirable  and  commendable  thing  for  young  men  to 

be  really  good  betimes  ;  this  truth  proved,    ....  178 

Twelve  reasons  of  this  point : 

1.  Because  he  commands  it,  whose  commands  are  not  to  be  dis- 

puted, but  obeyed,  from     .....  178-179 

2.  Because  they  have   means  and  opportunities  of  being  good 

betimes,  from        ......  179-180 

3.  Because  then  they  will  have  fewer  sins  to  answer  for,  and 

repent  of,  from      ......  180-181 

4.  Because  time  is  a  precious  talent  that  young  men  must  be 

accountable  for,  from         .....  181—182 

5.  Because  then  they  will  have  the  greater  comfort  and  joy  when 

they  come  to  be  old,  from  .....  182-188 

6.  Because  an  eternity  of  felicity  and  glory  hangs  upon  those 

few  moments  that  are  allotted  to  them,  from  .  .  183-184 

7.  Because  they  do  not  begin  to  live  till  they  begin  to  be  really 

good,  from  ......  184-185 

8.  Because  the  promise  of  finding  G-od,  of  enjoying  God,  is  made 

over  to  an  early  seeking  of  God,  &c,  from  .  .  185-187 

9.  Because  the  time  of  youth  is  the  choicest  and  fittest  time  for 

service,  from         ......   187-188 

10.  Because  death  may  suddenly  and  unexpectedly  seize  on  youth, 

youth  being  as  fickle  as  old  age,  from         .  .  .  188-190 

11.  Because  it  is  ten  to  one,  nay,  a  hundred  to  ten,  if  ever  they 

are  converted,  if  they  are  not  converted   when  they  are 

young,  from  ......   190-191 

12.  Because  else  they  will  never  attain  to  the  honour  of  being  an 

old  disciple,  from  .....  190-191 

Chapter  II. 

The  honour  of  an  old.  disciple,  shewed  in  seven  particulars  : 

1.  All  men  will  honour  an  old  disciple,  from      .  .  .  191-192 

2.  God  usually  reveals  himself  most  to   old   disciples,  to   old 

saints,  from  ......  192-193 

3.  An  old  Christian,  an  old  disciple,  hath  got  the  art  of  serving 

God,         .......  193 

4.  An  old  disciple,  an  old  Christian,  is  rich  in  spiritual  experi- 

ences, from  ......   193-194 

5.  An  old  disciple  is  firm  and  fixed  in  his  resolutions,  from        .   194-195 

6.  An  old  disciple  is  prepared  for  death,  from   .  .  .  195-196 

7.  An  old  disciple  shall  have  a  great  reward  in  heaven,  from      .  196-198 
Use  of  reproof,  from     ......  198-199 

Chapter  III. 

The  several  evils  that  most  properly  attend  youth,  as, 

1.  Pride,  from  ......  199-200 

2.  Sensual  pleasures  and  delights,  from  .  .  .  200-202 



8.  Rashness,  from        ......  202-203 

4.  Mocking  and  scoffing  at  religions  men,  and  religious  things, 

from  .......  208 

5.  Wantonness,  ......  203-204 

Chapter  IV. 

Use  of  Exhortation  to  exhort  young  persons  to  be  good  betimes,  and  mo- 
tive* moving  thereunto,  as, 

1.  It  is  a  high  honour  to  be  good  betimes,  from  .  .  204-206 

2.  Christ  gave  himself  for  sinners  when  he  was  in  the  primrose 

of  his  age,  from     ......  206-207 

3.  It  is  the  best  way  in  the  world  to  be  rich  in  spiritual  expe- 

riences, from         .  .  .  .  .  .  207-208 

4.  The  present  time  is  the  only  time  that  you  are  sure  of,  from  .  208-211 

5.  It  is  just  with  God  to  reserve  the  dregs  of  his  wrath  for  them, 

who  reserve  the  dregs  of  their  days  for  him,  from  .  211 

6.  The  sooner  you  are  good  on  earth,  the  greater  will  be  your 

reward  in  heaven,  from     .....  211-214 

7.  The  Lord  is  very  much  affected  and  taken  with  your  seeking 

of  him,  and  following  after  him  in  the  spring  and  morning 

of  your  youth,  from       ...  .  .  214-215 

8.  It  will  prevent  many  sad  and  black  temptations,  from  .  215-216 

9.  Consider  the  worth  and  excellency  of  souls,  from       .              .  216-217 
10.  God  will  at  last  bring  young  men  to  a  reckoning,  from           .  217-220 

Chapter  V. 

Quest.  Whether  in  the  great  dag  of  account,  the  sins  of  saints  shall  be 
brought  into  the  judgment  of  discussion  and  discovery,  or  no  ?  The 
negative  proved  bg  divers  arguments,  from   ....  220-224 

Chapter  VI. 

Directions  to  such  as  ivould  be  good  betimes,  as  would  know  and  love, 
seek  and  serve  the  Lord  in  the  primrose  of  their  days  ;  as, 

1.  Take  heed  of  putting  the  day  of  death  afar  off,  from  .  224-226 

2.  If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  take  heed  of  leaning  to  your 

own  understanding,  from  .....  226-227 

3.  If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  take  heed  of  flatterers  and 

fkttery,  from         ......  227-230 

4.  If  you  would  seek  the  Lord  in  the  spring  and  morning  of  your 

days,  then  take  heed  of  engaged  affections  to  the  things  of 

the  world,  from     ......   230-231 

5.  If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  take  heed  be- 

times of  carnal  reason,  &c,  from  ....  232 

6.  Take  heed  of  comparing  yourselves  with  those  that  are  worse 

than  yourselves,  from        .....  233-284 

Chapter  VII. 

Secondly,  As  those  six  things  must  be  declined,  so  several  other  things 
must  be  practised,  if  you  would  be  good  betimes  ;  as, 

1.  If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  labour  to  be 
acquainted  with  four  things  betimes,  as, 


[1.]  You  must  labour  to  acquaint  yourselves  with  the  Scripture 

betimes,  from   ......  235-238 

You  must  acquaint  yourselves  with  yourselves  betimes,  from  238-240 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  acquaint  your- 
selves with  Jesus  Christ  betimes,  from  .  .  .  240 
Now  tbere  are  six  things  which  you  should  be  thoroughly 

acquainted  with  concerning  Jesus  Christ.     As, 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  know  that 
there  is  every  thing  in  Christ,  that  may  encourage  you 
to  seek  him,  and  serve  him,  from  .  .  .  240-241 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  know  be- 
times, that  Jesus  Christ  is  mighty  to  save,  from  .  241-242 

Then  you  must  know  betimes,  that  there  is  a  marvellous 
readiness  and  willingness  in  Christ  to  embrace  and  enter- 
tain returning  sinners,  &c,  from  .  .  .  242-243 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  know  betimes 
that  Jesus  Christ  is  designed,  sealed,  and  appointed  by 
the  Father  to  the  office  of  a  mediator,  from         .  .  243-244 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  know  betimes 
that  there  is  no  way  to  salvation  but  by  Jesus  Christ, 
from     .......  244-245 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  know  betimes 
that  the  heart  of  Jesus  Christ  is  as  much  set  upon  sin- 
ners, now  he  is  in  heaven,  as  ever  it  was  when  he  was  on 
earth,  from        ......  245-246 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then, 

You  must  acquaint  yourselves  with  those  that  are  good  be- 
times, from        .....  .  246-248 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  shun  the  oc- 
casion of  sin  betimes,  from        ....  248-250 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  remember  the 

eye  of  God  betimes,  from  ....  250-251 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  hearken  to 

the  voice  of  conscience  betimes,  from      .  .  .  251-252 

If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  know  wherein 

true  happiness  lies  betimes,  from  .  .  .  252-253 

Lastly,  If  you  would  be  good  betimes,  then  you  must  break 
your  covenant  with  sin  betimes.  Now  to  work  you  to  that, 
you  must  always  look  upon  sin  under  these  six  notions : 

You  must  look  upon  sin  under  the  notion  of  an  enemy,  from  253-254 

Under  the  notion  of  bonds,  &c,  from  .  .  .  254-255 

Under  the  notion  of  fire  ;  six  resemblances  between  sin  and 

fire,  from  ......  255-258 

Under  the  notion  of  a  thief,  &c,  from        .  .  .  258-259 

Under  the  notion  of  a  burden,  &c,  from     .  .  .  259-260 

Under  the  notion  of  a  tyrant,  &c,  from     .  .  .  260-261 

Chapter  VIII. 

1  Obj.  It  may  be  time  enough  hereafter  to  seek  and  serve  the 

Lord,  dc. 
This  objection  answered  four  ways,  from        .  .  .  261-262 

2  Obj.  If  1  should  seek  and  serve  the  Lord  in  the  spring  and 



morning  of  my  days,  I  should  lose  the  love  and  favour  of  such 
and  such  friends  and  relations. 
Four  answers  to  this  objection,  &c,  from       .  .  .  262  264 

3  Ob j.   I  shall  meet  with  many  reproaches. 

Eight  answers  to  this  objection,  from  .  .  .  264-269 

4  Obj.   Most  men  give  liberty  to  themselves,  and  walk  in  ways  more 

'pleasing  to  t lie  flesh. 
This  objection  answered  five  ways,  from         .  .  .  269  273 

5  Obj.  The  last  I  shall  mention  is,  That  God  is  a  God  of  mercy  ; 

in  hi  in  are  bowels  of  mercy,  yea,  a  sea,  an  ocean  of  mercy;  he 
delights  in  mercy,  dc. 
Five  answers  to  this  objection,  from  .  .  .  273-275 

Chapter  IX. 
Lastly,  The  Old  Man's  Doubts  resolved,  in  eight  several  Answers,  from  275-278 

Title-page  of  1st  Edition,  .  279 

Epistle  Dedicatory  of  ditto,       .....  280-284 

The  Mute  Christian  under  the  Smarting  Rod,  .  .•  285 

Epistle  Dedicatory,       ......  287-293 

A  Table  shewing  the  Principal  Things  in  this  Treatise  : — 

The  words  opened  and  the  doctrine  raised,  viz.,  That  it  is  the 
great  duty  and  concernment  of  gracious  souls  to  be  mute  and 
silent  under  the  greatest  afflictions,  the  saddest  providences, 
and  sharpest  trials  they  meet  with  in  this  world,  from  .  294-295 

For   the   opening  of  this   point,    first,  there  is  a  sevenfold 

silence,  ......  295-298 

2.  What  doth  a  prudent,  a  gracious,  a  holy  silence  include, 

shewed  in  eight  things,  ....  298-306 

3.  What  a  prudent,  a  holy  silence  under  affliction  doth  not 

exclude,  shewed  in  eight  things,  .  .  .  306-312 

4.  Eight   reasons  why   Christians  must  be  mute  and  silent 

under  their  greatest  afllictions,  &c,         .  .  .  312-319 

/  .sc.  This  truth  looks  sourly  upon  five  sorts  of  persons,  .  320-323 

Six  considerations  to  prevent  men  from  using  sinful  shifts  and 

courses  to  deliver  themselves  out  of  their  afliictions,  &c,  323-326 

Twelve  considerations  to  prevail  with  Christians  to  be  mute 
and  silent  under  the  sharpest  afflictions  that  they  meet 
with  in  this  world,  &c,  ....  326-334 

The  heinous  and  dangerous  nature  of  murmuring,  discovered 

in  twelve  particulars,     .....  334-341 

Obj.  1.  Did  I  but  know  that  my  afflictions  were  in  love,  I 
would  be  quiet,  I  would  hold  my  peace,  &c,  answered 
eight  ways,         ......  341-346 

Obj.  2.  The  Lord  hath  smitten  me  in  my  nearest  and  dearest 
comforts  and  contentments,  and  how  then  can  I  hold  my 
peace  ?    Answered  twelve  ways,  .  .  .  346-o-Vl 

Obj.  3.  Oh  !  but  my  afflictions,  my  troubles,  have  been  long 


upon  me,  and  how  can  I  hold  my  peace  ?     Answered  ten 

ways,   .......  354-359 

Obj.  4.  I  would  be  mute  and  silent  under  my  afflictions,  but 
they  daily  multiply  and  increase  upon  me,  &c,  how  then 
can  I  be  silent  ?     Answered  eight  ways,  .  .  359-361 

Obj.  5.  My  afflictions  are  very  great,  how  then  can  I  hold  my 

peace  ?  &c.     Answered  six  ways,  .  .  .  361-364 

Obj.  6.  Oh  !  but  my  afflictions  are  greater  than  other  men's, 

&c,  how  then  can  I  be  silent  ?     Answered  six  ways,       .  364-366 

Obj.  7.  I  would  hold  my  peace,  but  my  outward  afflictions  are 
attended  with  sore  temptations,  &c,  how  then  can  I  be 
silent  ?  Answered  five  ways  ;  wherein  eigbt  advantages 
are  discovered  that  saints  gain  by  their  temptations,        .  366-371 

Obj.  8.  Oh  !  but  God  hath  deserted  me,  he  hath  forsaken  me, 
and  hid  his  face  from  me,  &c,  how  can  I  then  be  silent  ? 
Answered  six  ways  ;  also  eight  advantages  the  saints  gain 
by  their  being  clouded,  ....  372-379 

Obj.  9.  Oh  !  but  I  am  falsely  accused  and  sadly  charged,  and 
reproached  in  my  good  name,  &c,  how  then  can  I  be 
silent  ?  Answered  ten  ways,       ....  379-385 

Obj.  10.  I  have  sought  the  Lord  in  this  my  affliction  for  this 
and  that  mercy,  and  still  the  Lord  delays  me,  and  puts 
me  off,  &c,  how  can  I  then  hold  my  peace  ?  How  can  I 
be  silent  ?  &c.     Answered  six  ways,       .  .  .  385-387 

Quest.  But  what  are  the  reasons  that  God  doth  so  delay  and 

put  off  his  people  ?     Answered  seven  ways,        .  .  387-390 

Quest.  What  are  the  means  that  may  help  persons  to  be  silent 
and  quiet  under  their  greatest  afflictions,  their  sharpest 
trials  ?  &c.     Answered  from       ....  390-398 

A  String  of  Pearls,           ......  399 

The  Epistle  Dedicatory,            .....  401-403 

Character  of  Mrs  Blake,            .....  404-406 

An  Elegy,        .......  406-408 

The  Table  of  the  chief  Heads  :— 

The  explication  of  the  words  from     ....  409-410 
Doct.  That  God  reserves  the  best  and  greatest  favours  and  blessings 
for  believers  till  they  come  to  heaven. 
This  point  is  made  good  by  an  induction  of  particulars  :  thus, 
First,  The  best  inheritance  is  reserved  for  believers  till  they  come 
to  heaven ;  this  is  made  good  by  six  particulars,  as, 

[1.]  Tbe  inheritance  reserved  for  believers  till  they  come  to 

heaven,  is  a  pure,  undefiled,  and  incorruptible  inheritance,   410-411 
[2.]  It  is  a  sure,  a  secure  inheritance,        .  .  .  41 1 

[3.j  It  is  a  permanent,  a  lasting  inheritance,  .  .  411-412 

[4.]  It  is  the  freest  inheritance,  an  inheritance  free  from  all 

vexaiion  and  molestation,  ....  412 

[5.]  It  is  an  inheritance  that  is  universal,  to  Jews,  to  Gen- 
tiles, to  bond,  to  free,  &c,         ....  412-413 
[6.]  It  is  a  soul-satisfying  inheritance,       .  .  .  413-414 


Secondly,  The  best  rest  is  reserved  for  believers  till  they  come  to 

heaven,  proved  thus,  .....  414-415 

[1.]  The  rest  reserved  in  heaven  for  believers  is  a  superla- 
tive rest,  ......  416 

[2.]  It  is  an  universal  rest,  ....  416 

[8.]  It  is  an  uninterrupted  rest,    ....  416 

[4.]  It  is  a  peculiar  rest,  .....  417 

|  5.]  It  is  a  rest  that  is  universally  communicable  to  all  the 

sons  and  daughters  of  God,        ....  417 

[6.]  It  is  a  permanent,  a  constant  rest,      .  .  .  418 

Thirdly,  The  best  knowledge  of  God  is  reserved  for  believers  till 
they  come  to  heaven.     Proved  thus,  .  .  .  418 

[1.]  Saints  shall  have  the  clearest  knowledge  and  revelation 

of  God  in  heaven,  .....  418-419 

[2.]  They  shall  have  the  fullest  knowledge  of  God  in  heaven,  420 

[3.]  They  shall  have  an  immediate  knowledge  of  God  in 

heaven,  ......  421 

[4.]  They  shall  have  a  permanent  and  constant  sight  of  God 

in  heaven,  .....  421-422 

Fourthly,   They  shall  have  the  best  and  choicest  presence  of 

God  and  Christ  in  heaven  :  this  is  proved  thus,  .  .  422 

[1.]  In  heaven  they  shall  have  the  greatest  and  the  fullest 
presence  of  God,  .....  422 

[2.]  They  shall  have  a  soul- satisfying  presence  of  God  in 
heaven,  ......  422-424 

[3.]  They  shall  enjoy  a  constant,  a  permanent  presence  of 
God  in  heaven,  ..... 

Fifthly,  They  shall  enjoy  perfection  of  grace  in  heaven,  and  that 

is  proved  thus,  ......  424 

[1.]  The  joy  of  saints  in  heaven  shall  be  pure  joy,  .  425 

[2.j  Their  joy  in  heaven  shall  be  full,         .  .  .  425 

[3.]  Their  joy  shall  be  lasting,  it  shall  be  uninterrupted,     .  425-426 
Sixthly,  The  best  society,  the  best  company,  is  reserved  for 

them  till  they  come  to  heaven,  ....  427-428 

Quest.  Whether  the  saints  shall  have  a  real,  a  personal,  and 

particular  knowledge  of  one  another  in  heaven,  .  .  428 

It  is  answered  affirmatively,  they  shall,  and  this  is  proved  by 

seven  arguments,  from  .....  428-432 

Seventhly,  and  lastly,  The  glorifying  of  the  saints'  bodies  is  re- 
served till  last ;  the  glory  of  glorified  bodies  is  set  forth,  from  432-435 
Eight  reasons  why  God  has  reserved  the  best  and  greatest  things 

for  his  people  till  they  come  to  heaven,  .  .  .  435-439 

Twelve  inferences,  from  .....  439-451 

Twenty  motives   or  considerations,    to  work  Christians  to  be 

willing  to  die,  ......  451-403 

Ohj.  I  would  be  willing  to  die  if  I  had  but  assurance,  &c,         .  463 

Answered  in  four  particulars,    .....  463-464 

An  inference  by  way  of  use,       .....  465-467 

An  Elegy  on  Mrs  Blake,  .....  467-468 


IT  may  surely  be  regarded  as  a  favourable  sign  of  the  times,  that 
so  many  reprints  of  the  works  of  the  thinkers  of  former  days — laic 
and  cleric — have  been  called  for  during  the  last  ten  years.  It  argues 
that  while  there  may  be  many  whose  tastes  incline  them  to  '  milk  for 
babes,'  there  are  those  who  have  appetites  to  relish,  and  stomachs  to 
digest,  '  stronger  meat.'  We  have  reference  more  immediately  to  the 
numerous  and  widely  circulated  republications  of  the  elder  Theologians 
of  all  shades  of  opinion  on  lesser  matters  :  as  well  the  acknowledged 
and  famous,  as  the  less  known  and  hitherto  uncollected  and  inedited. 
Of  the  former,  suffice  it  to  name  Eden's  '  Jeremy  Taylor,'  Napier's 
'  Isaac  Barrow,'  Wynter's  'Joseph  Hall,'  'Thomas  Goodwin'  of  this 
series  ;  of  the  latter,  our  own  '  Richard  Sibbes,'  and  now  '  Thomas 
Brooks,'  with  others  in  hand,  together  with  the  fine  series  of  Commen- 
taries being  issued  by  our  Publisher,  and  including  such  ripe  and  rare 
books  as  Airay  on  '  Philippians,'  King  on  '  Jonah,'  Stock  and  Torshell 
on,  ■  Malachi,'  Rainolds  on  '  Obadiah  and  Haggai,'  Bernard  and  Fuller 
on  '  Ruth,'  Marbury  on  '  Obadiah  and  Habakkuk,'  Hardy  on  '  ]  st 
Epistle  of  St  John,'  Bayne  on  '  Ephesians,'  and  that  magnum  opus,  Dr 
William  Gouge  on  '  Hebrews.'  It  seems  impossible  that  such  intel- 
lectual and  spiritual  seed-corn  as  is  treasured  up  in  these  early  worthies 
can  be  sown  thus  broadcast,  and  yield  an  unbounteous  harvest- 
Granted  that,  as  with  the  sown  grain,  there  is  not  a  little  of  what  is 
chaff,  or, — speaking  unmetaphorically, — that  is  tedious  and  attenuated, 
over-worded,  effete,  musty  :  yet  the  '  ingenuous'  and  thinking  reader, 
like  the  kindly  earth  under  supernal  influences,  assimilates  the  good  and 
fruitful  :  and  toward  all  the  venerable  writers,  has  a  tender  patience 
and  charity  and  forgivingness,  such  as  one  feels  for  the  garrulous  'white- 
head' that  in  other  days  wearied  us  in  the  chimney-corner,  but,  being 
gone,  is  remembered  sacredly,  pathetically,  and  with  wet  eyes. 
vol.  I.  b 


We  add  Thomas  Brooks  to  the  '  Divines '  of  the  '  Puritan  Period ' 
with  no  fear  of  contradiction  when  we  claim  for  him  a  foremost  place 
among  the  greatest  of  the  later  Puritans ;  meaning  thereby  those  who 
were  m-cluded,  and,  as  Thomas  Fuller  would  have  said,  excluded  also, 
by  the  'Ejectment'  of  1662.  With  the  exception  of  John  Bunyan, 
and  perhaps,  in  separate  minor  works,  of  Richard  Baxter,  no  writer  of 
the  17th  century  has  been  so  permanently  and  widely  and  variously 
represented  in  the  living  Literature  of  the  18th  and  19th  as  the  author 
of  '  Precious  Remedies  against  Satan's  Devices/  '  The  Mute  Christian 
under  the  Smarting  Rod/  'Apples  of  Gold,'  and  'Heaven  on  Earth:' 
but,  unfortunately,  he  has  been  mainly  represented  and  known  by  these 
four  treatises,  whereas  his  other  and  numerous  writings  have  the  same 
merits — if  the  word  be  not  chill  and  poor — with  these  ;  all  passed 
through  frequent  editions  in  the  outset,  and  have  popularly  gone  out 
of  sight,  not  as  less  weighty  and  vital,  but  capriciously  and  arbitrarily 
and  mistakenly. 

One  immense  advantage  of  Brooks  over  Sibbes  is,  that  the  whole  of 
his  many  volumes,  lesser  and  larger,  were  published  by  himself.  He 
left  nothing  behind  him  to  be  thrust  on  the  world  as  'Remains'  or 
postlmmous — a  healthy  self-restraint  and  wisdom  which  it  had  been 
well  if  others,  even  of  our  most  illustrious  Divines,  ancient  and  modern, 
had  exercised. 

Tn  submitting  this  first  collective  edition  of  the  '  Complete  Works' 
of  Brooks  to  the  public,  I  beg  attention  to  these  six  things  : — 

(a.)  Our  text,  in  every  separate  treatise  and  tractate,  is  based  upon 
the  last  '  revised  and  corrected'  impression  thereof  that  joassed  under 
the  eye  of  the  author  :  an  explanatory  '  Note  '  being  prefixed  to  each, 
giving  all  needful  information  on  the  different  editions.  It  may  be 
mentioned  that  his  collection  of  the  original  and  early  editions  has  cost 
the  Editor  fully  £35,  whereas  the  reprint  will  be  furnished  to  the  public 
for  25s. 

(/3.)  The  whole  is  incorrupt,  unmutilated,  unchanged.  Of  this, 
John  Foster  the  '  Essayist'  may  be  allowed  to  speak.  Writing  to  a 
friend  for  the  works  of  Howe,  and  preferring  the  old  edition,  he  charac- 
teristically observes  :  '  In  the  new  one,  I  recollect  the  Editor  engaged, 
as  a  favour  to  the  readers,  to  make — and  I  suppose  he  did  make — some 
little  tinkerings  of  the  long,  involved,  and  grotesquely  constructed  sen- 
tences :  a  thing  sufficiently  wanted,  I  allow,  for  it  is  quite  wonderful 
that  such  a  man  as  Howe  should  have  bungled  so  sadly  in  the  manner 
of  sentence-making.  But,  nevertheless,  I  should  prefer  having  his 
paragraphs  just  as  he  had  made  them,  to  any  Editor's  rectification  of 
them  :  a  preference,  however,  which  cannot  be  supposed  to  be  felt  by 
any  gentleman  of  the  literary  form  of  Burder  and  Hughes,  the  Editors 


and  Correctors  of  Henry's  Exposition.'1  We  offer  no  '  tinkerings/  no 
'rectifications/  no  'corrections,' no 'improvements.'  Even  in  bringing 
the  old  arbitrary  orthography  into  accord  with  modern  usage,  we  have 
duly  noted  all  peculiar  or  transitive  forms  of  words.  So  that  Thomas 
Brooks  is  here  given  genuinely,  as  he  himself  published  his  writings. 
His  style  as  a  whole,  however,  is  accurate,  and  compact,  and  modern- 
like, save  in  occasional  quaintnesses  and  outspokenness. 

(y.)  The  whole  of  the  Bible-texts  and  references  have  been  carefully 
verified.  Only  those  who  have  consulted  the  original  editions  are  able 
to  appreciate  the  toil  involved  in  this:  eighty  percent,  at  least  being  in- 
accurate. The  important  classical  and  patristic  citations  and  allusions 
have  similarly  been  verified  and  supplemented.  This  does  not  apply 
to  the  well-nigh  innumerable  anonymous  '  anecdotes/  '  sayings,'  '  read- 
ings ;'  though,  even  of  those,  a  large  proportion  will  be  found  to  be 
traced  and  confirmed  in  our  footnotes.  Trite  classical  and  other  facts 
and  names  we  have  left  as  they  occur. 

(d.)  In  response  to  the  appeal  of  the  lamented  Herbert  Coleridge  and 
the  '  Philological  Society,'  we  have  marked  all  Shakespearian  and  other 
noticeable  words  and  phrases.  As  in  Sibbes,  a  Glossary  will  furnish  a 
Reference-Index  thereto. 

(«.)  For  all  foot-notes  bearing  my  own  initial,  G.,  I  am  responsible  : 
the  rest  belong  to  Brooks  himself ;  and  I  take  this  opportunity  of  calling 
special  attention  to  them.  They  consist,  for  the  larger  part,  of  the 
margin-notes  of  the  original  and  early  editions,  and  will  always  repay 
perusal.  Very  often  it  will  be  found  that,  by  his  multifarious  reading, 
he  gives  point  to  some  argument  or  appeal,  or  illustration,  by  a  racy 
saying  of  Luther,  or  a  felicitous  bit  from  a  Father,  or  some  apt  anecdote, 
or  quaint,  however  unreal,  opinion  of  old  science,  or  a  flash  of  wit  or 
play  upon  a  word.  So  that  he  will  be  a  loser  who  passes  by  these 
notes,  which  are  as  the  dust-of-gold  of  a  rich  and  brilliant  mind.  Brooks 
himself  attached  no  little  importance  to  them.  Thus,  in  his  '  Word  to 
the  Reader,'  prefixed  to  '  Precious  Remedies,'  he  observes  :  '  If  in  thy 
reading  thou  wilt  cast  a  serious  eye  upon  the  margin,  thou  wilt  find 
many  sweet  and  precious  notes  that  will  oftentimes  give  light  to  the 
things  thou  readest,  and  pay  thee  for  thy  pains  with  much  comfort  and 
profit/     (Our  reprint,  page  9.) 

It  only  remains  that  I  notice  the  one  representative  of  an  '  edition ' 
of  the  Works  of  Brooks,  and  shew,  by  a  recent  reprint  of  a  single  book, 
how  unworthily  he  has  hitherto  been  edited. 

(1.)  The  Rev.  Charles  Bradley,  M.A.,  of  Glasbury,  Brecon,  in  1824, 
issued  two  volumes  (cr.  8vo.)  containing,  (1.)  'The  Unsearchable  Riches 
of  Christ ;'  (2.)  '  Remedies  against  Satan's  Devices  '  [the  golden  Bible- 

1  Letter  to  the  Rev.  Joseph  Hughes,  in  Foster's  'Life  and  Correspondence,'  Vol.  i. 
pp.  420,  421.     (Ed.  1852.) 


word  '  precious '  left  out !]  ;  (3.)  '  A  Treatise  on  Assurance '  [i.  e. 
Heaven  on  Earth]  ;  (4.)  •  The  Mute  Christian  under  the  Smarting 
Rod;'  (5.)  'Apples  of  Gold/ 

This  has  long  been  out  of  print,  so  that  we  do  no  prejudice  to  exist- 
ing interests  when  we  characterise  it  as  worthless,  by  its  modernizations, 
and  errors  of  omission  and  commission,  beyond  reckoning.  A  com- 
parison of  any  single  page  with  our  text  will  reveal  such  tampering 
with  what  Brooks  wrote  as  is  most  discreditable  and  vitiatory.  It  is 
sadly-amusive  to  observe  the  thin  things  that  are  deemed  '  improve- 
ments '  on  our  robust,  outspoken  Puritan. 

(2.)  The  '  Cabinet  of  Jewels'  was  reprinted  in  a  fair-looking  volume, 
which  bears  the  imprint,  '  Huntly :  published  by  Duncan  Matheson. 
1SG0.'  If  we  err  not,  this  is  the  earnest  Revivalist  and  Missionary  of 
Crimean  celebrity.  All  honour  to  him  as  such,  and  all  honour  to  his 
motives  in  re-issuing  the  precious  book.  But  it  swarms,  as  does  Brad- 
ley, with  blunders  and  '  corrections '  (!)  e.  g.,  the  very  Errata  carefully 
prefixed  by  the  author — not  to  specify  others — are  left  unchanged  ;  and 
so  (to  give  a  few  specimens)  we  read  'fleshly  joys'  for  Brooks's  'flashy 
joys'  (page  22,  line  4) ;  saintly  John  Murcot  of  Dublin  is  transmogrified 
into  'John  Marcol'  (page  35,  line  22) ;  'Assur's  oppression'  is  spoken 
of  instead  of  'Asa's'  (page  53,  line  37)  ;  Rachel  is  made  to  cry  out, 
'Give  me  water'  for  'Give  me  children'  (page  75,  line  2);  and  so 

The  same  remarks,  with  but  slight  modification,  are  applicable  to  the 
many  reprints  of  the  'Religious  Tract  Society'  and  other  Publishers, 
who  'improve'  and  'polish'  into  conformity  with  ideas  of  'elegance' 
such  as  would  have  roused  the  rebuke  of  the  fearless  old  preachers,  who 
said  what  they  meant,  and  meant  to  the  letter,  what  they  said. 

I  have,  as  in  the  case  of  Sibbes,  very  gratefully  to  record  the  kind 
help  and  sympathetic  interest  in  our  work  shewn  by  many  correspond- 
ents, sought  and  voluntary.  I  must  specially  name  my  excellent  friend 
Joshua  Wilson,  Esq.  of  Nevil  Park,  Tunbridge  Wells  ;  John  Bruce, 
Esq.,  London,  the  accomplished  editor  and  biographer  of  the  new  Aldine 
'  Cowper,'  and  many  other  historico-biographic  works ;  the  Rev.  R.  Brook 
Aspland,  M.A.,  London  ;  the  Rectors  of  St  Thomas  Apostles,  and  other 
of  the  London  city  churches  ;  the  Rectors  aud  Curates  of  Newbury  and 
other  Churches  in  different  Counties  ;  the  Rev.  T.  W.  Davids,  Colches- 
ter ;  the  authorities  of  the  British  Museum  ;  Williams'  Library  ;  Guild- 
hall Library  ;  the  Bodleian,  Oxford  ;  the  University  Library,  and 
various  College  Libraries,  Cambridge ;  the  Rev.  J.  E.  B.  Mayor,  M.A., 
Cambridge,  and  the  late  Charles  H.  Cooper,  Esq.,  Town  Clerk,  Cam- 
bridge,— together  with  very  many  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  letters 
in  answer  to  (I  fear)  troublesomely  minute  inquiries.  I  owe  thanks 
also  to  '  Notes  and  Queries,'  and  other  Literary  Journals. 


1  For  a  conclusion  of  all  by  way  of  prefix ' — here  in  part  appropriat- 
ing the  words  of  Cawdrey  and  Palmer  iu  the  Epistle  to  their  Sabbatum 
Redivivum  (1645.  Pt.  I.) — I  'have  but  one  word  or  two  more  to 
say,  and  that  by  way  of  earnest  entreaty.'  These  '  Works,'  reader  !  are 
full  as  the  honey-comb  of  '  exceeding  great  and  precious'  Truth  :  no 
mere  stately  scholarliness,  curious  questioning,  nice  casuistry,  windy 
phrases.  Therefore,  I  pray  '  That  thou  wilt  do  the  Truth  that  right  as 
to  yield  to  and  practise  what  thou  art  convinced  of/  '  Consider '  what 
I  say,  '  and  the  Lord  give  thee  and  me  understanding  and  grace  in  all 
things  through  Jesus  Christ.     So  prays, 

Thine  in  Him,' 

Alexander  B.  Grosart. 

308  Upper  Parliament  Street, 
Liverpool,  May  1866. 


IT  is  long  since  one  said  in  his  own  quaintly-pensive  way,  '  Who 
knows  whether  the  best  men  be  known,  or  whether  there  be  not 
more  remarkable  persons  forgot,  than  any  that  stand  remembered  in 
the  known  account  of  Time  V  Our  endeavours  towards  elucidating  the 
Lives  of  the  Worthies  embraced  in  these  series  of  reprints,  as  well  as 
the  like  experience  of  all  who  have  sought  to  trace  the  footprints  of 
shy,  sequestered  goodness,  as  distinguished  from  noisy  and  noised 
'  greatness/  so-called — satisfy  us,  that  Sir  Thomas  Browne  never  wrote 
truer  words.1  Light — that  shoots  its  silver  arrows  unbrokenly  across 
the  abysses  between  the  sun  and  our  earth,  and  yet  ruffles  not  tiniest 
feather  of  bird's  wing,  or  drop  of  dew  in  flower-cup — is  a  more  potent 
thing  than  lightning  ;  but,  lacking  the  thunder-roar  after  it,  in  vulgar 
account  is  the  weaker,  albeit  the  thunder  comes  from  no  higher  than 
the  clouds.  Similarly,  the  '  hidden  ones ' — who  are  really  the  '  best 
men ' — have  been  in  by  far  too  many  cases  outblazoned  by  your 
creature  of  circumstance.  It  needs  a  wider  and  intenser  sky  than  ours 
to  show  some  stars  ;  and  not  until  the  '  new  heavens  '  dome  the  '  new 
earth '  will  the  truly  '  great '  names  shine  excellingly.  Richard 
Sibbes,  with  rare  fineness  of  thought  and  felicitousness  of  wording,  has 
'  weighed  '  the  two  fames — and  his  '  counsel '  may  fittingly  come  in 
here.  '  Let  us  commit  the  fame  and  credit/  says  he,  '  of  what  we  are 
or  do  to  God.  He  will  take  care  of  that :  let  us  take  care  to  be  and  to 
do  as  we  should,  and  then  for  noise  and  report,  let  it  be  good  or  ill  as 
God  will  send  it.  .  .  .  If  we  seek  to  be  in  the  mouths  of  men,  to  dwell 
in  the  talk  and  speech  of  men,  God  will  abhor  us.  .  .  .  Therefore  let 
us  labour  to  lie  good  in  secret.  Christians  should  be  as  minerals,  rich 
in  the  depth  of  the  earth.     That  which  is  least  seen  is  his  (the  Chris- 

1  Works  by  Wilkin,  iii.  page  492  (4  vols.  8vo,  1836). 


tian  a)  riches.  We  should  have  our  treasure  deep  ;  for  the  discovery  of 
it,  we  should  be  ready  when  we  are  called  to  it ;  and  for  all  other  acci- 
dental things,  let  it  fall  out  as  God  in  his  wisdom  sees  good.  .  .  .  God 
will  be  ca/reful  enough  to  get  us  applause.  .  .  .  As  much  reputation  as 
is  fit  for  a  man  will  follow  him,  in  being  and  doing  what  he  should. 
God  will  look  to  that.  Therefore  we  should  not  set  up  sails  to  our  own 
meditations,  that  unless  we  be  carried  with  the  wind  of  applause,  to  be 
becalmed,  and  not  go  a  whit  forward  ;  but  we  should  be  carried  with 
the  Spirit  of  God,  and  with  a  holy  desire  to  serve  God  and  our  brethren, 
and  to  do  all  the  good  we  can,  and  never  care  for  the  speeches  of  the 
world.  .  .  .  We  shall  have  glory  enough,  and  be  known  enough  to 
devils,  to  angels,  and  men,  ere  long.  Therefore,  as  Christ  lived  a 
hidden  life — that  is,  He  was  not  known  what  He  was,  that  so  He  might 
work  our  salvation,  so  let  us  be  content  to  be  hidden  ones.  .  .  .  There 
will  be  A  resurrection  OF  credits,  as  well  as  of  bodies.  We'll  have 
glory  enough  BY-AND-BY.'1 

In  the  cases  of  Sibbes  himself,  and  Airay,  and  King,  and  Stock,  and 
Torshell,  and  Bernard,  and  Marbury,  and  indeed  nearly  all,  I  have  had 
to  deplore  the  paucity  of  materials  for  anything  like  adequate  Memoirs. 
But  more  than  ever  have  I  to  do  so  in  relation  to  Thomas  Brooks.  If 
a  pun,  that  he  himself  would  have  relished,  may  be  allowed,  his  memory 
has  passed  away  like  the  '  summer  brooks.'  This  is  all  the  more  regret- 
table, in  that  his  books  are  vital  and  influential  as  at  first — his  name  still 
a  venerable  and  loved  one  to  myriads.  Only  the  other  day  we  chanced 
upon  a  mission- volume  that  tells  of  strength  and  comfort  gained  from 
his  words,  away  on  the  other  side  of  that  India  which  in  his  days  was  as 
dream-land,  as  wonder-land.  I  may  as  well  give  the  pathetic  little  bit. 
Mrs  Mason  among  the  Karens  writes :  '  Two  days  passed  when  they 
came  again,  saying  the  money  was  all  gone.  At  first  I  felt  disposed  to 
rebuke  them,  but  turned  to  my  closet  for  an  hour,  giving  the  time  to 
prayer,  and  to  my  dear  little  help-book  "  Precious  Remedies  against 
Satan's  Devices."  In  that  time  God  taught  me  what  to  do,  and 
strength  was  given  for  the  day.'2  Verily  'he,  being  dead,  yet 

Various  explanations  suggest  themselves  as  to  the  absence  of  me- 
morial of  Brooks's  outward-life. 

(I.)  It  so  happens  that  the  '  Registers  '  of  his  University  are  singu- 
larly defective  at  the  period  of  his  attendance  ;  so  much  so  that  even  the 
sweet-naturcd  Historian  was  moved  to  these  severe  censures  :  '  Hither- 
to we  have  given  in  the  list  of  the  yearly  Commencers,  but  now  must 
break  off.     Let  Thomas  Smith,  University-Register,  bear  the  blame, 

1  Works,  Vol.  I.  ;  Memoir,  pp.  xxiii,  xxiv. 

*  Civilizing  Mountain  Men,  or  Sketches  of  Mission  Work  among  the  Karens.     By  Mrs 
Mason,  of  Burmah.     18C2.     (Nisbet.) 


who,  about  this  year,  entering  into  his  office,  was  so  negligent  that,  as 
one  saith,  Cum  fuit  Academics  a  memorid,  omnia  tradidit  oblivioni. 
I  can  hardly  in-hold  from  inveighing  on  his  memory,  carelessness 
being  dishonesty  in  'public  persons  so  entrusted.' l 

(2.)  He  was  excluded  from  the  '  Worthies  '  of  Fuller  by  his  rule,  that 
'  the  living '  were  '  omitted/ 2  How  often  the  reader  sighs  over  like 
dismissal  of  other  names  as  still  '  surviving.' 3 

(3.)  The  '  Fire  '  of  London  destroyed  the  MSS.  of  Ashe,  and  various 
fellow-labourers  who  had  collected  for  the  Lives  of  the  elder  and  later 
Puritans,  including  'The  Ejected'  of  1662.4  Beyond  all  question 
Thomas  Brooks  held  an  honoured  place  therein.  Then  again  the  same 
'Fire/  destroying  the  different  Churches  in  which  Brooks  officiated, 
destroyed  with  them  all  their  Registers  and  Records.  So  that  New- 
court  and  other  authorities  are  blank  in  respect  of  dates,  and  almost 
everything  else.  Add  to  all  this,  his  own  singularly  reticent  and 
modest  'hiding'  of  self — his  absolute  indifference  to  fame,  other  than 
the  love  of  those  who  might  '  profit '  by  his  writings  :  and  he  yearned 
for  that,  as  the  close  of  his  '  Epistles  Dedicatory  '  shew. 

As  it  is,  after  having  expended  fully  the  maximum  of  labour  and 
'painfulness ' — as  the  old  Divines  say, — in  seeking  to  illumine  the 
memory  of  this  '  dead  Saint,'  I  can  only  offer  a  minimum  of  result : 
and  yet  our  little  is  relatively  large  to  what  has  hitherto  been 

It  is  not  ascertained  in  what  city,  town,  or  village  Thomas  Brooks 
was  born  :  not  even  in  what  county.  The  very  nativeness  of  his  name 
has  multiplied  the  difficulties  of  determining  it.  In  '  this  fair  England  ' 
'  brooks '  flash  by  meadow  and  woodland  everywhere  ;  and  as  familiar 
and  frequent  is  his  name. 5  Certain  turns  of  expression,  certain  ap- 
parently local  words,  occurring  in  his  volumes,  have  made  us  feel  assured 
that  in  this  County  or  in  that  we  should  discover  his  family  :  but  lo  ! 
the  phrase  and  word  proved  to  be  common  to  many  :  and  our  toil  went 
for  nothing,  save  morsels  of  fact  about  others,  unexpectedly  turning  up. 
From  his  '  Will ' — which  we  have  discovered,  and  print  for  the  first 
time — we  fondly  hoped  to  trace  him  to  Berkshire  :  but  again  were  dis- 
appointed, spite  of  complete  and  carefully  preserved  '  Registers,'  and 
all  courtesy  and  helpfulness  from  their  custodiers.  From  a  '  Memorial 
again,  of  Lancashire  '  Worthies,'  by  the  saintly  Oliver  Heywood — un- 

1  Fuller's  '  History  of  the  University  of  Cambridge,'  page  208. 

2  Ibid.,  page  207.  3  Ibid.,  page  206. 
4  Brook,  '  Lives  of  the  Puritans,'  vol.  iii.,  sub  nominibus. 

8  Mr  Spurgeon  plays  on  the  name  in  his  little  volume  of  sentences  from  Brooks's 
writings,  entitling  it,  '  Smooth  Stones  taken  from  Ancient  Brooks.  By  the  Rev.  C.  H. 
Spurgeon,  of  the  Metropolitan  Tabernacle.  Being  a  Collection  of  Sentences,  Illustra- 
tions, and  Quaint  Sayings,  from  the  Works  of  that  Renowned  Puritan,  Thomas  Brooks. ' 
(32rno,  pp.  xv.  296.) 


published — which  notices  his  death,  in  a  little  record  that  is  useful,  we 
half  anticipated  to  be  able  to  claim  him  for  it ;  but  all  inquiries  leave 
us  in  uncertainty. '  Besides,  the  orthography  of  the  name  confuses  : 
for  just  as  there  were  among  Divines  a  John  Howes  as  well  as  a  John 
Howe,  a  John  Owens  as  well  as  a  John  Owen,  a  Thomas  Adam  as  well 
as  a  Thomas  Adams,  even  a  John  Milton  as  well  as  the  John  Milton, 
so  our  Thomas  Brooks  is  sometimes  met  with — even  early — as  now 
Thomas  Brooke,  and  now  Thomas  Brookes  and  Brook — the  penulti- 
mate being  his  own  spelling  on  the  title-page  of  '  Precious  Remedies  ' 
[2d  ed.  1G53]  and  ■  Unsearchable  Riches'  [1657,  1st  ed.],  though  in  the 
'  Epistles  '  he  adheres  to  Brooks.  Little  do  your  arm-chair-easy  critics 
know  of  the  honest  work  spent  in  furnishing  such  '  Memoirs ' — slight 
and  unsatisfying  though  they  be — as  they  magisterially  discuss  and 
dismiss  with  penurious  thanks  !  Personally  we  have  no  plaint,  much 
less  complaint,  to  make  :  for  our  labours  have  been  more  than  duly  ap- 
preciated :  but  we  feel  constrained  to  remind  those  who  may  be  tempted 
to  regard  a  given  '  Life '  as  insufficient,  that  in  ninety-nine  cases  of  a 
hundred  what  appears  is  as  the  one  to  the  ninety-nine  of  anxious  though 
fruitless  inquiries. 

The  Manuscript  'entry'  of  Oliver  Hey  wood  referred  to  a  short  way  back 
— and  which  will  appear  in  its  own  place — gives  his  age  at  death  as  '  72/ 
but  by  a  clerical  blunder  probably,  writes  1678  for  1680,  the  actual 
year  of  his  decease.  If  1680  was  intended,  then  his  birth-year  must 
have  been  1608 — John  Milton's  also  ;  if  calculated  from  1678,  two  years 
sooner,  1606.     It  seems  likely  that  the  former  is  the  accurate  date. 

We  are  shut  out  from  all  insight  into  ancestry,  parentage,  and  child- 
hood, and  '  boy  '  surroundings  of  our  Worthy — whether  he  were  of'  blue 
blood'  descent,  or  of  a  'godly'  or  worldly  fatherhood  and  motherhood, 
whether  '  in  populous  city  pent,'  or  blown  upon  by  the  freshening  influ- 
ences of  rural  life.  We  do  not  know  his  '  School,'  '  Schoolmasters/  or 
'  Schoolmates.'  The  whole  '  make '  of  the  man — as  it  is  expressed  in  his 
Writings — warrants  us  in  assuming  that  his  '  home'  was  a  '  church  in 
the  house,'  and  his  training  the  grave,  serious,  yet  not  morose  but 
blithesome  one,  of  the  Puritans.  By  his  '  17th '  year — at  latest — the  one 
University  '  date '  that  survives  through  the  heedlessness  of  that  scion 
of  the  immortal  Smiths  rebuked  by  Fuller — he  was  at  College,  at 
'  Emmanuel,'  Cambridge.  This  was  the  Puritan  College  par  excel- 
lence: the  illustrious  Founder  of  it — Sir  Walter  Mildmay — having 
been  flouted  by  Elizabeth  for  his  '  Puritan  foundation/2      So  that  we 

1  For  this  we  are  indebted  to  the  ever  open  stores  of  our  good  friend  Joshua  Wilson, 
Esq.,  of  Nevil  Park,  Tunbridge  Wells. 

a  Fuller  tells  the  story  pungently  :  '  Coming  to  Court  after  he  had  founded  his  College, 
the  Queen  told  him,  "  Sir  Walter,  I  hear  you  have  erected  a  Puritan  foundation."  "  No, 
Madam,"  saith  ho;  "far  be  from  me  to  countenance  anything  contrary  to  your  estab- 
lished laws ;  but  1  have  set  an  acorn  which,  when  it  becomes  an  oak,  God  alone  knows 


can  scarcely  err  in  finding  in  this  choice  confirmation  of  Puritan- 
parentage.     The  entry  is  as  follows  : ' 

'  Thomas  Brooks  :  matriculated  as  pensioner  of  Emanuel,  July  7th 

'  Pensioner'  must  not  be  misunderstood  as  indicating  narrow  circum- 
stances, much  less  poverty.  John  Milton  was  entered  as  '  pensioner/ 
only  a  few  months  previously,  at  a  sister-college.  There  were  four  grades, 
the  'greater  pensioner/  the  'lesser  pensioner,'  '  sizars/  and  '  scholars.' 
These  distinctions  designate  differing  rank.  All  the  first  three  lived  as 
now  we  are  accustomed  to  say  on  the  Continent,  en  pension,  id  est, 
paid  for  their  board  and  education,  and  in  this  respect  were  distinct 
from  the  scholars  properly  so  called,  who  belonged  to  the  foundation. 
The  '  greater  pensioners'  or  '  fellow  commoners  '  paid  most.  They  were 
(as  they  still  are)  the  sons  of  noble  or  '  gentle '  families,  and  had  the 
privilege  of  dining  at  the  upper  table  in  the  common  hall  along  with 
the  fellows.  The  '  sizars,'  on  the  other  hand,  were  poorer  students  ; 
they  paid  least ;  and,  though  receiving  the  same  education  with  the 
others,  held  a  lower  rank  and  had  inferior  accommodation.  Intermediate 
between  the  'greater  pensioners'  and  the  '  sizars  '  were  the  '  lower  pen- 
sioners ;'  and  it  was  (as  it  is  still)  to  this  class  that  the  bulk  of  the 
students  in  all  the  colleges  at  Cambridge  belonged.2  By  '  pensioner ' 
after  Brooks's  name  we  are  no  doubt  to  understand  '  lesser  pensioner  ;' 
so  that,  as  with  the  scrivener-father  of  the  bard  of  '  Paradise  Lost,' 
his  parents  were  in  good  circumstances.  When  we  know  that 
Jeremy  Taylor  entered  &s  pauper  scholaris,  and  Sibbes  as  a  'sizar/  it 
had  needed  no  vindication  had  Master  Thomas  Brooks  taken  his  posi- 
tion* in  either  class ;  but  the  matter-of-fact  is  as  stated,  and  it  is 
but  right  to  state  it.  He  must  have  been  well  born,  and  born  as  a 
'  gentleman/ 

Brooks,  in  'entering'  Emanuel  College  on  July  7th  1625,  as  above, 

what  will  be  the  fruit  thereof."  '  And  the  historian  adds,  '  Sure  I  am,  at  this  day,  it 
hath  overshadowed  all  the  University — more  than  a  moiety  of  the  present  Masters  of 
Colleges  being  bred  therein.'  As  before,  pp.  205,  206.  For  Full  details  on  Sir  Walter 
Mildmay,  see  Cooper's  Athence  Cantabrigienses,  Vol.  ii.  pp.  51-55,  544.  I  cannot  give 
this  reference  without  paying  a  tribute  of  heartfelt  regard  to  the  just  deceased  senior 
author  of  this  inestimable  work,  who,  within  a  few  days  of  his  lamented  death,  dictated 
and  even  signed  a  letter  bearing  on  my  researches.  Erudite,  laborious,  finely  enthu- 
siastic, ungrudging  in  communicating  from  his  ample  resources,  all  our  Memoirs  have 
been  indebted  to  him.  See  finely  touched  estimate  of  him  by  Mr  Mayor,  reprinted  from 
'The  Cambridge  Papers  of  March  24.1866,'  in  '  Notes  and  Queries,'  March  31.  1866, 
pp.  253-54. 

1  Rev.  J.  E.  B.  Mayor,  M.A.,  Librarian  to  the  University  of  Cambridge,  and  the  late 
Charles  H.  Cooper,  Esq.,  to  myself.  Moreover,  this  one  entry  is  all  that  the  industry  of 
Cole  provides  :  Cole  MSS.  in  British  Museum,  under  *  Emanuel.' 

2  On  all  this  cf.  Masson's  '  Life  of  Milton  in  Connection  with  the  History  of  His  Time,' 
particularly  vol.  i.  pp.  88,  89.  No  one  who  seeks  information  on  the  period  covered  by 
the  '  Life'  of  Milton,  will  fail  to  consult  this  treasure-house  of  materials. 


had  for  Master  that  one  of  all  the  heads  of  Colleges,  '  whose  presence,' 
to  quote  the  words  of  an  unchallengeable  authority — Professor  David 
Masson — '  was  the  most  impressive.'1  '  He  was,'  says  Fuller — whose 
Chiuvhism  never  for  a  moment  hindered  his  generous  recognition  of 
worth  and  wit  in  whomsoever  found — 'the  greatest  pupil-monger  in 
England  in  man's  memory,  having  sixteen  fellow-commoners,  most  heirs 
to  fair  estates,  admitted  in  one  year  at  Queen's  College.  As  William 
the  Popular  of  Nassau  was  said  to  have  won  a  subject  from  the  King 
of  Spain  to  his  own  party  every  time  he  put  off  his  hat,  so  was  it 
commonly  said  in  the  College,  that  every  time  when  Master  Preston 
plucked  off  his  hat  to  Dr  Davenant,  the  College  master,  he  gained  a 
chamber  or  study  for  one  of  his  pupils.'2  He  was  pre-eminently  a 
Puritan  in  its  grandest  and — at  the  time — reproached  sense.  Chosen 
1  Master'  of  Emanuel  in  1622,  he  carried  most  of  his  pupils  with  him 
from  Queen's  thither ;  and  as  its  Head,  kept  up  the  reputation  of  that 
House  as  the  most  Puritanical  in  the  University.  His  '  Life  '  belongs 
to  History  :  it  jet  remains  unwritten,  as,  shame  to  Cambridge,  his  price- 
L<  ss  Works  remain  to  this  day  uncollected  and  inedited.3  It  was  no  com- 
mon advantage  to  our  student  to  have  been  placed  under  such  a  'Master'; 
and  his  margin-references  to  '  Dr  Preston,'  and  the  same  to  '  Dr  Sibbes,' 
together  with  occasional  '  sayings'  of  the  latter  not  met  with  elsewhere, 
assure  us  that  he  sat  reverently  at  their  feet.4  His  fellow-students  at 
'  Emanuel' — assuming  that  he  'proceeded'  through  the  ordinary  curri- 
culum of  study — included  Thomas  Shepard,  and  John  Cotton,  and 
Thomas  Hooker — afterwards  the  famous  trio  of  New  England  '  Divines,' 
and  spiritually  the  founders  and  fathers  of  Massachusetts.  To  the  same 
College,  earlier  and  later,  belonged  the  holy  Bedell,  the  many-sided 
Joseph  Hall,  the  large -though ted  Ralph  Cudworth,  and  these  still 
lustrous  Puritan  '  Worthies' — Samuel  Crooke,  John  Yates,  John  Stough- 
ton,  Ezekiel  Culvervvell,  Stephen  Marshall,  Samuel  Hudson,  Nathanael 
Ward.5  Elsewhere  we  have  sketched  his  contemporaries  in  the  Uni- 
versity. Beginning  with  that  name  which  overshadows  all  the  rest — 
John  Milton — the  roll  ends  with  Waller  and  Randolph.6 

From  the  reasons  assigned,  it  is  our  hap  and  mishap  not  to  be  able  to 

1  Masson  as  before,  p.  93. 

*  Fuller's  Worthies:  Northamptonshire;  and  Church  History,  sub  anno,  1628  ;  and 
also  (from  Masson  as  supra)  :  Wood's  Fasti,  i.  333  :  Neal's  History  of  the  Puritans,  ii. 
l$3,etseq.  Fuller  was  himself  a  student  of  Queen's  before  Preston  had  left  it  for  Emanuel. 
On  the  whole  position  and  subject  of  the  Puritans,  see  that  invaluable  trans- Atlantic 
contribution  to  history,  '  The  Puritans  :  or  the  Church,  Court,  and  Parliament  of  Eng- 
land, during  the  reigns  of  Edward  VI.  and  Queen  Elizabeth.  By  Samuel  Hopkins. 
3  vols.  8vo.  (Boston,  1859-61).  3  See  our  Memoir  of  Sibbes,  vol.  ii.  pp.  51,  52,  et  alibi. 

*  See  our  Index,  sub-nominibus,  for  these  references. 

6  Cf.  Brook's  '  Lives  of  the  Puritans,'  sub  nominibus;  also  Dr  Sprague's  '  Auuals'  of 
the  American  Pulpit,  ditto. 

0  See  our  Memoir  of  Sibbes  as  before,  pp.  52,  53,  et  alibi. 


trace  the  '  progress'  of  Brooks.  In  all  likelihood,  he  '  proceeded  '  from 
degree  to  degree,  although  in  common  with  other  of  the  Puritans,  he 
places  none  on  his  title-pages,  preferring  the  nobler  designation,  'Preacher 
of  the  Gospel,'  or  '  Preacher  of  the  Word.'  Of  his  entire  University 
course  we  have  an  incidental  notice  in  one  of  those  rare  snatches  of 
autobiography  which  occur  in  his  writings.  It  occurs  in  a  tractate,  of 
which  more  anon,  and  runs  thus :  '  For  a  close  of  this  branch.  .  .  . 
I  shall  only  say  this  :  being  compelled  thereunto  by  some — that  I  do 
believe  that  I  have  spent  more  money  at  the  University,  and  in  helps 
to  learning,  than  several  of  these  petitioners  are  worth,  though  haply  I 
have  not  been  such  a  proficient  as  those  that  have  spent  less.'  He  adds  : 
'  I  am  a  lover  of  the  tongues,  and  do  by  daily  experience  find,  that 
knowledge  in  the  original  tongues  is  no  small  help  for  the  understanding 
of  Scripture,'  &C.1 

When  Brooks  left  the  University  we  cannot  tell.  The  periods  of 
residence  and  attendance  varied  ;  some  being  shorter  and  others  longer. 
If  he  remained,  as  Sibbes  and  Gouge  his  contemporaries  did,  from  nine 
to  twelve  years,  adding  the  former  to  1625,  we  are  advanced  to  1634  ; 
by  the  latter  to  1637.  He  must  have  been  '  licensed'  or  '  ordained'  as 
a  '  Preacher  of  the  Gospel'  by  1640  at  latest.  For  in  the  tractate 
already  quoted  ['  Cases  Considered  and  Resolved'],  which  is  dated  1653, 
he  says,  '  I  am  compelled  to  tell  you  that  I  have,  by  the  gracious  assist- 
ance of  God,  preached  publicly,  the  Gospel,  above  these  thirteen  years  ; 
and  the  greatest  part  of  those  years  I  have  spent  in  preaching  the  word 
in  London,  where  God  hath  given  me  many  precious  seals  of  my 
ministry,  which  are  now  my  comfort,  and  in  the  day  of  Christ  will  be 
my  crown.'2  At  this  time,  too,  he  must  have  been  involved  in  many 
labours ;  for  in  his  '  Epistle'  to  '  the  conscientious  reader,'  he  thus 
appeals  in  regard  to  '  errata/  'I  desire  that  thou  wouldst  cast  a  mantle 
of  love  over  the  mistakes  of  the  Printer,  I  having  no  opportunity  to 
wait  on  the  press,  by  reason  of  my  many  engagements  other  ways,  's 
How  one  wishes  that  the  good  man  had  had  a  little  more  communica- 
tive egotism,  and  confided  to  us  when  and  where,  before  coming  to 
London,  and  in  London,  he  had  'preached  the  Word!'  By  1648  he 
was  Preacher  of  the  Gospel  at  Thomas  Apostles,  London :  such  being 
his  designation  in  the  title-page  of  his  first  publication,  viz.,  his  SermoD, 
entitled  '  The  Glorious  Day  of  the  Saints'  Appearance,  calling  for  a 
glorious  conversation  from  all  Believers,'  which  was  '  delivered  .... 
at  the  interment  of  the  corpse  of  that  renowned  Commander,  Colonel 
Thomas  Painsborough,  who  was  treacherously  murdered  at  Doncaster, 
October  29.  1648,  and  honourably  interred  the  14th  of  November 
following,  in  the  Chapel  at  Wapping,  near  London.'     This  '  Sermon'  is 

1  '  Cases  Considered  and  Resolved,'  given  in  extenso  in  Appendix  A  to  this  Introduction. 

2  As  before,  page  8,  '  a  short  Preamble.'  3  Ibid.,  page  6. 


on  various  accounts  important  and  interesting  Liographically.  It  fur- 
nishes certain  facts  which  must  be  brought  together.  First  of  all,  he 
must  by  this  time  have  won  a  commanding  positron,  to  have  been 
appointed  the  '  Preacher'  on  so  public  and  sorrowful  an  occasion.  The 
honour  came  most  unexpectedly,  as  was  the  giving  of  the  Sermon  to 
the  public  unintended  by  himself.  On  these  two  points  in  his  'Epistle' 
he  thus  speaks  :  •  When  I  preached  upon  the  subject  of  the  saints' 
glorious  appearance  at  the  last,  He  that  knows  all  hearts  and  thoughts, 
knows  that  I  had  not  the  least  thought  to  put  it  to  press.  And  that, 
partly,  because  the  meditations  following  were  not  the  meditations  of 
a  week,  no,  nor  of  two  days,  but  of  some  few  hours  :  I  having  but  short 
warning  to  provide  ;  and  other  things  falling  in  within  the  compass  of 
that  short  time  that  did  divert  my  thoughts  some  other  ways.  But 
mainly  because  of  that  little,  little  worth  that  is  in  it.'  Then  he  con- 
tinues :  '  And  yet,  Right  Honourable,  the  intentions  of  some  to  "put  it 
to  the  press  in  case  I  would  not  consent  to  have  it  printed — by  which 
means  truth  and  myself  might  have  been  co-partners  in  suffering — and 
the  strong  importunity  of  many  precious  souls,  hath  borne  me  down 
and  subdued  me  to  them.'1  Again:  It  is  dedicated  to  the  'Right 
Honourable  Thomas,  Lord  Fairfax,  Lord  General  of  all  the  Parliament's 
Forces  in  England,'  as  to  a  friend  and  familiar,  to  whom  it  is  his  pride 
to  '  testify,'  not  only  to  himself,  '  but  to  all  the  world/  his  '  thankful 
remembrance  and  due  acknowledgment'  of  his  Lordship's  'undeserved 
respect'  towards  him.'2  In  an  age  of  venal  flattery,  the  '  Epistles  Dedica- 
tory' of  Brooks  are  throughout  simple,  plain-spoken,  searching,  direct 
as  an  old  Hebrew  prophet's  '  burden :'  hence  this  language  certainly 
meant  what  it  said.  But  specially  one  allusion  is  at  once  a  key  to 
other  personal  references  scattered  up  and  down  his  writings,  and  an 
explanation  of  how  the  years  preceding  1 640,  as  above,  were  occupied. 
Near  the  close  of  the  Sermon, — and  it  is  characteristic  of  the  man,  that 
only  about  a  single  page  is  devoted  to  Rainsborough  himself, — he  reveals 
'service'  with  the  lamented  Commander.  '  As  for  this  thrice-honoured 
champion  now  in  the  dust:  for  his  enjoyment  of  God,  from  my  own 
experience,  being  with  him  both  at  sea  and  land,  1  have  abundance  of 
sweetness  and  satisfaction  in  my  own  spirit,  which  to  me  exceedingly 
sweetens  so  great  a  loss.'3  I  have  said  that  this  '  testimony'  furnishes 
a  key  to  other  references.  I  allude  to  incidental  intimations  of  his 
having  been  abroad.  Thus,  in  the  'Epistle  Dedicatory'  to  his  '  Precious 
Remedies,'  as  one  of  the  reasons  for  its  publication  he  gives  this  :  '  I 
have  many  precious  friends  in  several  countries,  who  are  not  a  little 
desirous  that  my  pen  may  reach  them,  now  my  voice  cannot.  I  have 
foiinerly  been,  by  the  help  of  the  mighty  God  of  Jacob,  a  weal-  instru- 
ment of  good  to  them,  and  cannot  but  hope  and  believe  that  the  Lord 
1  Page  12.  3  Page  1.  8  Page  22. 


will  also  bless  those  labours  to  them  :  they  being  in  part  the  fruit  of 
their  desires  and  prayers,  &C.1  Again  :  In  his  '  Unsearchable  Riches,' 
he  thus  barbs  one  of  his  many  fearless  rebukes  :  '  If  you  do  not  give 
them  [ministers  of  the  Gospel]  honourable  countenance,  Jews  and 
Turks,  Papists  and  Pagans,  will  in  the  great  day  of  account  rise  up 
against  you  and  condemn  you.  I  could  say  "much  of  what  I  have 
observed  in  other  nations  and  countries  concerning  this  thing  ;  but  I 
forbear.  Should  I  speak  what  I  have  seen,  many  professors  [professing 
Christians]  might  well  blush.'2  Once  more  :  '  In  the  '  Epistle  Dedica- 
tory' to  his  'Heaven  on  Earth/ there  occur  these  personal  reminiscences, 
tantalizing  by  their  very  suggestiveness :  '  /  have  observed  in  some 
terrible  storms  I  have  been  in,  that  the  mariners'  and  the  passengers' 
want  of  assurance,  and  of  those  other  pearls  of  price  that  in  this  Treatise 
are  presented  to  public  view,  hath  caused  their  countenance  to  change/ 
&c.  Then  the  '  Epistle'  itself  is  addressed  to  '  The  Right  Honourable 
the  Generals  of  the  Fleets  of  the  Commonwealth  of  England,  and  to 
those  gallant  Worthies  (my  much  honoured  friends),  who,  with  the 
noble  generals,  have  deeply  jeoparded  their  lives  unto  many  deaths,  out 
of  love  to  their  country's  good,  and  out  of  respect  to  the  interest  of 
Christ  and  the  faithful  people  of  this  Commonwealth  ;'  and  of  these, — 
besides  the  parenthesis  italicized  in  the  foregoing, — he  assigns  as  one 
reason  for  so  '  tendering'  his  volume  to  them.  '  Because  you  are  my 
friends,  and  that  cordial  love  and  friendship  which  I  have  found  from 
you  hath  stamped  in  my  affections  a  very  high  valuation  of  you.'  Once 
more  :  a  little  further  on,  he  says,  '  I  have  been  some  years  at  Sea,  and 
through  grace  I  can  say  that  I  would  not  exchange  my  Sea  experiences 
for  England's  riches.  I  am  not  altogether  ignorant  of  the  troubles,  trials, 
temptations,  dangers,  and  deaths,  that  do  attend  you.'  In  a  margin- 
note  at  the  close  he  adds,  '  Had  I  a  purse  suitable  to  my  heart,  not  a 
poor,  godly  soldier  or  sailor  in  England,  who  carries  his  life  in  one 
hand,  but  should  have  one  of  these  books  in  the  other.'3  Further  : 
In  his  '  London's  Lamentations,'  speaking  of  the  wind,  he  observes  : 
'  In  some  places  of  the  world — where  I  have  been — the  motions  of 
the  wind  are  steady  and  constant,  which  mariners  call  their  trade- 
wind.''1  Besides  these  notices  in  his  writings,  by  his  '  Will/  which 
will  be  found  in  its  own  place,  he  leaves  a  '  legacy'  to  '  Vice- Admiral 
Goodson's  eldest  daughter's  son,  that  she  had  by  her  husband  Captain 

Combining  these  various  personal  allusions, — which  have  hitherto  been 
utterly  overlooked, — it  is  plain  that  Brooks  for  'some  years'  was  'at  sea.' 
The  question  is,  in  what  capacity  ?     A  consideration  of  the  facts  in  the 


1  Our  reprint,  page  5.  3  2d  edition,  1657,  pp.  1,  4,  6,  27. 

2 1657,  1st  edition,  page  320.  4  Part  II.  page  21. 


career  of  the  two  'Commanders'  named,  viz.,  Colonel  Rainsborough 
and  Vice-admiral  Goodson,  with,  by  implication,  a  Captain  Magger, 
lead  me  to  the  conclusion  that  he  must  have  acted  as  'chaplain/  both 
'at  Sea,'  and  'on  Land,'  that  is,  in  the  Fleet  and  with  the  Army — alter- 
nating as  the  Commanders  were  then  wont  to  do  with  the  one  and  the 
other.  My  reasons  are  these,  in  brief :  Colonel  Rainsborough,  with 
whom  Brooks  informs  us  he  was  'at  Sea  and  on  Land,'  is  traceable  on 
both  by  help  of  the  'State  Papers.'  He  was  the  son  of  that  William 
Rainsborough  of  the  Navy,  who  was  '  Captain '  of  the  '  Marhonour '  in 
1635  :  of  the  '  Triumph  '  in  the  Fleet  of  the  Earl  of  Nortumberland  in 
163G :  'admiral'  of  the  Parliamentary  Fleet  which  revolted  in  1648, 
when  the  sailors  seized  their  admiral  and  quietly  put  him  ashore  :  and 
who  survived  the  Restoration,  and  was  imprisoned  by  Charles  II.  In 
all  probability  his  son  the  '  Colonel'  served  under  his  father  in  the  Navy ; 
and  the  years  1635,  and  1636  on  to  1639-40,  thus  correspond  with  the 
unaccounted  for  period  of  Brooks's  life.  Then  with  reference  to 
Brooks  having  also  been  'with  him  on  the  Land,'  our  'Colonel' is 
found  on  shore  at  the  siege  of  Bristol,  the  surrender  of  Woodstock,  the 
capture  of  Berkeley  Castle,  and  elsewhere  throughout  the  Civil  War, 
until  his  'death,'  of  which  below.1  Of  Vice-admiral  Goodson,  very  little 
remains  ;  but  as  Captain  William  Goodson,  he  was  commander  and 
vice-admiral  at  Jamaica  from  1655  to  1657,  and  received  on  9th  January 
1658  an  order  for  <£J500  from  the  Council  of  State,  as  a  gratuity  for 
his  extraordinary  services  and  expenses.2  During  these  years,  1655- 
1 658,  Brooks  could  not  be  with  Goodson  ;  but  he  may  have  been 
in  earlier  years.  It  is  a  pity  we  have  not  fuller  memoirs  of  those 
gallant  sailor-soldiers  and  soldier-sailors,  who  emulated  the  brave  deeds 
of  Blake,  and  whose  services  on  Sea  and  Land  bear  equally  the  impress 
of  genius  and  devotion.  I  am  not  without  hope  that  in  the  progress  of 
the  '  Calendars '  of  the  Papers  in  our  National  Archives,  light  may  yet 

1  I  must  here  acknowledge  the  very  great  trouble  taken  by  John  Bruce,  Esq.,  of  Lon- 
don toward  aiding  ray  researches  into  this  matter.  It  is  to  this  not  less  willing  than 
able  gentleman  I  stand  indebted  for  nearly  all  above  data.  Of  Colonel  Rainsborough's 
'  death  ' — celebrated  by  Brooks — it  may  be  said  that  it  was  one  of  the  saddest  incidents 
of  our  Civil  War.  It  occurred  on  the  29th  October  1648.  He  had  been  sent  by  Crom- 
well to  lay  siege  to  Poiitefract,  and  was  lying  at  Doncaster  on  his  way  thither.  A  party 
of  the  Garrison,  disguised  as  Parliament  soldiers,  entered  Doncaster,  deceived  Rains- 
borough's  men  into  the  belief  that  they  belonged  to  the  Cromwellian  army,  penetrated  into 
an  inn  where  Rainsborough  was  lying,  captured  him  in  his  bed,  and  on  his  making  some 
resistance  to  being  carried  off,  ran  him  through  with  their  swords,  and  left  him  dead 
on  the  streets.  The  dastardly  and  bloody  story  is  told  as  if  it  had  been  a  gallant 
achievement,  by  Clarendon  (Hist.  Rebell.,  Book  xi.),  and  as  '  a  murder  or  very  question- 
able kind  of  homicide,'  by  Caflyle  (Cromwell,  iii.  420.)  Brooks's  Sermon  will  be  given 
in  Vol.  VI. ;  and  there  further  details  may  be  looked  for,  including  singular  inedited 
broadsides  issued  on  the  day  of  the  Funeral. 

2  '  Colonial  Calendar,'  1 574-1 GGO,  p.  462,  and  Mr  Bruce  to  myself. 


be  shed  on  this  altogether  unrecognised  portion  of  our  Worthy's  story. 
The  dates  and  facts  alike  of  the  Rainsborough  heroes  accord  with  his 
allusions  to  what  he  had  seen. 

By  1 648,  Brooks — as  we  have  found — was  '  Preacher  of  the  Gospel ' 
at '  Thomas  Apostles,'  London.  In  the  same  year,  '  26th  December/  and 
on  the  title-page  of  his  second  publication,  viz.,  his  first  Sermon  before 
the  House  of  Commons,  entitled,  '  God's  Delight  in  the  Progress  of  the 
Upright,  especially  in  Magistrates'  Uprightness  and  constancy  in  ways 
of  justice  and  righteousness  in  these  Apostatizing  Times,  notwith- 
standing all  discouragements,  oppositions/  &c,  he  is  still  designated 
'  Preacher  of  the  Gospel  at  Thomas  Apostles  ;'  so  also,  but  in  wording 
that  reminds  us  of  Richard  Baxter's  and  other  old  title-pages,  in  his 
second  sermon,  of  '8th  October  1650/ viz.,  his  'Hypocrites  Discovered,' in 
celebration  of  Cromwell's  '  crowning  victory '  at  Dunbar.  He  is  therein 
described  as  '  Thomas  Brooks,  a  weak  and  unworthy  Teacher  of  the 
Gospel  at  Thomas  Apostles,  London/ 

Of  this  first  known  '  benefice '  or  Church  of  Brooks,  much  curious 
antiquarian  lore  will  be  found  in  Newcourt's  '  Repertorium  Ecclesias- 
ticum  Parochiale  Londinense '  (2  vols,  folio,  1708) ;  and  thither  our 
readers  are  referred.1  But  '  the  Fire '  of  1666  destroyed  the  whole 
Registers,  and  no  trace  of  our  Puritan  Rector  remains,  save  that  by  the 
courtesy  of  the  present  Incumbent  of  the  united  Parish,  within  whose 
bounds  it  stood,  I  learn  a  '  Mr  Brooks '  resided  in  one  of  the  '  houses 
which  belonged  to  the  Church/2  As  there  was  a  '  parsonage-house ' 
before  the  Fire,  this  was  probably  our  Brooks.3 

We  cannot  be  far  amiss  in  concluding  that  it  was  most  probably  to 
the  impression  made  by  his  sermon  for  Rainsborough  that  Brooks 
owed  his  appointment  to  '  preach  '  before  Parliament.  The  former  ser- 
mon was  delivered  on  '  November  14.  1648/  the  latter  in  the  succeed- 
ing month,  '  December  26th.' 

By  1 652-53  Brooks  had  been  transferred  from  '  Thomas  Apostles '  to 
'  Margaret's,  Fish-street  hill.'  In  his  '  Precious  Remedies '  and  in  his 
'Cases  Considered  and  Resolved,'  the  title-pages  (of  1652-53)  desig- 
nate him  '  a  willing  Servant  unto  God,  and  the  faith  of  his  people,  in 
the  glorious  Gospel  of  Christ  at  Margaret's,  Fish-street  hill,'  and  so 
through  all  his  Writings  up  to  1662.  It  was  not  without  opposition 
that  our  Worthy  passed  into  this  higher  and  wider  sphere.  The  whole 
trying  story  is  given  by  Brooks  himself  in  the  pamphlet  already  more 
than  once  quoted.  It  is  printed  in  extenso  in  our  Appendix  to  this 
our  Memoir.4     To  it,  therefore,  all  are  referred.     It  is  an  invaluable 

1  See  Vol.  i.  pp.  549-551.  2  Rev.  L.  B.  White,  M.A.,  penes  me.     May  27.  1861. 

3  Newcourt  as  before,  page  551. 

4  See  A ;  this  tractate  is  exceedingly  rare,  and  seems  to  have  been  unknown  to  pre- 
vious writers,  even  to  Calamy  and  Palmer.     Hence  the  blunders  corrected  below. 

VOL.  I.  c 


contribution  to  his  Biography  and  has  many  characteristic  touches.  It 
lies  on  the  surface  that  the  gist  of  the  entire  opposition  lay  in  the 
Puritan-Rector's  refusal — stern  and  fearless  as  that  of  Ambrose  and 
John  Calvin — to  administer  '  Baptism '  and  the  '  Lord's  Supper '  to 
those  palpably  '  unworthy/ — a  controversy  which  has  a  singular  litera- 
ture of  its  own  from  Brooks's  treatise  to  the  folio  of  William  Morice, 
Esq.,  of  Devon  (16G0),  and  the  Avell-nigh  innumerable  polemics  of  Col- 
linges,  and  Blake,  and  Drake,  and  Humphrey,  and  Saunders,  and 
'Tilenus  before  the  Triers;'  until  in  the  next  century  it  culminated  in 
the  '  dismissal '  of  Jonathan  Edwards  of  America.  Brooks's  'Cases  Con- 
sidered '  did  its  work,  and  he  kept  his  position.  The  'Parish'  of  'St 
Margaret's,  Fish-street-hill,'  was  a  populous  and  a  '  burdensome '  one. 
Full  details  will  be  found  in  Newcourt,  but  no  memorial  of  Brooks.1 
The  Church  is  memorable,  as  having  been  the  spot  'where  that  fatal 
Fire  first  began  that  turned  London  into  a  ruinous  heap.'2 

What  kind  of  'preaching'  the  Parishioners  got  from  their  Pastor,  his 
books  attest.  From  1 652  onward  these  followed  each  other  in  rapid  suc- 
cession and  with  unflagging  success.  There  was  his  '  Precious  Remedies ' 
in  1652;  his  'Epistles'  or  'Approbations'  to  Everard's  'Gospel-Treasury 
Opened/  and  to  the  '  Works  '  of  Dr  Thomas  Taylor,  1 653  ;  '  Heaven 
on  Earth'  in  1654;  his  'Unsearchable  Riches,'  'Apples  of  Gold/  and 
'String  of  Pearls,'  in  1657;  his  'Epistle'  to  John  Durant's  'Altum 
Silentium,'  in  1659;  his  'Mute  Christian'  and  'Believer's  Last  Day 
his  best  Day,'  1660.  In  the  last  year — 1660 — his  name  stands  beside 
that  of  Thomas  Goodwin  in  the  '  Renunciation  and  Declaration  of  the 
Ministers  of  Congregational  Churches,  and  Public  Preachers,  of  the 
same  judgment,  living  in  and  about  the  city  of  London :  against  the  late 
horrid  insurrection  and  rebellion  acted  in  the  said  City'  (1661,  4to). 
In  the  same  year  also — 1660 — he  preached  the  'Sermons'  that  com- 
pose his  '  Ark  for  all  God's  Noahs/  in  the  Church  of  St  Olave's,  Bread- 
street — Milton's  street — where,  as  from  the  Epistle  we  learn,  '  God 
blessed  them  then  to  those  Christians  that  attended  on  his  ministry.' 
Newcourt  makes  no  mention  of  a  St  Olave's  in  '  Bread-street/  but  pro- 
bably it  is  intended  by  '  St  Olave's,  Haii-street.'  Daniel  Mills  was  the 
1  Rector,'  who  would  cordially  welcome  Brooks  as  a  '  Lecturer '  to  his 

1  Newcourt  R.  E.  as  before  vol.  i.  pp.  405-407.  Here  under  date  '28th  Septr.  1640' 
is  entered  'Rob.  Pory  S.  T.  B.'  as  'Rector,'  'mort.  ult.  Rectoris;'  then  under  date  18th 
August  1660,  'perresig.  Pory, George  Smalwood,  A.M. ;'  and  under  17th  October  1662,  'per 
cess.  Smalwood,  Dav.  Barton,'  who,  Newcourt  add*,  '  I  suppose  continued  Rector  here  till 
his  Ohurch  was  burnt  down  in  1666.'  Pory  was  no  doubt  the  fellow-student  and  com- 
panion of  Milton,  and  Newcourt  may  be  accurate  in  regard  to  him  ;  but  Smalwood  must 
have  held  some  subordinate  post,  as  it  was  on  Brooks's  'Ejectment'  or  Resignation,  not 
Smalwood'B,  this  Barton  succeeded.  Newcourt  in  his  High-Churchliness  does  not  recog- 
nise Brooks  at  all  ;  and  here,  as  elsewhere,  supplies  from  unnamed  sources  those  whom 
he  chooses  to  regard  as  the  '  rightful '  occupants.     See  our  note  4  p.  xxxiii.         ■  Bee  B. 


Church.1  When,  in  1 662,  he  published  his  '  Ark  for  all  God's  Noahs  in  a 
gloomy  stormy  day,'  he  had  to  describe  himself  on  its  title-page  as  '  late 
Preacher  of  the  Gospel  at  Margaret's  near  Fish-street,  and  still  Preacher 
of  the  Word  in  London,  and  Pastor  of  a  Congregation  there.'  The  little 
word  'late,'  and  the  other  'still,1  mark  two  events:  the  former,  the 
'Ejectment' of  1662;  the  latter,  that  while,  with  the  illustrious '  two 
thousand'  he  had  resigned  'St  Margaret's'  for  'conscience'  sake,'  he 
nevertheless  did  not  and  could  not  lay  down  his  commission  as  a 
'minister  of  the  Gospel'  and  Servant  of  Christ.  It  needeth  not  that 
I  tell  the  pathetic  and  heroic  story  of  'Black'  St  Bartholomew's 
Day.  It  is  as  imperishable  as  is  the  fame  of  '  this  England.'  I  simply 
say,  that  of  the  many  noble  and  true  men  who  all  over  the  land  stood 
faithful  to  their  convictions,  none  was  nobler,  none  worthier  than  the 
'  ejected '  Rector  of  '  St  Margaret's.'  The  closing  portion  of  his  '  Fare- 
well Sermon,'  and  it  has  not  a  single  bitter  or  controversial  word, 
appears  in  all  the  'Collections'  of  the  'Ejected'  'Farewell  Sermons.' 
We  give  it  in  the  Appendix  to  this  our  Memoir.2  The  '  Epistles  '  or 
'Approbations'  also,  which  appeared  previous  to  1662,  follow  the  'Fare- 
well Sermon'  there.3  They  may  be  compared  with  those  of  Sibbes. 
They  pay  worthy  tribute  to  the  worthy. 

He  had  not  himself  alone  to  consider  when  he  went  out  from  '  St 
Margaret's.'  He  had  married,  probably  many  years  before — though  the 
date  is  not  known — a  daughter  of  the  excellent  John  Burgess.4     It 

1  [Cf.  Newcourt  R.  E.  as  before,  vol.  i.  pp.  510-512.]  2  See  B.  8  See  C. 

4  Calamy's  'Account,'  p.  27;  Continuation,  pp.  28,  283.  Calamy's  'Account'  of  Brooks 
lacks  his  usual  carefulness.  He  describes  '  St  Margaret's,  Fish-street  hill  'as  'St  Mary- 
Magdalen,  Fish-street,'  thus  misreading  'St  Mary'  for  'St  Magnus,'  and  also,  if  intending 
it,  employing  a  name  it  did  not  bear  until  after  the  Fire  in  1666,  when  being  united 
thereto,  the  one  name,  'St  Magnus,'  embraced  both  (Newcourt,  as  supra,  p.  406).  He 
has  hereby  misled  Palmer  (None.  Memorial,  vol.  i.  p.  150),  who  enters  Brooks  as  'ejected 
from  '  St  Mary,  Fish-street. '  Further,  Calamy  had  never  seen  '  Cases  Considered  and 
Resolved,'  else  he  would  not  have  made  the  following  statements:  'About  1651  [1652-3] 
he  was  chosen  by  the  majority  of  the  Parishioners  of  St  Mary  Magdalen,  Fish  Street 
[i.e.  St  Margaret's]  to  be  their  minister;  and  he  gathering  a  Church  there  in  the  con- 
gregational way,  the  rest  of  the  Parish  preferred  a  Petition  against  him  to  the  Committee 
of  ministers,  and  he  published  a  Defence  against  their  charges.'  The  'Defence'  in 
question  is  his  'Cases  Considered  and  Resolved'  (printed  in  our  Appendix,  A),  and 
thereby  it  will  be  seen  that  it  was  not  at  all  for  the  reason  alleged  he  was  opposed  ;  and 
we  have  also  shewn  above  that  he  prevailed  and  entered  on  possession  of  the  Parish.  His 
Church  in  the  '  congregational  way'  was  not  'commenced'  for  fully  ten  years  subsequent, 
viz.  on  the  '  Ejectment '  of  1662,  as  told  onward  by  us.  The  title-pages  of  Brooks's  books 
issued  from  1652  to  1662  attest  that  he  was  the  'clergyman'  of  St  Margaret's  up  to  1662, 
and  his  subsequent  title-pages  similarly  assert  him  to  have  been  '  late '  or  '  formerly 
thereof.  Thus  are  Newcourt  and  Calamy  alike,  corrected  and  disproved.  It  is  possible 
that  while  '  minister  '  of  '  Margarets,'  Brooks,  in  common  with  other  of  his  brethren,  had 
also  a  more  select  auditory  elsewhere,  to  whom  he  held  the  office  of  '  pastor :'  but  we 
have  no  lights  on  the  subject.  Be  this  as  it  may,  the  '  Defence  '  had  nothing  to  do  with 
a  church  in  the  '  congregational  way,'  as  Calamy  affirms. 


does  not  appear  whether  he  had  any  family ;  but  his  wife — whose  name 
was  Martha — was  indeed  a  'help-meet,' — a  woman  of  high-toned  yet 
meekly  tender  principle,  and  all  but  the  idol  of  her  husband.  She 
died  in  1676,  and  her  Funeral  Sermon  was  preached  by  (probably)  Dr 
John  Collinges,  of  Norwich.  Some  extracts  are  added  in  our  Appendix, 
from  'notes'  which  were  no  doubt  furnished  by  Brooks  himself.1 

Thus  self-placed,  because  conscience-placed,  among  the  '  Ejected '  of 
16G2,  Brooks  nevertheless  remaining  a  Christ-anointed  'Preacher  of  the 
Gospel/  quietly  continued  his  ministry  within  his  Parish.  Evidently, 
multitudes  clave  to  their  beloved  and  honoured  Pastor,  for  to  the  praise 
of  the  laity  be  it  said,  the  very  life-blood  of  the  different  '  Churches ' 
vacated  by  the  'two  thousand'  flowed  into  the  humbler  'chapels'  and 
'  conventicles '  of  the  enforced  Nonconformists.  Brooks's  '  chapel ' 
occupied  a  site  near  his  old  Church  in  Fish-street,  called  the  '  Pave- 
ment,' Moorfields.  The  only  memorial  that  remains  of  it  is  preserved 
in  certain  MSS.  in  the  custody  of  the  Williams  Library,  London — 
drawn  up  by  a  Rev.  Josiah  Thompson — but  it  consists  of  a  mere  blun- 
dering transcript  of  Calamy's  blunders.2  He  gives  Brooks  as  the 
founder  of  the  congregation,  but  dates  it  from  1GG0  or  the  Restoration, 
which  is  disproved  by  his  preaching  his  '  Farewell  Sermon '  in  St  Mar- 
garet's in  1662.3  Here  our  'Confessor/  now  growing  old,  continued 
his  pristine  unmistakeable,  intense,  powerful,  and  '  savoury '  exhibition 
of  Christ  and  '  The  Gospel ;'  and  as  in  brighter  days,  he  issued  volume 
upon  volume,  which  bore  the  same  characteristics  and  met  with  the 
same  welcome  as  '  of  old.'  .  For  proof,  in  his  address  to  the  '  Reader ' 
prefixed  to  his  'Privy  Key  of  Heaven'  (1665),  he  was  able  to  say  grate- 
fully, as  one  of  the  reasons  for  again  publishing,  '  That  favour,  that 
good  acceptance  and  fair  quarter,  that  my  other  poor  labours  have 
found,  not  only  in  this  Nation  but  in  other  countries  also,  hath  put  me 
upon  putting  pen  to  paper  once  more/4  Even  in  the  year  of  sore  trial 
— 1662 — he  could  say,  'My  former  poor  labours  and  endeavours 
have  been  acceptable  to  some  of  all  ranks  and  degrees,  and  they  have 
been  blest  to  some  of  all  ranks  and  degrees ;  and  I  have  been  encour- 
aged, whetted,  and  stirred  up  by  some  on  all  hands,  once  more  to  cast 

1  See  D.  z  See  foot-note  supra  4  p.  xxxiii. 

8  The  Thompson  MSS.  give  details  of  the  after-history  of  Brooks's  congregation.  Reeve 
continued  only  a  few  years  :  the  '  rage  '  against  Nonconformists  flung  him  into  Newgate 
with  many  others  of  the  -godly:'  he  died  in  1686,  never  having  recovered  from  the  effects 
of  his  unrighteous  imprisonment.  He  was  succeeded  in  1686  by  Richard  Taylor,  who 
died  in  1717  ;  Mr  Hall  followed  in  1718,  and  dmd  in  1762  ;  and  he  again  was  succeeded 
by  Dr  John  Conder,  grandfather,  I  believe,  of  the  amiable  poet  Josiah  Cornier.  Other 
particulars  may  be  gleaned,  but  these  must  suffice :  except  perhaps  this  small  bit  of 
fact,  viz.,  that  the  Rev.  James  Spong  of  London,  whose  congregation  claims  to  represent 
Brooks' — has  in  his  possession  the  Communion  '  flagons '  or  cups,  bearing  an  inscription 
to  the  effect  that  they  were  a  gift  to  the  church  of  Mr  Thomas  Brooks.' 

4  See  ante. 


in  ray  net,  and  now  I  have  done  it/1  Thus  was  it  unto  the  end:  for  in 
1 675,  in  the  '  Epistle  Dedicatory '  to  the  '  Golden  Key,'  he  uses  much 
the  same  language:  'I  must  confess  that  that  general  acceptance  that 
my  former  labours  have  found,  both  in  the  Nation  and  in  foreign  parts ; 
and  that  singular  blessing  that  has  attended  them  from  on  high,  hath 
been  none  of  the  least  encouragements  to  me  once  more  to  cast  in  my 
mite  into  the  common  treasury/2  His  '  Crown  and  Glory  of  Chris- 
tianity,' a  large  massive  quarto,  appeared  also  in  1662;  his  'Privy  Key 
of  Heaven,'  and  'A  Heavenly  Cordial  for  the  Plague/  in  1665  ;  his 
'Cabinet  of  Jewels/  in  1669;  his  'London's  Lamentations,'  in  1670; 
and  his  'Golden  Key'  and  his  'Paradise  Opened,'  in  1676.  He  was 
ever  'about  his  Father's  business  \  his  life  a  consecrated  and  burning, 
almost  flaming  one.  Little  casual  references  in  '  Epistles  Dedicatory  ' 
and  otherwise,  intimate  engagements  elsewhere,  and  '  absences '  from 
'  the  press '  so  as  to  be  unable  to  correct  errata.  And  so  the  Christ- 
like man  went  'in  and  out/  a  'workman'  needing  not  'to  be  ashamed.' 
Through  all  the  terrible  'Plague'  year,  which  Defoe  has  made  immortal 
he  was  at  his  post,  winning  thereby  a  golden  word  in  the  Reliquia} 
Baxterianoe.  After  the  equally  appalling  '  Fire/  he  stood  forth  like 
anotlier  Ezekiel  in  his  terrors,  and  yet  soft  as  Jeremiah  in  his  expostu- 
lations with  the  still  careless,  rejecting,  neglecting.  As  he  grew  old  he 
mellowed  tenderly  and  winningly.  He  had  'troops  of  friends.'  The 
'  Epistles  Dedicatory '  and  incidental  notices  inform  us  of  intimate  fel- 
lowship with  the  foremost  names  of  the  period  for  worth  and  benevo- 
lence. Many  made  him  their  Almoner  of  '  monies,'  especially  during 
the  dread  '1662'  and  '1666/  His  own  circumstances  placed  him  in 
comfort  and  ease. 

Our  Story  of  this  venerable  Puritan  is  well-nigh  told.  Behind  the 
activities  of  his  more  public  life  there  was  a  second  marriage,  as  it  would 
appear,  about  1677-78.  In  his  '  Will '  he  lovingly  speaks  of  her  as  his 
'  dear  and  honoured  wife  whom  God  hath  made  all  relations  to  meet  in 
one/  Her  name  was  Cartwright.  Theirs  was  a  brief  union ;  she  spring- 
young,  he  winter-old.  He  drew  up  his  '  Last  Testament '  on  March 
20.,  1680.  It  is  a  very  characteristic  document,  repeating  before-pub- 
lished quaint  words.3  It  will  be  found  in  our  Appendix.  He  died  a 
little  afterwards,  viz.  on  September  27.,  aged  72/  John  Reeve,  his 
particular  acquaintance  and  companion  in  sufferings,  for  conscience' 
sake,  preached  his  'Funeral  Sermon.'  It  was  published  ;  and  thus  he 
sums  up  the  character  of  the  fine  old  man  and  '  faithful  minister '  of 
Jesus  Christ : — 

'  Now,  to  close  up,  in  commemoration  of  our  dear  friend  deceased, 
who  lived  so  desired,  and  died  so  lamented,  I  shall  modestly  and  truly 

1  Ep.  Dedy.  to  '  Crown  of  Glory,'  pages  6,  7. 

2  Page  2.  3  See  this  Volume,  page  455,  et  alibi.  *  See  E. 


offer  some  remarks  about  his  personal  and  ministerial  endowments  to 
your  view. 

'  First,  For  his  personal  endowments,  he  was  certainly, 

'  1.  A  person  of  a  very  sweet  nature  and  temper  :  so  affable,  and 
courteous,  and  cheerful,  that  he  gained  upon  all  that  conversed  with 
him  ;  and  if  any  taxed  him  with  any  pride  or  moroseness,  or  distantial- 
ness  in  his  carriage,  it  must  be  only  such  as  did  not  know  him.  He 
had  so  winning  a  way  with  him,  he  might  bid  himself  welcome  into 
whatsoever  house  he  entered.  Pride  and  moroseness  are  bad  qualities 
for  a  man  of  his  employ,  and  make  men  afraid  of  the  ways  of  God,  for 
fear  they  should  never  enjoy  a  good  day  after. 

'  2.  A  person  of  a  very  great  gravity  :  and  could  carry  a  majesty  in 
his  face  when  there  was  occasion,  and  make  the  least  guilt  tremble  in 
his  presence  with  his  very  countenance.  I  never  knew  a  man  better 
loved,  nor  more  dreaded.  God  had  given  him  such  a  spirit  with  power, 
that  his  very  frowns  were  darts,  and  his  reproofs  sharper  than  swords. 
He  would  not  contemn  familiarity,  but  hated  that  familiarity  that  bred 

'  3.  A  person  of  a  very  large  charity.  He  had  large  bowels,  and  a 
large  heart  ;  a  great  dexterity  in  the  opening  of  the  bowels  of  others, 
as  well  as  his  own,  to  works  of  mercy,  that  I  think  I  may  say  there  is 
not  a  Church  in  England  that  hath  more  often  and  more  liberal  con- 
tributions for  poor  ministers  and  other  poor  Christians  than  this  is, 
according  to  the  proportion  of  their  abilities. 

'  4.  A  person  of  a  wonderful  patience.  Notwithstanding  the  many 
Aveaknesses  and  infirmities,  which  for  a  long  time  have  been  continually, 
without  ceasing  as  it  were,  trying  their  skill  to  pull  down  his  frail  body 
to  the  dust,  and  at  last  effected  it,  yet  I  never  heard  an  impatient  word 
drop  from  him.  When  I  came  to  visit  him,  and  asked  him,  '  How  do 
you,  Sir  ?'  he  answered,  '  Pretty  well :  I  bless  God  I  am  well,  I  am 
contented  with  the  will  of  my  Father :  my  Father's  will  and  mine  is 
but  one  will.'  It  made  me  often  think  of  that  Isaiah  xxxiii.  24,  '  The 
inhabitant  shall  not  say,  I  am  sick  :  the  people  that  dwell  therein  shall 
be  forgiven  their  iniquity/  Sense  of  pardon  took  away  sense  of  sick- 

'  5.  A  person  of  a  very  strong  faith  in  the  promises  of  both  worlds  : 
and  he  could  not  be  otherwise,  being  such  a  continual  student  in  the 
Covenant.  He  feared  nothing  of  himself  or  others,  knowing  the  pro- 
mise and  oath  of  God  would  stand  firm,  and  the  Head  of  the  Church 
would  see  to  the  safety  of  all  his  members,  here  and  hereafter. 
Secondly,  For  his  ministerial  endowments,  he  was 

1 1.  An  experienced  minister.  From  the  heart  to  the  heart ;  from 
the  conscience  to  the  conscience.  He  had  a  body  of  Divinity  in  his 
head,  and  the  power  of  it  upon  his  heart. 


'  2.  A  laborious  minister :  as  his  works  in  press  and  pulpit  are  un- 
deniable witness  of.  To  preach  so  often,  and  print  so  much,  and  yet 
not  satisfied  till  he  could  imprint  also  his  works  upon  the  hearts  of  his 
people  ;  which  is  the  best  way  of  printing  that  I  know,  and  the  greatest 
task  of  a  minister  of  Christ. 

'  3.  He  was  a  minister  who  delighted  in  his  tvork.  It  was  his  meat 
and  drink  to  labour  in  that  great  work,  insomuch  that  under  his  weak- 
ness he  would  be  often  preaching  of  little  sermons — as  he  called  them— 
to  those  that  came  to  visit  him,  even  when  by  reason  of  his  distemper 
they  were  very  hardly  able  to  understand  them. 

'  4.  He  was  a  successful  minister :  the  instrument  in  the  hand  of 
God  for  the  conversion  of  many  souls  about  this  City  and  elsewhere. 

'  5.  And  now  he  is  at  rest.  And  though  he  is  gone,  he  is  not  lost ; 
he  is  yet  useful  to  the  Church  of  God,  and  being  dead  he  yet  speaks 
by  his  example  and  writings,  which  were  very  profitable  and  spiritual.' 

This  modest,  unexaggerated,  heart-full  portraiture  is  worthy  of  the 
man  as  the  man  was,  with  emphasis,  worthy  of  it.  It  were  to  blur  the 
sharp,  nice  lines  to  add  of  our  own  fainter  and  distant  words.  We 
deem  them  fitting  close  to  our  Memoir. 

A  single  other  sentence.  There  is  no  accredited  portrait  of  Brooks. 
Granger  mentions  one  as  being  on  the  title-page  of  his  '  Unsearchable 
Riches,'  but  we  have  the  whole  of  the  editions,  and  there  is  no  portrait 
whatever.  Doubtless  the  Historian  mis-remembered  and  was  thinking 
of  the  small  unsatisfactory  miniature  prefixed,  along  with  numerous 
others,  to  some  of  the  collections  of  the  '  Farewell  Sermons.'  And  so 
we  introduce  our  Worthy  and  his  Books  :  one  who,  while  living,  as  '  ever 
under  the  great  Task-masters  eye/  wore  in  all  simpleness  and  truth, 

1  The  grand  old  name  of  gentleman, 
Defamed  by  every  charlatan, 
And  soiled  with  all  ignoble  use.' — [7ra  Memoriam,  c.  x.] 

Alexander  B.  Grosart. 




A. — Controversy  on  appointment  to  St  Margaret's,  Fish  Street :  See 
ante,  pages  xxxi,  xxxiv,  et  alibi. 



All  the  tender  godly  conscientious  Ministers  in  Eng- 
land (Whether  for  a  Congregationall,  or  a 
Presbyteriall  way)  are  concerned. 


Pills  to  Purge  Malignants. 

And  all  prophane,  ignorant,  and  scandalous  persons. 

(But  more  particularly  Calculated  for  the  Meridian 

of  Margarets  Fishstreet-hill)  from  those  gross  conceits 

tbat  they  have  of  their  Children's  right  to  Baptisme  ;  and  of 

their  owne  right  to  the  Supper  of  the  Lord,  $c. 


Good  Conncell  to  bad  men.     Or  friendly  advise  (in 
severall  particulars)  to  unfriendly  Neighbours. 

By  Thomas  Brooks,  a  willing  Servant  unto  God, 
and  the  Faith  of  his  People,  in  the  glorious  Gospel  of 
Christ,  at  Margarets  Fishstreet-hill. 

Mallem  mere  cum  Christo,  quam  regnare  cum  Cozsare.     Luther. 
Si  Veritas  est  causa  discordicc  mori possum  tacere  non  possum. 

Printed  by  M.  Simmons,  for  John  Hancock  and  are  to  be  sold  at 
the  first  Shop  in  Popes-Head- Alley,  next  to  Corn- 
hill     1653. 

To  the  Conscientious  Reader. 

The  world  is  full  of  books  ;  and  of  how  many  may  it  be  said,  that 
they  do  but  proclaim  the  vanity  of  the  writer,  and  procure  weariness, 
if  not  vexation,  to  the  reader,  in  this  knowing  and  censorious  age  ! 
What  I  have  written  is  out  of  faithfulness  to  Christ,  and  love  to  souls. 
If  my  pains  shall  prove  advantageous  for  the  internal  and  eternal 
good  of  any  poor  souls,  I  shall  count  it  reward  enough.  I  doubt  not 
but  those  that  are  spiritual  will  find  something  of  the  Spirit  in  what 
follows,  and  for  that  cause  will  relish  and  love  it,  though  others  may 
therefore  stand  at  the  greater  distance  from  it.  Surely,  where  truth 
comes,  the  children  of  truth  will  entertain  it,  and  ask  nobody  leave. 
In  these  days,  they  that  have  least  right  to  ordinances  do  make  the 
greatest  noise  in  crying  out  for  ordinances.  God's  ordinances  are  choice 
pearls,  and  yet  too  often  cast  before  swine,  which,  doubtless,  hath  pro- 
voked the  Lord  to  shed  the  blood  of  many  among  us  who  have  un- 


worthily  drunk  the  blood  of  his  Son,  and  trampled  it  under  their  feet 
/  as  an  unholy  thing,  Heb.  x.  29.  Though  my  candle  be  but  little,  yet 
I  must  not  hide  it  under  a  bushel.  Though  I  have  but  one  talent,  yet 
I  must  not  hide  it  in  a  napkin.  I  hope  thou  hast  that  anointing  of 
the  Spirit  that  will  teach  thee  not  to  reject  the  fruit  for  the  tree's  sake  ; 
nor  so  much  to  mind  the  man  as  the  matter.  But,  lest  I  should  hold 
thee  too  long  in  the  porch,  I  will  briefly  acquaint  thee  with  the  reasons 
that  have  induced  me  to  present  to  the  world  what  follows  ;  and  so  draw 
to  a  close. 

The  reasons  are  these  : 

First,  That  the  honour,  truth,  and  ways  of  Christ,  which  I  hope  are 
dearer  to  me  than  my  life,  and  which  are  struck  at  through  my  sides, 
may  be  vindicated,  1  Sam.  ii.  SO. 

Secondly,  That  the  mouth  of  iniquity,  or,  which  is  all  one,  that  the 
foul  mouths  of  profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  and  scandalous  persons, 
may  be  effectually  stopped,  Ps.  cvii.  42  ;  Titus  i.  1 1  ;  Ps.  lxiii.  11. 

Thirdly,  That  the  honest,  just,  and  righteous  proceedings  of  the 
Honourable  Committee  may  be  manifested,  and  not  smothered  by  the 
false  reports  of  any  profane,  malignant  spirits  that  were  present,  who 
are  apt  and  ready  enough  to  call  good  evil,  and  evil  good,  light  dark- 
ness, and  darkness  light,  &c,  Isa.  v.  20. 

Fourthly,  That  the  importunate  desires  of  several  ministers  and 
Christians  may  be  satisfied,  especially  those  to  whom  I  preach,  &c. 

Fifthly,  That  my  ministry  and  good  name,  which  should  be  dearer 
to  me  than  my  life,  may  be  vindicated,  2  Cor.  x.  33.*-  '  A  good  name 
is  rather  to  be  chosen  than  great  riches,  and  loving  favour  rather  than 
silver  and  gold/  Prov.  xxii.  1.  'A  good,  name  is  better  than  precious 
ointment/  saith  Solomon,  Eccles.  vii.  1.  The  initial  letter  (e)  of  the 
Hebrew  word  (nitD,  tob)  that  in  this  text  is  rendered  good,  is  bigger 
than  ordinary,  to  shew  the  more  than  ordinary  excellency  of  a  good 
name  amongst  men.  The  moralists  say  of  fame,  or  of  a  man's  good 
name,  Omnia  si  yerdas,  famam  servare  memento  ;  qua  semel  amissa 
postea  nullus  eris,  i.  e.  Whatsoever  commodity  you  lose,  be  sure  yet 
to  preserve  that  jewel  of  a  good  name.1  But  if  any  shall  delight  to 
blot  and  blur  my  name,  that  their  own  may  shine  the  brighter,  I  shall 
desire  them  frequently  to  remember  a  sweet  saying  of  Austin  :  Quis- 
quis  volens  detrahit  famce  mece,  nolens  addit  mercedi  meos,  He  that 
willingly  takes  from  my  good  name,  unwillingly  adds  to  my  reward, 
Mat.  v.  11,  12.  The  remembrance  of  this,  and  the  bird  in  the  bosom 
• — conscience — singing,  makes  a  heaven  of  joy  in  my  heart,  in  the  midst 
of  all  the  trials  that  do  attend  me,  2  Cor.  i.  12. 

Sixthly,  That  others  may  be  undeceived,  who  are  apt  enough  to 
judge  that  there  are  other  things,  and  worse  things,  charged  upon  me 
than  indeed  there  is.  And  indeed,  some  say  already  that  there  were 
eighteen  things,  others  that  there  were  six-and-twenty  things,  charged 
against  me  ;  and  all  this  to  render  my  person  and  my  doctrine  con- 
temptible in  the  world,  &c,  Jer.  xx.  10,  11  ;  Ps.  xxxv.  11. 

Seventhly,  That  the  malignant  and  profane  petitioners,  and  others 
of  their  stamp,  may  be  either  satisfied,  convinced,  and  reformed,  or 

1  The  French  have  this  proverh  among  them,  That  a  good  renown  is  hetter  than  a 
golden  girdle.    [For  Omnia  si  perdas,  &c,  see  Claudian,  De  Cons.  Mall.  Theod.,  v.  3. — G.] 


that  they  may  be  found  speechless,  and  Avithout  excuse  in  the  day  of 

Eighthly,  Because  my  case  is  a  general  case,  and  reaches  all  the 
godly,  conscientious  ministers  in  England,  be  they  of  one  judgment  or 
another.  And  clearly  if,  upon  the  following  charge  against  me,  the 
profane,  ignorant,  and  malignant  party  should  out  and  rout  the  godly 
ministers  in  the  nations,  I  wonder  where  there  would  be  found  a  con- 
scientious minister  that  should  not  upon  these  grounds  be  outed  and 
routed  ! 

Reader,  I  desire  that  thou  wouldst  cast  a  mantle  of  love  over  the 
mistakes  of  the  printer,  I  having  no  opportunity  to  wait  upon  the 
press,  by  reason  of  my  many  engagements  other  ways.  I  will  not  by 
any  jirolepsis  detain  thee  at  the  door,  but  desire  that  the  God  of  all 
consolations  would  bless  thee  with  all  external,  internal,  and  eternal 
blessings,  that  thy  actions  may  be  prosperous,  thy  troubles  few,  thy 
comforts  many,  thy  life  holy,  thy  death  happy,  and  thy  soul  lodged  for 
ever  in  the  bosom  of  Christ.     So  I  remain 

Thine,  so  far  as  thou  art  Christ's, 

Thomas  Brooks. 

A  Short  Preamble 

That  I  intended  to  make  before  the  Honourable  Committee  for 

Plundered  Ministers,  that  Truth  and  myself  might  be  the 

better  vindicated  and  cleared. 

Gentlemen, — It  was  a  divine  saying  of  Seneca,  Qui  boni  viri 
famam  perdidit  ne  conscientiam  perderet,  no  man  sets  a  better  rate 
upon  virtue  than  he  that  loseth  a  good  name  to  keep  a  good  con- 
science. He  that  hath  a  good  conscience  sits,  Noah-like,  quiet  and 
still  in  the  greatest  combustions  and  distractions.  Conscientia  pura 
semper  secura,  a  good  conscience  hath  sure  confidence  ;  it  makes  a 
man  as  bold  as  a  lion,  Pro  v.  xxviii.  1. 

I  remember  Calvin,  writing  to  the  French  king,  saith  that  opposition 
is  evangelii  genius,  the  black  angel  that  dogs  the  gospel  at  the  heels. 
And  certainly,  where  Christ  is  like  to  gain  most,  and  Satan  like  to 
lose  most,  there  Satan  in  his  instruments  will  stir  and  rage  most ;  yet, 
if  every  opposer  of  the  gospel  and  the  saints  were  turned  into  a  devil, 
that  old  saying  would  be  found  true,  Veritas  stat  in  aperto  campo, 
truth  stands  in  the  open  fields,  yea,  and  it  will  make  those  stand  in 
whom  it  lives  ;  yea,  it  will  make  them  stand  cheerfully,  resolutely,  and 
unmoveably,  in  the  face  of  the  greatest,  highest,  and  hottest  oppo- 

Concerning  these  profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  and  scandalous 
petitioners,  I  shall  say,  as  Lactantius  saith  of  Lucian,  Nee  dlis  nee 
liominibus  pepercit,  he  spared  neither  God  nor  man.  Such  are  these 
petitioners.  It  is  said  of  Catiline,  that  he  was  monstrum  ex  variis 
diversisque,  inter  se  pugnantibus  naturis  conflcdwm,  a  compound 
and  bundle  of  warring  lusts  and  vices.  Such  are  these  petitioners. 
Historians  say  that  tigers  rage  and  are  mad  when  they  smell  the  fra- 
grancy  of  spices.     Such  are  these  petitioners,  when  they  smell  the  fra- 


grancy  of  the  graces  of  God's  Spirit  in  the  principles  and  practices,  in 
the  lives  and  religious  exercises,  of  the  people  of  God. 

Gentlemen,  I  am  compelled  to  tell  you  that  I  have,  by  the  gracious 
assistance  of  God,  preached  publicly  the  gospel  above  these  thirteen 
years  ;  and  the  greatest  part  of  those  years  I  have  spent  in  preaching 
the  word  in  London,  where  God  hath  given  me  many  precious  seals  of 
my  ministry,  which  are  now  my  comfort,  and  in  the  day  of  Christ  will 
be  my  crown.  They  are  my  'living  epistles/  they  are  my  walking 
certificates,  they  are  my  letters  testimonial,  as  Paul  speaks,  2  Cor.  iii. 
1,  2.  And  yet,  in  all  this  time,  none  have  shewed  themselves  so 
malicious,  impudent,  and  ignorant,  as  to  petition  against  me,  as  these 
that  stand  now  before  you  ;  yet  am  I  confident  that  this  act  of  theirs 
shall  work  for  my  external,  internal,  and  eternal  good,  Rom.  viii.  28  : 
and  out  of  this  eater,  God  will  bring  forth  meat  and  sweetness  to  others 
also,  Judges  xiv.  14. 

Gentlemen,  I  shall  now  trouble  your  patience  no  further,  but  come 
now  to  answer  to  the  things  that  these  profane,  malignant  petitioners 
have  charged  against  me  in  their  petition  to  this  Honourable  Com- 

To  the  Honourable  Committee  for  Plundered  Ministers, 

The  Humble  Petition  of  the  Parishioners  of  Margaret,  New  Fishstreet, 
London,  whose  Names  are  hereunto  Subscribed  ; 

Shewing, — That  one  Mr  Thomas  Brooks  was,  by  order  of  your 
honours,  dated  the  twenty-third  of  March  1651,  appointed  to  preach 
for  a  month,  next  ensuing,  as  probationer,  to  the  end  that,  upon  the 
parishioners'  and  the  said  Mr  Brooks's  mutual  trial  of  each  other,  the 
said  Mr  Brooks  might  continue,  or  your  petitioners  have  some  other 
to  officiate  amongst  them. 

Your  petitioners  are  humbly  bold  to  offer  to  your  honours'  consider- 
ation that  they  have  had  trial  of  the  said  Mr  Brooks  ever  since  your 
honours'  order,  but  cannot  find  that  comfort  to  their  souls  they  hoped ; 
nor  indeed  is  the  said  Mr  Brooks  so  qualified  to  your  petitioners'  un- 
derstandings as  to  remain  any  longer  with  them.  And  further,  your 
petitioners  say  that  the  said  Mr  Brooks  refuseth  to  afford  your  peti- 
tioners the  use  of  the  ordinances  of  baptism  and  the  Lord's  supper, 
nor  will  he  bury  their  dead. 

The  petitioners  therefore  humbly  pray  that  your  honours  will  be 
pleased  to  revoke  your  order,  and  give  liberty  to  your  peti- 
tioners for  six  months,  to  present  a  fit  person  to  your  honours 
to  be  their  minister  ;  and,  in  the  mean  time,  that  sequestra- 
tors may  be  appointed  to  provide  for  the  service  of  the  cure 
out  of  such  money  as  shall  arise  for  tithes  out  of  the  said 
parish.    And,  &c. 

Queries  upon  the  Malignants'  Petition. 

Gentlemen, — In  their  petition  they  say,  that  I  was  to  '  preach  a 
month  as  probationer,  and  after  a  mutual  trial  of  each  other,  I  might 


continue,  or  the  petitioners  have  some  other  to  officiate  amongst  them.' 
To  this  I  say, 

(1.)  That  I  never  had  any  such  thing  by  one  or  other  propounded 
to  me,  to  preach  amongst  them  as  probationer.  It  was  only  thus  pro- 
pounded to  me  :  That  at  a  full  meeting,  I  was  chosen  by  the  honest 
and  well-affected  of  the  parish  to  come  and  preach  amongst  them. 
And  I  did  more  than  twice  or  thrice  declare  to  them  before  I  came, 
that  if  they  did  expect  anything  else  of  me,  I  would  not  come  ;  only 
1  did  declare  my  willingness  to  receive  any  among  them  into  fellow- 
ship with  us  that  the  Lord  had  taken  into  fellowship  with  himself, 
and  that  were  willing  to  walk  in  gospel  order. 

('2.)  I  say,  that  had  they  propounded  the  business  to  me  as  it  is 
presented  in  their  petition,  I  would  never  have  come  upon  such  terms, 
and  that  upon  several  reasons,  which  here  I  shall  omit. 

(3.)  I  say,  that  they  had  a  trial  of  me  all  the  winter  ;  I  preached 
above  twenty  sermons  on  the  lecture  nights  before  this  order  was 
granted  or  desired.  Therefore  I  know  not  to  what  purpose  I  should 
preach  among  them  upon  trial,  when  they  had  beforehand  so  large  a 
trial  of  me. 

(4.)  I  say,  that  these  profane,  malignant  petitioners  had  neither  a 
hand  in  choosing  of  me,  nor  yet  hearts  to  make  any  trial  of  my  ministry, 
so  far  as  I  can  understand.  And  therefore  they  may  well  have  a  black 
brand  put  upon  them,  as  men  void  of  common  honesty  and  ingenuity,1 
in  abusing  the  honourable  committee,  and  petitioning  against  me  ; 
whenas  they  were  neither  the  major  part*  of  the  parish  by  far,  nor 
yet  was  the  order  of  the  committee  granted  to  them  ;  nor  did  the 
order  of  the  committee  give  any  power  or  liberty  to  these  profane, 
malignant  petitioners  to  choose  some  other  to  officiate,  as  they  pre- 
tend. What  greater  dishonour  and  contempt  can  they  cast  upon  the 
committee,  than  to  declare  to  the  world  that  they  have  given  to  them, 
that  are  so  notoriously  known  for  their  profaneness  and  malignancy, 
an  order  to  choose  one  to  officiate  amongst  them  ! 

In  their  petition  they  further  say,  '  That  they  have  had  trial  of  me 
ever  since  your  honours'  order/  This  is  as  far  from  truth  as  the  peti- 
tioners are  from  being  real  friends  to  the  present  authority  of  the 
nation  ;  for  it  is  notoriously  known,  that  they  use  not  to  hear  me  but 
others,  whose  malignant  principles  and  practices  are  most  suitable  to 
their  oAvn. 

Further,  they  say,  '  They  cannot  find  that  comfort  to  their  souls 
they  hoped/  Here  give  me  leave  to  query  :  [1.]  How  they  could  have 
any  comfort  from  my  ministry  that  did  not  attend  it  ?  [2.]  But  grant 
they  did,  I  query,  Whether  their  want  of  comfort  did  not  spring  rather 
from  their  want  of  faith  to  close  with  the  word,  and  to  feed  upon  the 
word,  and  to  apply  the  word  to  their  own  souls,  than  from  any  defect 
in  my  preaching  ?  '  The  word  preached  did  not  profit  them,  not  being 
mixed  with  faith  in  them  that  heard  it/  Heb.  iv.  2.  *  Faith  and  the 
word  meeting  make  a  happy  mixture,  a  precious  confection.  When 
faith  and  the  word  is  mingled  together,  then  the  word  will  be  a  word 
of  power  and  life  ;  then  it  will  be  a  healing  word,  a  quickening  word, 
a  comforting  word,  a  saving  word.     Faith  makes  the  soul  fruitful  ; 

1  Ingenuousness. — G. 


faith  hath  Rachel's  eye  and  Leah's  womb.  Where  faith  is  wanting, 
men's  souls  will  be  like  the  cypress  ;  the  more  it  is  watered,  the  more 
it  is  withered.  However,  that  tree  that  is  not  for  fruit,  is  for  the 
fire,  Heb.  vi.  8.  Some  say  of  king  Midas — not  true,  but  fabulous — 
that  he  had  obtained  of  the  gods,  that  whatsoever  he  touched  should 
be  turned  into  gold.  I  may  truly  say,  in  a  spiritual  sense,  whatever 
faith  touches  it  turns  it  into  gold,  into  our  good.  A  bee  can  suck 
honey  out  of  a  flower  ;  so  cannot  a  fly  do.  Faith  will  extract  abun- 
dance of  comfort  out  of  the  word,  and  gather  one  contrary  out  of 
another;  honey  out  of  the  rock,  Deut.  xxxii.  SG.1*-^.]  I  query 
whether  their  not  finding  comfort  by  my  ministry  did  not  rather 
spring  from  a  judicial  act  of  God  rather  than  from  anything  in  my 
ministry.  God  many  times  punishes  men's  neglect  of  the  means,  and 
their  despising  the  means,  and  their  barrenness  under  the  means, 
&c,  by  giving  them  up  to  a  spirit  of  slumber,  by  shutting  their  eyes, 
and  closing  up  their  hearts,  as  you  may  see  in  that  Isa.  vi.  9,  10, 
1  And  he  said,  Go  and  tell  this  people,  Hear  ye  indeed,  but  understand 
not ;  and  see  ye  indeed,  but  perceive  not.  Make  the  heart  of  this 
people  fat,  and  make  their  ears  heavy,  and  shut  their  eyes  ;  lest  they 
see  with  their  eyes,  and  hear  with  their  ears,  and  understand  with 
their  heart,  and  convert,  and  be  healed.'  A  fat  heart  is  a  fearful 
plague.  A  fat  heart  is  a  most  brutish  and  blockish  heart,  a  heart  fitted 
and  prepared  for  wrath,  Ps.  cxix.  70.  These  four  keys,  say  the  Rabbins, 
God  keeps  under  his  own  girdle :  (1 .)  the  key  of  the  womb,  (2.)  the  key* 
of  the  grave,  (3.)  the  key  of  the  rain,  (4.)  the  key  of  the  heart.  '  He 
openeth,  and  no  man  shutteth;  and  he  shutteth,  and  no  man  openeth.'2 
[4.]  I  query  whether  their  not  finding  of  comfort  did  not  spring  from 
the  wickedness  and  baseness  of  their  own  hearts,  Isa.  xxix.  13,  14  • 
Ezek.  xxxiii.  80-33  ;  Mat.  xv.  4-10.  When  men  bring  pride,  and  pre- 
judice, and  resolvedness  to  walk  after  the  ways  of  their  own  hearts,  let 
the  minister  say  what  he  will  (as  they  in  Jer.  xliv.  15,  et  seq.,  which  I 
desire  you  will  turn  to  and  read),  it  is  no  wonder  that  they  can  find  no 
comfort  in  the  word.3  This  is  just  as  if  the  patient  should  cry  out  of 
the  physician,  Oh,  he  can  find  no  comfort  in  anything  he  prescribes 
him,  when  he  is  resolved  beforehand  that  he  will  rather  die  than  follow 
his  prescriptions.  May  not  every  one  of  these  men's  hearts  say  to  him, 
as  the  heart  of  Apollodorus  in  the  kettle,  syw  soi  rovruv  dma)  it  is  I  have 
been  the  cause  of  this  ?  I  judge  they  may  ;  and  if  they  will  not  now 
acknowledge  it  to  their  humiliation,  they  will  at  last  be  forced  to 
acknowledge  it  to  their  confusion  and  destruction  in  that  day  wherein 
the  great  Searcher  of  hearts  shall  judge  the  souls  of  men.  [5.]  I  query 
whether  all  the  godly  conscientious  ministers  of  one  judgment  or 
another  in  all  England  would  not  be  outed  and  routed  if  this  plea  of 

1  As  Luther  saith  of  prayer,  so  I  may  say  of  faith  :  it  hath  a  kind  of  omnipotency  in 
it;  it  is  able  to  do  all  things.  Est  qucedam  omnipotentia  precum.  T avium  possumut 
quantum  credimus. 

2  When  she  in  Seneca  was  stricken  with  sudden  blindness,  she  cried  out  of  the  light. 
So  when  God  strikes  profane  men  with  spiritual  blindness,  then  they  cry  out  of°the 

3  The  patient  in  Plutarch  complained  to  his  physician  of  his  finger,  when  his  liver  was 
rotten.  iSo  mauy  complain  of  the  minister  when  their  hearts  are  rotten.  They  complain 
they  can  find  no  comfurt,  when  the  fault  lies  in  the  baseness  of  their  hearts. 

■*    Jf  e/-  l»*t  9g4i/.  JJ./J.  ? 


profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  and  scandalous  persons,  that  they  cannot 
find  no  profit  nor  no  comfort  by  their  ministry,  be  admitted  as  a  thing 
that  has  worth  or  weight  in  it,  1  Kings  xxii.  8-29.  Without  doubt, 
if  this  would  carry  the  day  against  a  godly  ministry,  we  should  hear  a 
cry  from  all  parts  of  the  nation  where  such  men  are,  2  Chron.  xxxvi. 
16,  Oh!  what  shall  we  do  with  such  preachers  as  these  be?  We  can 
find  no  comfort,  nor  no  profit  by  their  ministry.  We  shall  have  none 
of  these,  but  we  will  have  such  as  will  preach  pleasing  things,  Lam. 
ii.  14.  We  will  have  common-prayer-book  men,  and  such  that  will 
administer  sacraments  to  us,  as  in  former  good  days,  wherein  there  was 
no  such  difference  put  between  men  and  men,  but  all  that  would 
bring  their  twopences  might  come  and  be  as  welcome  to  the  parson,  if 
not  more,  as  any  Puritan  or  Roundhead  of  them  all,  Isa.  xxx.  8-11. 
[6.]  I  query  whether  your  not  finding  of  comfort  and  profit  by  the 
word  did  not  spring  from  Satan's  blinding  your  eyes,  and  from  his 
catching  away  the  good  seed  out  of  your  hearts.  '  If  our  gospel  be  hid,' 
saith  the  apostle,  '  it  is  hid  to  them  that  are  lost ;  in  whom  the  god  of 
this  world  hath  blinded  the  minds  of  them  which  believe  not,  lest  the 
light  of  the  glorious  gospel  of  Christ,  who  is  the  image  of  God,  should 
shine  unto  them/  2  Cor.  iv.  3,  4.  Is  it  any  wonder  that  profane,  igno- 
rant, scandalous  persons  can  find  no  comfort  by  the  word,  whenas  the 
devil  hath  shut  their  eyes  with  his  black  hand  ?l  when  he  hath  put 
a  covering  upon  their  eyes  that  they  can't  see  any  beauty,  excellency, 
►  or  glory  in  it?  Gospel  droppings  have  richly  fallen  among  many,  and 
yet,  like  Gideon's  fleece,  they  are  dry,  because  Satan  hath  blinded  them, 
and  catched  away  the  good  seed  that  was  sown  upon  them  :  '  When  any 
one  heareth  the  word  of  the  kingdom,  and  understandeth  it  not,  then 
cometh  the  wicked  one,  and  catches  away2  that  which  was  sowa  in  his 
heart'  (or  rather  upon  his  heart)  ;  'this  is  he  which  received  seed  by 
the  wayside,'  Mat.  xiii.  19.  [7.]  I  query  whether  your  want  of  profit 
and  comfort  by  the  word  did  not  spring  from  your  want  of  interest  in 
gospel  consolations.  Oh !  it  is  not  the  hearing  of  gospel  consolations 
that  comforts,  but  the  knowledge  of  a  man's  interest  in  them  that 
cheers  up  the  heart.3  Ah  !  where  is  that  word  to  be  found  in  all  the 
book  of  God  that  does  evidence  comfort, — which  is  children's  bread, — 
to  be  of  right  belonging  to  profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  and  scandalous 
persons,  as  you  can't  but  know  yourselves  to  be,  if  conscience  be  in 
the  least  measure  awakened.  God  hath  all  along  in  the  Scripture  made 
a  separation  between  sin  and  comfort ;  and  how  then,  can  you  expect 
comfort,  who  hold  on  in  sinful  ways,  though  love  and  wrath,  life  and 
death,  heaven  and  hell,  be  often  set  before  you  ?  God  is  not  prodigal 
of  gospel  consolations.  They  are  the  best  and  strongest  wines  in  God's 
cellar,  and  reserved  only  for  his  best  and  dearest  friends  :  Isa.  xl.  1,  2, 
'  Comfort  ye,  comfort  ye  my  people,  saith  your  God  :  speak  ye  com- 

1  Satan  is  like  the  picture  of  the  goddess  that  was  so  contrived  that  she  frowned  on  men 
as  they  went  into  tin:  temple,  and  smiled  us  they  came  out. 

-  u£>ra'(,ii  a  u£Tu%a>, — L'ti/>i<>,  lie  took  it  or  snatched  it  by  force  or  violence. 

8  It  is  interest  in  a  pardon,  a  crown,  an  inheritance  that  comforts,  and  not  the  talking 
of  them.  So  here.  The  very  heathen  could  not  have  comfort  nor  quiet  when  they  were 
under  the  rage  of  sinful  lusts  ;  therefore,  when  they  knew  not  how  to  bridle  them,  they 
offered  violence  to  nature,  pulling  out  their  own  eyes,  because  they  could  not  look  upon  a 
woman  without  lusting  after  her. 


fortably  to  Jerusalem,  and  cry  unto  her  that  her  warfare  is  accom- 
plished, that  her  iniquity  is  pardoned/  &c.  *  The  Hebrew  word  that  is 
here  rendered  comfort  signifies  first  to  repent,  and  then  to  comfort.1    *     / 
And  certainly  the  sweetest  joy  is  from  the  sourest  tears.     Tears  are  the  <fy /***"' 
breeders  of  spiritual  joy.    When  Hannah  had  wept,  she  went  away,  and    £***■ 
was  no  more  sad.     The  bee  gathers  the  best  honey  off  the  bitterest  herbs. 
Christ  made  the  best  wine  of  water.     The  purest,  the  strongest,  and 
most  excellent  joy  is  made  of  the  waters  of  repentance.  *  Ah  !  lay  your 
hands  upon  your  hearts,  and  tell  me  whether  you  can  look  God  in  the 
face  and  say,  Lord  !  we  are  thine  ;  first,  by  purchase  ;  secondly,  we  are  -v-a**^ 
thine  by  choice ;  thirdly,  we  are  thine  by  conquest ;  fourthly,  we  are  4-u-  /tCc 
thine  by  covenant ;  fifthly,  we  are  thine  by  marriage.""  Ah!  if  you  are  £rz*6  U. 
not  the  Lord's  in  these  respects,  what  minister  on  earth  hath  commission 
to  comfort  you  ?     Their  commission  is  to  read  other  lectures  to  profane, 
ignorant,  scandalous  persons,  &c,  than  those  of  comfort  and  joy,  as  you 
may  see  in  these  scriptures,  if  you  will  but  take  the  pains  to  read 
them :  Ps.  vii.  11,  ix.  17,  xi.  5,  6,  xxxvii.  10-20,  compared  with  Ps.  lxxv. 
8,  cxlv.  20  ;  Job  xxi.  30  ?  Prov.  xi.  5,  21,  31,  compared  ;  Prov.  xii.  2, 
xiv.  9,  xv.  29,  xxi.  18,  27  ;  Eccles.  viii.  13  ;  Isa.  xi.  4,  xiii.  11  ;  Jer. 
xxv.  31  ;  Ezek.  iii.  18,  19 ;  Nah.  i.  3  ;  Mai.  iv.  3  ;  Deut.  xxviii.   15, 
et  seq.;  Lev.  xxvi.  14,  et  seq.     Ah !  did  you  but  wisely  consider  the  ex- 
cellency of  gospel-comforts  above  all  other  comforts  in  the  world,  you 
would  not  wonder  at  ministers  giving  them  forth  so  sparingly  to  pro-     y 
fane,   ignorant,  malignant,  and  scandalous  persons  f  for,  first,  gospel  yttf/^e/. 
comforts  are  unutterable  comforts,  1  Peter  i.  8,  Philip,  iv.4.*"  Secondly,  /j^v*^*^ 
they  are  real,  John  xiv.  27  ;  all  others  are  but  seeming  comforts,  but 
painted  comforts.     Thirdly,  they  are  holy  comforts,  Isa.  lxiv.  5,  Ps. 
cxxxviii.  5  ;  they  flow  from  a  Holy  Spirit,  and  nothing  can  come  from 
the  Holy  Spirit  but  that  which  is  holy.     Fourthly,  they  are  the  greatest 
and  strongest  comforts,  Eph.  vi.  17.     Few  heads  and  hearts  are  able  to 
bear  them,  as  few  heads  are  able  to  bear  strong  wines.     Fifthly,  they 
reach  to  the  inward  man,  to  the  soul,  2  Thes.  ii.  17,  the  noble  part  of 
man.     '  My  soul  rejoiceth  in  God  my  Saviour/     Our  other  comforts 
only  reach  the  face  ;  they  sink  not  so  deep  as  the  heart.     Sixthly,  they 
are  the  most  soul-filling  and  soul-satisfying  comforts,  Ps.  xvi.  11,  Cant. 
ii.  3.    Other  comforts  cannot  reach  the  soul ;  and  therefore  they  cannot 
fill  nor  satisfy  the  soul.     Seventhly,  they  comfort  in  saddest  distresses, 
in  the  darkest  night,  and  in  the  most  stormy  day,  Ps.  xciv.  19,  Hab. 
iii.  17,  18.     Eighthly,  they  are  everlasting,  2  Thes.  ii.  16.     The  joy  of 
the  wicked  is  but   as  a  glass,  bright  and  brittle,  and   evermore   in 
danger  of  breaking ;  but  the  joy  of  the  saints  is  lasting.2     JEterna  erit 
exultatio,  quae  bono  Icetatur  ceterno,  their  joy  lasts  for  ever,  whose  object 
remains  for  ever.     [8.]  I  query  whether  you,  and  men  of  your  stamp, 
remaining  under  the  power  of  your  lusts,  will  ever  say  that  you  can 

1  1DPI3  IDTO,  nahhamu,  nuhkamu,  from  DI12  nahham,  which  signifies  first  to  repent 
(1  xv.  35),  and  then  to  comfort,  because  true  comfort  belongs  only  to  the  penitent. 
Divine  comfort  is  a  delicate  thing,  and  it  is  not  given  to  him  that  admits  any  other,  saith 
Bernard.  Nulla  verior  miseria  quam  falsa  l&titia  :  There  is  no  truer  misery  than  false 
joy. — Bernard.  Nil  nisi  sanctum  a  sancto  Spiritu  prodire  potest,  Neh.  viii.  10.  There  have 
been  those  that  have  died  under  the  strength  and  power  of  their  joy. 

2  Valde protestatus  sum,  me  nolle  sic  satiari  ab  eo,  1  said  flatly  that  God  should  not  put  me 
off  with  these  low  things. — Luther. 


find  any  comfort  at  all  in  any  man's  ministry,  that  is  not  a  common- 
prayer-book  man,  or  one  that  will  give  you  and  yours  the  sacraments, 
and  lash  at  the  power  of  godliness,  and  at  the  State  in  preaching  and 
praying,  &c.  Doubtless  under  such  a  man's  ministry,  were  he  never 
BO  ignorant,  scandalous,  or  profane,  you  would  plead  that  you  found 
much  comfort  to  your  souls,  and  that  he  was  a  man  indeed  for  your 
money,  &c.  Well  !  if  you  have  found  no  comfort  under  my  ministry, 
yet  my  comfort  is,  that  my  reward  is  with  the  Lord,  and  my  work  with 
my  God.  My  comfort  is,  that  there  are  many  hundreds  in  this  city 
that  have,  and  that  do  find  comfort  by  the  blessing  and  breathings  of 
God  upon  my  weak  endeavours.1 

Further,  In  their  petition  they  say  that  '  I  am  not  so  qualified  to 
their  understandings  as  to  remain  any  longer  with  them/ 

To  this  I  say,  First,  It  is  my  joy  and  crown,  that  I  am  not  so  quali- 
fied as  to  please  and  content  ignorant,  profane,  malignant,  scandalous 
persons  in  their  formality  and  impiety  ;  remembering  that  he  is  the 
best  preacher,  non  qui  aures  tetigerit,  sed  qui  cor  pupugerit,  not  that 
tickles  the  ear,  but  that  breaks  the  heart.  It  is  a  comfort  to  me  that 
I  am  no  nearer  that  woe,  Luke  vi.  2b',  '  Woe  be  to  you  when  all  men 
speak  well  of  you.'  When  one  told  Aristides  that  he  had  every  man's 
good  word,  saith  he,  What  evil  have  I  done,  that  I  should  have  every 
man's  good  word  ?  Male  de  me  loquuntur,  sed  mail,  saith  Seneca.  It 
is  sometimes  more  a  shame  than  an  honour  to  have  the  good  word  of 
profane,  ignorant,  scandalous  persons.  Latimer,  in  his  last  sermon  be- 
fore king  Edward,  saith,  '  That  he  was  glad  when  any  objected  indis- 
cretion against  him  in  his  sermons  ;  for  by  that  he  knew  the  matter 
was  good,  else  they  would  soon  have  condemned  that.'  It  was  a  not- 
able saying  of  Salvian,  Mirum  essetsi  huminibus  loquentia  de  Deo 
verba  non  placeant,2  quibus  ipse  forsitan  Deus  non  placet  :  it  were 
very  strange,  saith  he,  if  I  should  please  a  world  of  men,  when  God 
himself  doth  not  give  every  man  content.  Luther,  writing  to  his  friend, 
hath  this  passage,  '  My  greatest  fear  is  the  praises  of  men,  but  my  joy 
is  in  their  reproaches  and  evil  speeches.'  It  is  certain  that  the  praises 
of  men,  to  many,  are  the  basilisks  that  kill,  the  poison  that  destroys 
their  immortal  souls. 

2.  I  say,  if  the  understandings  of  ignorant,  malignant,  profane,  and 
scandalous  persons,  should  be  the  rule  or  standard  by  which  the  abili- 
ties or  qualifications  of  such  ministers,  that  are  ministers,  '  not  of  the 
letter,  but  of  the  spirit/  as  the  apostle  speaks,  2  Cor.  iii.  6,  should  be 
measured  and  tried  ;  doubtless  he  that  is  no  witch  may  easily  conclude 
that  there  are  no  ministers  in  England  qualified  to  their  understand- 
ings, but  such  as  are  malignant,  ignorant,  profane,  and  scandalous  as 
themselves  ;  and  such,  without  doubt,  would  be  the  only  qualified  men, 
to  their  understandings;  as  might  be  confirmed  by  a  cloud  of  witnesses, 
Jer.  v.  30,  31. 

3.  Though  I  am  not  qualified,  as  to  their  understandings,  yet,  through 
grace,  I  am  qualified  as  to  the  understandings  of  those  that  are  eminent 
both  for  piety  and  parts,  and  who  have  made  trial  of  what  is  in  me, 

1  I  have  read  of  one  who  cried  out  with  a  loud  voice  to  Flavius  Vespnsianus,  Vulpem 
pilum  mutate,  non  mores,  that  the  wolf  might  change  his  hair,  hut  not  his  qualities.  You 
know  how  to  apply  it,  Isa.  xlix.  4,  5.  '2  Qu.  '  verba  placeant'  t — Ed. 


and  what  the  Lord  hath  done  for  me.1  And  though  I  am  not  so  quali- 
fied as  to  gratify  your  lusts,  yet  it  is  joy  and  honour  enough  to  me  that 
the  Lord  hath  so  qualified  me  with  gifts  and  graces  as  to  make  me  in- 
strumental to  bring  in  souls  to  Christ,  and  to  build  up  souls  in  Christ. 
In  the  day  of  account  it  will  be  made  manifest  that  they  have  been 
the  best,  the  wisest,  and  ablest  preachers,  who  have  brought  most  souls 
to  Christ,  and  provoked  most  souls  to  walk  with  Christ,  and  cleave  to 
Christ,  and  lift  up  Christ  in  this  world,  Pro  v.  xi.  30.  Through  grace, 
I  can  say,  with  blessed  Cooper,  '  My  witness  is  in  heaven,  that  I  have 
no  such  joy  and  pleasure  as  in  doing  the  work  of  Christ,  and  in  being 
serviceable  to  the  honour  of  Christ,  the  interest  of  Christ,  and  the 
people  of  Christ.'2 

4.  If  this  plea  of  profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  and  scandalous  per- 
sons should  be  admitted  as  authentic,  doubtless  all  the  godly,  tender, 
conscientious  ministers  in  the  nation,  that  can't  do  as  they  would  have 
them,  would  quickly  be  ejected.  All  the  profane,  ignorant,  malignant, 
scandalous  persons  in  the  nation  would  soon  cry  out,  as  one  man,  Our 
ministers  are  not  so  qualified,  to  our  understandings,  as  to  remain 
any  longer  with  us,  ergo3 — 

5.  It  is  to  be  remembered  that,  when  the  petitioners  were  several 
times  pressed  by  the  Committee  to  shew  wherein  I  was  not  qualified 
for  the  Avork  of  the  ministry,  they  all  seemed  to  be  dumb,  and  at  very 
great  loss,  as  not  knowing  what  to  answer;4  but  at  last  their  malig- 
nant champion,  after  much  pumping,  gave  this  answer  to  the  commit- 
tee, That  I  was  not  so  qualified,  to  their  understandings,  as  to  remain 
any  longer  among  them,  because  I  would  not  give  them  the  sacraments, 
nor  bury  their  dead  ;  which  put  some  rather  upon  smiling  than  upon 
answering.  But  at  last  a  worthy  member  of  that  Committee  made  this 
answer,  '  That  they  had  both  heard  me  and  seen  me  in  print,  and  so 
were  best  able  to  make  a  judgment  of  my  abilities  and  fitness  for  the 
work  of  the  ministry/  &c.5  For  a  close  of  this  branch  of  the  petition, 
I  shall  only  say  this,  being  compelled  thereunto  by  some,  that  I  do  be- 
lieve that  I  have  spent  more  money  at  the  University,  and  in  helps  to 
learning,  than  several  of  these  petitioners  are  worth,  though,  haply,  I 
have  not  been  so  good  a  proficient  as  those  that  have  spent  less.  I  am 
a  lover  of  the  tongues,  and  do,  by  daily  experience,  find  that  knowledge 
in  the  original  tongues  is  no  small  help  for  the  understanding  of  Scrip- 
ture, &c.  Yet  am  I  not  kin  to  them  that  advance  and  lift  up  acquired 
gifts  above  the  sweet  sanctifying  gifts  and  graces  of  the  Spirit  of  Christ 
in  the  souls  of  his  saints,  as  many  have  and  do  to  this  day.     But  cer- 

1  Chrysostom  studied  not  aures  titillare,  but  corda  pungere,  to  tickle  the  ears  of  his 
hearers,  but  to  prick  and  ravish  their  hearts. 

2  np^>1>  velokeakh,  which  signifies,  by  art  and  industry,  to  catch  souls,  as  fowlers  do 
to  take  birds. 

3  They  that  are  wise  cannot  but  observe  much  of  this  spirit  upon  all  the  profane,  igno- 
rant, and  malignant  persons  in  the  nation. 

4  The  petitioners  seemed  to  be  like  those  in  Mat.  xxii.  4G,  that  were  nonplussed  by 
the  question  Christ  put  to  them,  &c. 

4  My  first  sermon,  preached  before  the  Parliament,  was  on  the  26th  December  1648. 
My  second  was  preached  on  the  8th  of  October  16-50,  for  that  great  victory  the  Lord  of 
hosts  gave  our  army  over  the  Scots  army  in  battle  at  Dunbar,  Sept.  3.  1650,  and  both  are 
printed  by  their  order  ;  besides  my  book  called  '  Precious  Remedies  against  Satan's  De- 
vices,' which  came  forth  this  year,  which  some  of  them  have  seen. 

VOL.  I.  d 


tainly  Christ  will  more  and  more  cloud  those  that  labour  to  cloud  the 
shillings  forth  of  his  Spirit  in  the  souls  of  his  servants.  Nor  yet  am 
I  kin  to  Licinius,  who  held  learning  to  be  the  commonwealth's  rat's- 
bane.  Neither  am  I  kin  to  those  that  labour  might  and  main  the 
overthrow  of  learning,  in  order  to  their  lifting  up  Jack  Straw.  It  is 
sad  when  men  are  not  so  ingenuous  as  to  favour  that  in  others  Avhich 
they  can't  find  in  themselves. 

Further,  The  petitioners  say  that  I  refuse  to  baptize  their  chil- 
dren, &c. 

A  us.  1.  This  gives  me  leave  to  premise  by  the  way  that  it  is  my 
judgment,  upon  many  grounds  moving  me  to  it,  that  baptism  is  to  be 
administered  to  the  children  of  believing  parents,  who  walk  in  the 
order  of  the  gospel ;  and  my  practice  herein  doth  answer  to  my  judg- 
ment, as  is  well  known  to  many.1 

2.  But,  in  the  second  place,  I  confess  I  have  refused,  and  shall  re- 
fuse, to  baptize  the  children  of  profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  and 
scandalous  persons  ;  and  that  upon  these  following  grounds  :2 

[I.]  Because  I  cannot  find  any  warrant  in  my  commission  from 
Christ  so  to  do.*  I  do  seriously  profess  that  I  have  made  a  diligent 
search  and  strict  inquiry  into  that  commission  that  I  have  received 
from  the  Lord  for  the  dispensing  of  holy  things,  and  I  cannot  find  any- 
thing in  my  commission  that  will  bear  me  out  in  the  baptizing  the 
children  of  those  parents  that  are  profane,  ignorant,  malignant,  scan- 
dalous, &c,  and  therefore  I  cannot  do  it,  lest  I  should  hear  Christ  and 
conscience  sounding  that  sad  word  in  my  ears,  '  Who  hath  required 
this  at  your  hand?'  Isa.  i.  12. 

[2.]  Because  such  persons  that  are  profane,  ignorant,  malignant, 
scandalous,  &c,  if  they  were  now  to  be  baptized  themselves,  ought  not 
to  be  baptized,  they  having  no  right  to  baptism,  as  these  scriptures  in 
the  margin  do  evidence  ;3  therefore,  such  parents  cannot  justly,  upon 
any  Scripture  account,  challenge  baptism  for  their  children,  who  have 
no  right  to  it  themselves.  All  that  knoAV  anything  are  not  ignorant 
of  this,  that  it  is  the  parents'  interest  in  the  covenant  that  gives  the 
child  right  to  baptism.  Now,  how  profane,  ignorant,  scandalous 
parents  can  give  their  children  right  to  baptism,  when  they  have  no 
right  to  it  themselves,  is  a  thing  that  I  am  no  ways  able  to  reach,  and 
a  thing,  I  judge,  too  hard  for  any  to  prove,  Hosea  ii.  2,  3. 

[3.]  Because  the  children  of  parents,  whereof  neither  can  be  judged 
to  be  a  believer,  ought  not  to  be  baptized  till  the  child  grow  up  to 
manifest  his  own  faith,  as  these  scriptures,  among  many  others  that 
might  be  produced,  prove,  Gen.  xvii.  7-9  ;  Acts  ii.  39-41  ;  1  Cor.  vii. 
14,  &c. 

[4.j  Because  profane,  ignorant,  scandalous  persons,  &c,  are  visibly 
in  covenant  with  Satan  ;  and  therefore  to  administer  baptism,  the 
seal  of  the  covenant,  to  their  children,  upon  their  accounts  who 
are  visibly  in  covenant  with  Satan,  cannot  but  be  a  notorious  profan- 

1  Gen.  xvii. ;  Acts  ii.  38,  39  ;  1  Cor.  vii.  14,  &c. 

2  Non  parentum  aid  majorum  author  itas,  sed  Dei  docentis  imperium,  the  command  of  God 
must  outweigh  all  authority  and  example  of  men. — Jerome. 

3  Mat.  iii.  6-12;  Mark  i.  4,  5  ;  Acts  ii.  38,  41  ;  Luke  iii.  3 ;  Acts  xiii.  24 ;  viii.  12, 
31-40  ;  x.  45-48  ;  xviii.  8  ;  xxii.  Hi,  17,  &c. ;  so  Ps.  1.  1U,  17.  /   / 

*    //f^  rr/,i/,,t/srr;^    .    -c/  /.-,   A  A  'tar        ■       •    /         <--      •«''■'  ■"     *"    - 


ing  of  the  ordinances  ;  therefore  I  dare  not  do  it.1  Now,  that  such 
persons  are  visibly  in  covenant  with  Satan  is  clear:  Isa.  xxviii.  15, 
'  Because  ye  have  said,  We  have  made  a  covenant  with  death,  and  with 
hell  are  we  at  agreement ;  when  the  overflowing  scourge  shall  pass 
through,  it  shall  not  come  unto  us :  for  we  have  made  lies  our  refuge, 
and  under  falsehood  have  we  hid  ourselves.'  Ver.  18,  '  And  your 
covenant  with  death  shall  be  disannulled,  and  your  agreement  with 
hell  shall  not  stand  ;  when  the  overflowing  scourge  shall  pass  through, 
then  ye  shall  be  trodden  down  by  it/  Not  that  they  had  formally 
made  a  covenant  with  Satan,  but  their  ways  and  courses  were  such  as 
did  proclaim  to  the  world  that  they  had,  as  it  were,  formally  made  a 
covenant  with  hell  and  death.  Therefore,  to  apply  this  blessed  ordi- 
nance to  their  children,  who  are  thus  invisibly  in  covenant  with  Satan, 
and  who  are  not  capable  thereof  through  want  of  divine  warrant,  can- 
not, doubtless,  but  be  esteemed  a  high  profaning  of  it. 

[5.]  Because  I  may  not  yield  blind  obedience,  nor  do  anything 
doubtingly ;  both  which  I  should  do  should  I  baptize  their  children, 
who  are  profane,  ignorant,  scandalous,  mockers  and  scoffers  at  God 
and  godliness,  &c. 

[6.]  Because,  by  administering  that  holy  ordinance  to  the  children 
of  profane,  ignorant,  scandalous  persons,  I  shall  make  myself  guilty  of 
nourishing  and  cherishing  in  such  wicked  persons  such  vain  opinions 
and  conceits  that  cannot  but  be  very  prej udicial  to  their  souls  ;  as  that 
they  have  a  right  to  that  precious  ordinance,  when  they  have  none  ; 
that  God  hath  taken  their  children  into  covenant,  as  well  as  the  chil- 
dren of  the  best  believers  in  the  world,  when  he  hath  not  ;  that  God 
is  more  favourable  and  loving  to  them  than  indeed  he  is  ;  and  that 
their  case  is  not  so  bad  as  some  would  make  it,  &c.  All  which  opi- 
nions and  conceits,  with  many  more  of  the  same  stamp  that  might  be 
named,  cannot  but  prove  many  ways  prejudicial  to  mens'  immortal 

P  shall  forbear  the  laying  down  any  more  reasons  why  I  have  not, 
nor  shall  not,  baptize  their  children  who  are  profane,  ignorant,  malig- 
nant, scandalous,  mockers  and  scoffers  at  God  and  godliness ;  judging 
that  these  may  be  sufficient  to  satisfy  all  intelligent  men.2 

Further,  these  petitioners  say,  that  'I  will  not  give  them  the  Lord's 

Ans.  Though  I  do  give  the  Lord's  supper  to  those  to  whom  of  right 
it  belongs,  yet  I  cannot,  I  dare  not,  give  it  to  profane,  ignorant,  malig- 
nant, scandalous  persons.  I  had,  with  Calvin,  rather  die,  than  that 
this  hand  of  mine  should  give  the  things  of  God  to  the  condemners  of 
God.  And  with  Chrysostom,  I  had  rather  give  my  life  to  a  murderer, 
than  Christ's  body  to  an  unworthy  receiver  ;  and  had  rather  to  suffer 
my  own  blood  to  be  poured  out  like  water,  than  to  tender  Christ's 

1  Isa.  xxviii.  15,  18,  JVQ  WD,  they  cut  a  covenant  with  hell  and  death.  In  old 
time,  men  were  wont  to  kill  and  cut  asunder  sacrificed  beasts,  and  to  pass  between  the 
parts  divided,  Gen.  xv.  17  ;  Jer.  xxxiv.  18.  The  ceremony  intended  an  imprecation 
that  he  might  be  cut  in  pieces,  as  that  beast  was,  who  should  violate  the  covenant  so 
made.     The  same  rite  was  used  among  the  heathenish  Gentiles  also,  Rom.  xiv.  23. 

2  If  I  partake  in  other  men's  sins,  I  must  partake  in  their  punishments,  Rev.  xviii.  4. 
Christians  were  wont  to  be  of  that  courage  that  they  feared  nothing  but  sin.  Nil  nisi 
peccatum  timeo,  said  Chrysostom. 


blessed  blood  to  any  base  liver;  and  that  upon  these  following 
grounds  : 

[1.]  Because  such  persons  are  excluded  by  the  word  of  God  from 
communion  Avith  believers  in  that  glorious  ordinance,  as  the  Scriptures 
in  the  margin  do  evidence.1 

[2.]  Not  only  the  Scriptures,  but  the  very  episcopal  Rubric,  for  the 
administration  of  the  communion,  do  exclude  and  shut  out  such  per- 
sons from  the  supper  of  the  Lord,  in  these  words  :  '  They  that  intended 
to  partake  of  the  holy  communion  should  signify  their  names  afore  to 
the  curate  ;  and  if  any  of  those  be  an  open  and  notorious  evil  liver,  so 
that  the  congregation  is  offended,  or  have  done  any  wrong  to  his 
neighbour  by  word  or  deed,  the  curate  having  knowledge,  shall  call 
him  and  advertise  him  in  any  wise  not  to  presume  to  the  Lord's  table 
until  he  hath  openly  declared  himself  to  have  truly  repented,  and 
amended  his  former  naughty  life,  that  the  congregation  may  thereby 
be  satisfied/  &c.  As  for  the  presbyterial  way,  you  all  know,  that  by 
their  Directory  and  laws  annexed,  they  must  not  receive  any  to  the 
communion  that  are  ignorant,  scandalous,  or  profane  in  their  conver- 
sation. So  that  the  sum  of  what  hath  been  said  is  this,  that  by  the 
laws  of  God,  and  by  the  laws  of  episcopacy,  and  by  the  laws  of  pres- 
bytery, profane,  ignorant,  and  scandalous  persons  are  to  be  excluded 
from  the  supper  of  the  Lord.     Ergo — 

[3.]  Because  the  admitting  of  such  as  are  profane,  ignorant,  scan- 
dalous, or  that  are  scoffers  and  mockers  of  all  goodness,  &c,  to  the 
supper  of  the  Lord,  is  the  ready  way  to  turn  the  house  of  God  into  a 
den  of  thieves,  and  to  bring  a  dreadful  doom  both  upon  consenters 
and  presumers,  as  the  Scriptures  in  the  margin  will  make  good.2  Not 
only  the  lack  of  the  word  and  sacraments,  saith  Bilson,  but  the  abuse 
of  either,  greatly  hazards  the  weal  of  the  whole  church,  Mat.  vii.  6. 
If  profane  ones  be  allowed  to  defile  the  mysteries  and  assemblies  of 
the  faithful,  and  holy  things  be  cast  to  dogs,  it  will  procure  a  dreadful 
doom,  as  well  to  consentaries  as  presumers.     Ergo — 

[4.]  Because  there  are  many  horrid  sins  in  their  coming  to  the 
supper  of  the  Lord. 

(i.)  There  is  horrid  pride,  else  no  man  in  his  wickedness  would 
presume  to  taste  of  the  tree  of  life.  Yet  pride  cannot  climb  so  high, 
but  justice  will  sit  above  her. 

(2.)  There  is  rebellion  and  treason  against  the  crown  and  dignity  of 
Christ.  Their  hands  and  lips  adore  him,  as  Judas  his  did;  but  their 
hearts  and  lives  abhor  him. 

(3.)  There  is  theft  and  sacrilege.  If  the  taking  away  of  the  com- 
munion cup  or  cloth,  &c,  be  such  horrible  theft  and  sacrilege,  surely 
it  is  far  greater  theft  and  sacrilege  to  take  that  bread  and  wine  that 
is  set  apart,  and  sanctified  by  the  Lord  himself,  for  a  holy  use.3 

1  2  Cor.  vi.  14,  el  seq. ;  Philip,  iii.  2  ;  Mat  xv.  26  ;  1  Cor.  v.  12,  13  ;  BeT.  xxii.  15,  21, 
27.^  It  is  worse  to  admit  a  man  openly  polluted  with  sins,  than  a  man  bodily  pus 
with  devils. —  Chrysos(om.  The  Tlnirians  had  a  law,  that  whosoever  wviit  about  to  abolish 
in  old  law,  Bhould  present  himself  with  a  rope  about  his  neck  before  the  people,  that  if 
his  invention  was  not  approved,  he  might  presently  be  strangled.  You  know  how  to 
apply  it. 

-  1  Cor.  xi.  27-30  ;  Rev.  ii.  12-16  ;  1  Cor.  x.  3-9,  21,  22,  compared  ;  Neh.  xiii.  18,  19. 

3  Possidonius  reports,  that  all  that  took  the  gold  of  Tholosso  [Colosse  ?]  perished  in 


(4.)  There  is  murder  in  the  cruellest  manner  that  can  be  ;  for  they 
kill  two  at  once — Christ,  and  their  own  souls,  1  Cor.  xi.  27,  29,  com- 

It  was  wickedness  in  Julian  to  throw  his  blood  in  the  face  of  Christ ; 
but  for  a  wicked  communicant  to  take  Christ's  own  blood,  as  it  were 
from  his  heart,  and  throw  it  into  the  face  of  Christ,  is  most  abominable 
and  damnable. 

[5.]  They  want  those  qualifications  that  should  fit  them  for  this 
glorious  ordinance.     As, 

(1.)  Experimental  knowledge.1 

(2.)  Faith,  without  which  they  cannot  see  Christ,  nor  receive  Christ, 
nor  feed  upon  Christ,  nor  apply  Christ,  nor  seal  to  Christ. 

(3.)  Repentance  from  dead  works. 

(4.)  New  obedience. 

(5.)  Love  to  Christ  and  his  children. 

(6.)  Holy  thankfulness. 

(7.)  A  spiritual  appetite.  All  which  are  absolutely  necessary  to  fit 
souls  for  the  Lord's  supper.     Ergo — ■ 

[b\]  Because  such  as  are  profane,  scandalous,  scoffers  and  mockers, 
&c,  are  not  fit  for  civil  society,  how  much  less  fit  are  they  then  for 
religious  societies  ?2  Men  that  love  but  their  names  and  credits  in 
the  world,  will  shun  the  society  of  such  vain  persons ;  how  much  more, 
then,  should  men  that  love  their  Christ,  and  that  love  their  precious 
souls,  shun  such  society  ?  ''Look,  as  shelves  and  sands  do  endanger  the  /3ad  fa 
seaman,  and  as  weeds  endanger  the  corn,  and  bad  humours  the  blood,^;/z /^, 
and  an  infected  house  the  neighbourhood,  so  does  the  society  of  evil 
men  endanger  good  men.  One  said,  '  As  oft  as  I  have  been  among 
wicked  men,  I  returned  home  less  a  man  than  I  was  before/  Men 
that  keep  ill  company  are  like  those  that  walk  in  the  sun,  tanned  in- 
sensibly. Eusebius  reports  of  John  the  evangelist,  that  he  would  not 
suffer  Cerinthus  the  heretic  in  the  same  bath  with  him,  lest  some 
judgment  should  abide  them  both.  You  may  easily  apply  it  to  the 
point  in  hand.     [Euseb.,  lib.  iii.  c.  25.]   * 

[7.]  Because  such  persons  as  are  profane,  scandalous,  and  wicked, 
&c,  if  they  were  in  the  church,  they  are  by  the  word  of  God  to  be 
excommunicated,  and  cut  off  from  visible  union  and  communion  with 
Christ  and  his  church  ;  therefore  they  are  not  to  be  admitted  to  the 
privileges  of  the  church.  That  wickedness  that  is  a  sufficient  ground 
for  the  casting  them  out  if  they  were  in,  is  a  sufficient  ground  to  keep 
them  out  from  polluting  the  glorious  ordinance  of  the  Lord,  1  Cor.  v. ; 
1  Tim.  i.  19,  20 ;  Mat.  xviii.  15-18  :  2  Thes.  iii.  6  ;  1  Tim.  vi.  3-5. 

[8.]  Because  the  supper  of  the  Lord  is  a  feast  instituted  by  Christ 
only  for  his  friends  and  children,  for  those  that  have  received  spiritual 
life  from  him,  and  that  have  union  and  communion  with  him,  Mat. 
xxvi.  27-29  ;  1  Cor.  x.  16,  17,  &c.  ;  Mat.  iii.  12.     But  profane,  igno- 

the  possession  of  it.    Apply  it.     They  may  say  with  Henry  the  Seventh,  The  cup  of  life 
is  made  my  death. 

1  A  gracious  soul  may  say,  not  only  Credo  vitam  ceternam  el  edo  vitam  ceternam,  I  believe 
life  eternal,  but  1  receive  life  eternal. 

2  Read  these  scriptures  :  Prov.  iv.  14—16  ;  Eph.  v.  14^1  Cor.  v.  9-11  ;  2  Tim.  iii.  1-5. 
The  heathen  could  say,  Qui  ceqtio  anirno  malis  immiscetur,  rnalus  est,  he  that  is  well  con- 
tented to  keep  company  with  those  that  are  naught,  is  himself  made  naught. 

+J  p4 1*-/-  Z/M.  v//-  ? 


rant,  malignant,  scandalous  persons,  are  chaff  which  the  fan  flings  out 
./  of  the  floor.  *  They  be  as  dirt  and  dust  which  the  besom  sweeps  out  of 
z://?^„',the  house,  Luke  xv.  8.  They  be  as  leaven,  which,  if  let  alone,  sours 
the  whole  lump  ;  and  therefore  must  be  purged  out,  1  Cor.  v.  6,  7. 
They  be  as  thorns  and  briers,  which  must  not  stand  in  the  midst  of 
the  corn,  II eb.  vi.  8,  but  must  be  stubbed  up  and  burned.  Thev 
be  as  open  sepulchres,  out  of  which  proceeds  nothing  bat  noisome 
savours,  Rom.  iii.  ]  3  ;  Mat.  iii.  7.  They  be  as  vipers,  which  must  be 
shook  off,  as  Paul  shook  off  the  viper  that  fastened  upon  his  hand, 
Acts  xxviii.  3-5.  They  be  as  ravenous  wolves,  which  every  careful, 
watchful  shepherd  must  keep  out  of  his  fold,  John  x.  1  2.  They  be  as 
swine,  that  will  trample  the  choicest  pearls  under  their  feet,  if  they 
should  be  cast  before  them.  Mat.  vii.  6  ;  therefore  ministers  must  not 
hang  gospel  pearls  in  such  swine's  snouts,  nor  cast  them  under  such 
swine's  feet.  '''The  fouler  the  chest  is,  the  more  unfit  it  is  to  have  a 
fair  and  precious  garment  put  therein  ;  and  the  filthier  the  soul  is, 
the  unfitter  it  is  to  receive  in  this  holy  sacrament.  I  have  read  of  a 
jewel,  that  being  put  into  a  dead  man's  mouth,  loseth  all  its  virtue. 
Such  a  jewel  is  the  supper  of  the  Lord  ;  it  loseth  its  virtue  when  it  is 
put  in  profane,  ignorant,  scandalous  persons'  mouths  ;  who  are  dead 
t  rod-wards,  and  dead  heaven- wards,  and  dead  holiness- wards,  and  dead 

Lastly,  these  petitioners  say,  '  That  I  will  not  bury  their  dead.' 
To  this  I  shall  give  this  short  ansAver,  that  if  they  mean  that  I 
would  bury  their  dead  after  the  old  fashion,  I  confess  it ;  and  shall 
only  say,  that  it  is  most  proper  for  the  dead  to  bury  the  dead,  as 
Christ  speaks,  Mat.  viii.  22  ;  my  proper  work  being  to  preach  the 
gospel.  But  if  by  burying  their  dead  they  mean  that  I  will  not  ac- 
company their  corpse  to  the  grave,  being  the  last  office  of  love  that  can 
be  performed  to  the  deceased  person,  it  is  notoriously  false.  All  that 
know  anything  of  the  Scripture  can't  but  know  that  there  is  nothing 
in  all  the  book  of  God  that  will  bear  a  minister  out  to  bury  the  dead, 
as  profane,  ignorant,  scandalous  persons  would  have  them  buried  ;  and 
therefore  I  don't,  and  I  hope  I  shall  never  be  so  far  left  of  God,  as  to 
conform  to  the  superstitious  desires  and  customs  of  vain  men.3 

Reader,  for  a  close,  thou  mayest  take  notice,  that  though  I  was 
ready  to  give  in  the  fore-named  arguments,  in  answer  to  the  objec- 
tions made  by  the  profane  malignants  in  their  petition  against  me, 
yet  the  Committee,  in  their  wisdoms  it  seems,  did  not  judge  it  meet  so 
much  as  to  ask  me  a  reason  why  I  did  not  baptize  their  children,  give 
them  the  Lord's  supper,  and  bury  their  dead  ;3  they  well  knowing  that 
there  is  nothing  more  ordinary  than  for  those  to  be  bawling  and  cry- 

1  The  table  of  the  Lord,  saith  Chrysostoro,  is  that  whereon  the  blessed  carcase  is  laid  ; 
we  must  not  suffer  chattering  jays  to  come  thereunto,  for  only  high-flying  eagles  are  to 
feed  thereupon. 

*  Nay,  it  is  known  to  hundreds,  that  it  is  my  practice,  after  the  dead  is  buried,  to 
preach  to  the  people  that  are  met  upon  that  occasion,  if  so  desired ;  many  grounds  moving 
me  thereunto. 

:1  Greater  respect  the  honourable  committee  could  not  cast  upon  me,  nor  greater  con- 
tempt upon  the  profane,  malignant  petitioners,  than  not  to  put  me  to  answer  to  the  things 
objected  against  me.  One  of  these  profane,  malignant  petitioners  objected  to  me  Judas 
his  receiving  the  supper  of  the  Lord,  which  I  disproved ;  and  yet  this  vain  person,  as  I 
have  been  informed,  boasted  of  victory. 



ing  out  for  ordinances  that  have  no  right  to  them  ;  and  that,  if  upon 
the  non-giving  of  the  ordinances  to  such  profane  persons,  they  should 
eject  ministers  out  of  their  places,  they  should  quickly  eject  all  those 
in  the  nation  that  are  most  tender  of  the  honour  of  Christ,  and  that 
have  been  some  of  their  best  friends  in  the  worst  times. 

Before  I  give  the  counsel  intended  to  the  petitioners,  I  judge  it  use- 
ful, in  several  respects,  to  batter  down  that  which  most  profane,  igno- 
rant, malignant,  scandalous  persons  do  count  their  stronghold,  or  their 
greatest  argument  to  prove  it  lawful  for  them  to  receive  the  supper  of 
the  Lord,  notwithstanding  their  profaneness  and  wickedness,  and  that 
is,  '  That  Judas  was  admitted  to  the  Lord's  supper,  and  that  they  are 
not  worse  than  Judas,  no,  nor  yet  so  bad.'     Ergo — 

Now  for  the  casting  down  of  this  their  imagined  stronghold,  for  the 
despatching  this  their  first-born,  this  their  Goliath,  consider  with  me 
these  following  things : 

[1.]  The  Holy  Ghost,  by  the  evangelist  John,  doth  punctually  and 
expressly  tell  us,  that  Judas  went  out  immediately  after  the  sop.  That 
this  sop  was  no  part  of  the  sacramental  supper,  both  fathers  and 
schoolmen  do  agree  ;  and  many  others  in  our  own  time,  who  are  men 
of  great  piety  and  parts.     Ergo1 — 

Did  I  know  anything  of  weight  that  could  be  objected  against  this 
argument,  I  would  be  so  faithful  as  to  give  an  answer  to  it,  as  the 
Lord  should  enable  me  to  do,  but  I  know  nothing  that  has  that  strength 
in  it  as  to  weaken  the  truth  asserted. 

[2.]  Those  to  whom  Christ  gave  the  sacrament,  he  saith,  without 
exception,  '  This  is  my  body  which  is  given  for  you  :  this  is  the  cup  of 
the  New  Testament  in  my  blood  which  is  shed  for  you  ;  and  I  will  not 
drink  henceforth  of  the  fruit  of  the  vine  until  that  day  I  drink  it  new 
with  you  in  my  Father's  kingdom.'  Now  I  would  willingly  know 
how  this  can  in  the  least  measure  stand  with  the  wisdom,  holiness, 
justice,  righteousness,  innocency,  and  integrity  of  Christ,  to  say  this 
and  promise  this  to  Judas,  whom  he  knew  to  be  an  hypocrite,  repro- 
bate, a  devil,  as  himself  calls  him,  John  vi.  70,  71,  xiii.  10,  11.  If  this 
be  not  to  make  Christ  a  false  witness,  a  liar,  a  deceiver,  &c,  I  know 
not  anything.2 

[3.]  It  is  as  clear  as  the  sun,  from  that  22d  of  Luke,  28,  29,  30, 
that  those  to  whom  Christ  gave  the  sacrament,  were  such  as  did  con- 
tinue with  him  in  his  temptations,  and  such  as  Christ  did  appoint  to 
them  a  kingdom,  and  such  as  should  sit  upon  thrones,  &c,  Mat.  xxvi. 
24,  Mark  xiv.  2i,  John  vi.  70,  Acts  i.  25,  1  Cor.  vi.  2,  3.  Now,  are 
there  any  so  vain  and  foolish  as  to  say  that  Judas  did  continue  with 
him  in  his  temptations  ?  or  that  Christ  did  appoint  to  him  any  other 
kingdom  than  a  kingdom  of  darkness  %  or  that  he  shall  sit  on  a  throne 
to  judge  others,  who  shall  at  last  be  judged  as  a  devil  ? 

[4.]  Judas  was  no  ways  capable  of  any  of  those  noble  ends  and 
glorioususesfor  which  the  Lord  Jesus  appointed  this  sacrament,  behaving 

1  John  xiii.  30.  Hilary,  Durand,  Piscator,  Beza,  &c.  Compare  Mat.  xxvi.  and  Mark 
xiv.  together,  and  you  shall  find  that  neither  of  them  do  affirm  that  Judas  was  at  the 
Lord's  supper ;  therefore  we  have  no  ground  to  believe  that  Judas  was  at  that  blessed 
supper,  Luke  xxii.  19,  20  ;  Mat.  xxvi.  26-29. 

a  Were  hypocrites  and  reprobates  known  to  us,  we  ought  to  shut  the  door  against  them, 
and  will  Christ  open  it  ?    Surely  no. 


no  real  love  to  Christ,  no  experimental  knowledge  of  Christ,  no  faith  to 
discern  Christ,  to  apply  Christ,  to  feed  upon  Christ,  to  seal  to  Christ,  &c.' 
How  could  this  ordinance  strengthen  grace  in  his  heart,  who  was  wholly 
void  of  grace?  How  could  this  ordinance  confirm  him  in  the  love  of  God, 
who  was  at  that  very  time  under  the  greatest  wrath  of  God?  How  could 
thisordinance  seal  upto  him  the  pardonof  hissins, who, notwithstanding 
all  the  hell-fire  that  Christ  cast  in  his  face,  yet  would  hold  on  in  his 
sins,  and  rather  betray  Christ  into  the  hands  of  his  enemies,  and  his 
own  soul  into  the  hand  of  Satan,  than  cease  from  doing  wickedly,  &c.2 
That  little  wisdom  that  is  in  man  will  Avork  him  to  forbear  his  work 
and  suspend  his  act  where  he  sees  his  end  will  fail ;  and  will  not  those 
treasures  of  wisdom  that  be  in  the  Lord  Jesus,  Col.  ii.  3,  much  more 
work  him  to  suspend  his  work,  where  he  sees  plainly  and  clearly  that 
his  end  will  fail  him,  as  in  the  case  of  Judas  ?     Surely  it  will. 

[5.]  Consider  seriously  whether  it  be  in  any  degree  probable  that 
Jesus  Christ  would  give  his  blood  to  Judas,  and  yet  not  so  much  as 
lift  up  a  prayer  for  Judas,  John  xvii.  9  ;  that  Christ  would  do  the 
greater  thing  for  Judas,  and  yet  not  do  the  lesser ;  that  he  should  give 
his  blood  to  Judas,  and  yet  not  spend  a  little  of  his  breath  to  save 
Judas  from  wallowing  in  his  blood  for  ever.  Among  men  it  would 
argue  the  greatest  weakness  that  could  be,  to  deny  the  least  favour 
where  they  have  shewed  the  greatest  favour,  &c.3 

Well  !  but  if,  for  argument's  sake,  we  should  grant  that  Judas  did 
receive  the  Lord's  supper,  it  will  not  from  thence  follow  that  it  is 
lawful  for  those  that  are  openly  profane,  wicked,  scandalous,  and 
malignant  to  receive  it,  and  that  upon  these  following  grounds : 

Reason  ].  For  that  Judas  was  a  close  hypocrite,  and  carried  his  sin 
so  secretly  that  nothing  appeared  openly  against  him  for  Christ  yet  to 
refuse  him.  Hypocrisy  is  spun  of  a  fine  thread,  and  not  easily  dis- 
cerned: Mat.  xxvi.  21,  22,  And  as  they  did  eat,  he  said,  'Verily  I  say 
unto  you,  that  one  ofjou  shall  betray  me.  And  they  were  exceeding 
sorrowful,  and  began  every  one  of  them  to  say  unto  him,  Lord,  is  it  I?' 
Sincere  hearts  are  more  jealous  of  themselves  than  of  others,  and  will 
rather  judge  a  thousand  hypocrites  to  be  saints,  than  one  saint  to  be  an 

Reason  2.  Because  Judas  was  a  member  of  the  church,  and  had  done 
nothing  openly  that  could  cast  him  out ;  and  by  virtue  of  his  member- 
ship he  might  justly  claim  it  as  his  due,  he  being  called  into  fellow- 
ship by  Christ  himself.  Now,  what  advantage  is  this  to  such  open 
profane  wicked  persons  as  de  jure  ought  and  de  facto  are  excluded  from 
the  Lord's  supper ;  as  I  have  before  clearly  and  fully  proved  ? 

Reason  3.  Because  in  respect  of  wickedness  and  all  profaneness  they 
go  beyond  Judas.  Judas  was  no  drunkard,  swearer,  mocker,  scoffer  ; 
he  did  not  sin  openly,  and  glory  in  his  sin.5     He  did  not  by  any  open 

1  Quodnon  actibus  sed  finibut  pensantur  officio.,  duties  are  esteemed  not  by  their  acts,  but 
by  their  ends.  '-'  Maximilian's  motto  was,  Tene mensuram,  et  respice  finem. 

8  Sanguis  Christi,  elavis  cceli,  Christ's  blood  is  heaven's  key ;  and  so  Judas  would  have 
found  had  Christ  given  it  to  him. 

*  Secreta  mea  mecum,  my  secret  is  with  myself,  is  an  Hebrew  proverb.  We  are  not  to 
look  to  men's  hearts,  but  to  their  lives  and  conversations,  and,  according  as  they  are  good 
or  had,  so  (o  proceed- 

5  Judas,  as  Tcrtullian  thinks,  was  pretty  honest  till  he  carried  the  bag  (it  is  hard  to 


way  of  wickedness  sad  and  quench  Christ's,  his  Spirit  or  disciples  ;  he 
was  so  far  from  giving  any  scandal  or  offence  to  his  fellow-disciples, 
that  when  Christ  told  them,  '  One  of  you  shall  betray  me,'  they  were  all 
jealous  of  themselves,  none  of  them  were  jealous  of  Judas :  '  And  they 
began  every  one  of  them  to  say  unto  him,  Lord,  is  it  I  ?'  Judas  be- 
trayed Christ  for  thirty  pieces  of  silver,  but  open,  profane,  wicked 
persons  they  betray  Christ,  his  word,  his  people,  and  their  own  souls, 
for  a  thing  of  nought.  They  will  transgress  for  a  morsel  of  bread,  as 
Solomon  speaks,  for  a  trifle,  Isa.  1.  1,  2,  Prov.  xxviii.  24.  They  will  sell 
the  greatest  and  the  choicest  things  dog-cheap,  even  at  the  poorest  and 
the  lowest  rate  that  the  world,  or  the  god  of  this  world,  shall  bid.1 
Judas  betrayed  Christ  once  ;  and  open,  profane,  wicked  persons,  by 
their  open  treasons  and  transgressions,  do  oftentimes  in  a  day  betray 
the  crown,  sceptre,  and  dignity  of  King  Jesus.  Judas  plotted  treason 
against  Christ  when  he  was  in  a  low,  afflicted,  and  despised  condition ; 
but  such  as  are  openly  profane  and  wicked,  they  plot  and  act  treason 
against  Christ  now  he  is  exalted,  crowned,  and  set  down  at  the  right 
hand  of  God  in  that  glory  and  majesty  that  can  neither  be  conceived 
nor  expressed  by  any  mortal  creature.  Judas  betrays  Christ,  and  is 
struck  with  dreadful  horror  and  terror  ;  but  such  as  are  openly  wicked, 
they  betray  Christ,  and  yet  joy  in  their  transgressions,  which  are  so 
many  treasons  against  Christ.  Judas  betrays  Christ,  and  yet  justifies 
the  innocency  of  Christ ;  he  repents,  and  confesseth  his  sin  ;  but  such 
as  are  openly  wicked,  proceed  from  evil  to  evil,  and  yet,  with  the  harlot, 
they  wipe  their  mouths,  and  say,  What  evil  have  we  done  f 

Reason  4.  Because  Christ  gave  the  blessed  sacrament  ministerially 
as  he  was  man,  leaving  them  a  pattern  to  walk  by  that  should  come 
after  him;  and  such  was  the  carriage  of  Christ  toward  Judas  all  along.3 
Christ  did  not  act  toward  Judas  as  he  was  an  all-seeing  God,  nor  as 
he  was  the  heart-maker,  the  heart-searcher,  the  heart-observer,  the 
heart-discoverer,  but  he  acted  towards  him  ministerially.  Neither  do 
I  see  how  it  could  stand  with  the  holiness,  justice,  faithfulness,  and 
wisdom  of  Christ  to  give  that  holy  ordinance  to  Judas,  whom  he  knew 
as  he  was  God,  to  be  such  a  dog,  a  devil ;  considering  how  he  had  bound 
all  his  servants  from  casting  pearls  before  swine.  To  affirm  that  Christ 
gave  the  sacrament  to  Judas,  as  he  was  God;  what  is  this  but  to  make 
Christ's  practice  fight  against  his  own  precepts,  which  for  any  to  do  is 
doubtless  blasphemy  in  the  highest  degree. 

And  now  I  appeal  to  the  consciences  of  all  profane,  wicked,  malig- 
nant persons,  whether  they  were  not  better  a  thousand  times  to  be  shut 
out  from  this  glorious  ordinance  of  the  Lord's  supper,  till  the  Lord 
shall  in  mercy,  if  it  be  his  good  pleasure,  fit  them  for  it,  than  to  think 
to  get  in  at  this  door  by  making  Judas  the  porter. 

be  in  office,  and  not  to  put  conscience  out  of  office).     Several  other  writers  were  of  Ter- 
tullian's  opinion  concerning  Judas. 

1  Cato  hits  M.  Ccelis  in  the  teeth  with  his  baseness,  that  for  a  morsel  of  bread  he  would 
sell  either  his  tongue  or  his  silence. 

2  lsa.  liii.  2,  3  ;  Acts  v.  30,  31 ;  Rom.  viii.  34  ;  Eph.  i.  20-23  ;  Prov.  xv.  21  ;  Mat.  xxvii 
3-5  :  Prov.  xxx.  20. 

3  Had  Christ,  as  a  God  and  searcher  of  the  heart,  kept  out  Judas  from  the  passover, 
because  he  knew  his  heart  was  naught,  he  had  left  us  a  pattern  to  eject  such  as  the  church 
should  be  jealous  of,  that  their  hearts  are  not  right  before  the  Lord,  when  there  is  nothing 


I  shall  now  address  myself  to  give  some  good  counsel  to  the  peti- 
tioners; and  so  conclude. 

Good  Counsel  to  Bad  Men  ;  or,  Frtendly  Advice  to  Unfriendly 
Neighbours  and  their  Abettors. 

Your  petitioning  against  me  to  all  understanding  men  was  a  com- 
pounded evil ;  an  evil  made  up  of  pride,  envy,  malice,  discontent, 
ignorance,  &c.  My  counsel  to  you  is  to  break  off  your  sins  by  repent- 
ance, that  it  may  go  well  with  you  for  ever.  If  you  will  not,  justice 
will  be  above  you,  and  in  the  close  you  must  lie  down  in  sorrow.  Tell 
me,  can  you  dwell  with  the  devouring  fire  ?  can  you  dwell  with  ever- 
lasting burnings?  Dan.  iv.  27,  Isa.  1.  11,  xxxiii.  14.  It  was  a  good 
saying  of  Chrysostom,  speaking  of  hell,  Ne  quccramus  ubi  sit,  sed 
quomodo  Mam  fvgiamus,  let  us  not  seek  where  it  is,  but  how  we  shall 
escape  it.1  Grievous  is  the  torment  of  the  damned  for  the  bitterness 
of  the  punishments,  but  it  is  more  grievous  for  the  diversity  of  the 
punishments,  but  most  grievous  for  the  eternity  of  the  punishments. 
Ah  !  consider  before  it  be  too  late,  what  a  sad  thing  it  is  for  souls  at 
last  to  have  the  gate  of  mercy,  the  gate  of  indulgence,  the  gate  of  hope, 
the  gate  of  glory,  shut  upon  them,  Mat.  xxv.  10.  When  a  sinner  is  in 
hell,  shall  another  Christ  be  found  to  die  for  him  ?  or  will  the  same 
Christ  be  crucified  again  ?  Oh,  no!  Oh  that  you  were  so  wise  and 
merciful  to  your  own  souls  as  to  dwell  upon  these  scriptures :  John  iii. 
S,  '  Jesus  answered  and  said  unto  him,  Verily,  verily  I  say  unto  thee, 
Except  a  man  be  born  again,  he  cannot  see  the  kingdom  of  God.' 
Except  men  be  first  unmade,  and  then  made  up  again  by  the  Spirit 
and  word,  except  the  whole  frame  of  their  old  conversation  be  dissolved 
and  a  better  erected,  there  is  no  heaven  to  be  had.  Heaven  is  too 
holy  and  too  hot  to  hold  drunkards,  revilers,  mockers,  and  such  like, 
as  you  mav  plainly  see  by  comparing  these  scriptures  together,  1  Cor. 
yi.  9, 10,  Gal.  v.  19-21,  Jude  14,  15,  Rev.  xxi.  8,  and  xxii.  15.  He  that 
is  truth  itself,  and  cannot  lie,  hath  said,  '  Without  holiness  no  man 
shall  see  God/  Heb.  xii.  14.2  This  I  am  sure  of,  that  all  man's  happi- 
ness here  is  his  holiness,  and  his  holiness  shall  hereafter  be  his  happi- 
ness. You  must  in  this  life  be  holy,  or  in  the  life  to  come  you  shall 
never  be  happy.  Seneca,  a  heathen  man,  saw  so  much  excellency  that 
morality  put  upon  a  man  that  he  saith  that  ipse  aspectus  boni  viri 
delectat,  the  very  looks  of  a  good  man  delights  one.  Oh !  then,  what 
a  beauty  and  glory  doth  real  sanctity  put  upon  a  man  ;  '  it  makes  him 
more  excellent  than  his  neighbour/  as  Solomon  speaks,  Prov.  xii.  26. 
When  Agesilaus  heard  the  king  of  Persia  styled  the  great  king,  saith 
he,  '  I  acknowledge  none  more  excellent  than  myself,  unless  more 
righteous;  none  greater,  unless  better.'      Ps.  xvi.  3. 

But  to  hasten  towards  a  close,  you  may  be  very  confident  of  these 
few  things,  which  I  desire,  as  you  tender  your  own  good,  you  would 
seriously  consider. 

1  Utinam  ubique  de  gehenna  dissereretur.  I  could  wish  that  men  would  discourse  much 
and  oft  of  hell. — Chrysostom. 

-  They  were  wont  to  say  in  former  times,  Cams  Seius  bonus  vir,  sed  Christianus,  Caius 
Seins  was  a  good  man,  but  he  was  a  Christian.  You  may  easily  apply  it,  &c.  Chrysostom 
calls  some  holy  men  of  his  time  ayyiXm,  earthly  angels. 


[1.]  That  those  ways  of  the  flesh  wherein  now  you  walk  will  be 
bitterness  in  the  latter  end:  Prov.  xiv.  12,  'There  is  a  way  which 
seemeth  right  unto  a  man  ;  but  the  end  thereof  are  the  ways  of  death.1 
Though  sin  doth  come  sometimes  clothed  with  a  show  of  reason  and 
religion,  yet  the  end  of  it  will  be  death.  Sin  at  last  will  betray  your 
souls  into  the  hands  of  Satan,  as  Delilah  did  Samson  into  the  hands  of 
the  Philistines.2  Sin  makes  the  soul  black  with  filth  and  red  with 
guilt ;  and  then  vengeance  follows.  The  Rabbins  were  wont  to  tell 
scholars,  to  scare  them  from  sin,  that  every  sin  made  God's  head  ache  ; 
but  without  sound  repentance  you  will  at  last  find  that  every  sin  will 
make  your  hearts  ache.  Oh  !  then,  when  you  are  tempted  to  sin,  you 
would  say,  as  Demosthenes,  the  orator,  did  of  the  beautiful  Lais,  when 
he  was  asked  an  excessive  sum  of  money  to  hehpld  her  :  I  will  not, 
said  he,  buy  repentance  so  dear.  I  am  not  so  ill  a  merchant  as  to  sell 
the  eternal  for  the  temporal. 

[2.]  You  may  be  confident  that  all  your  oppositions  one  way  or  other 
against  the  ways  of  God,  and  against  the  people  of  God,  is  a  fighting 
against  God,  who  will  be  too  hard  for  you  when  you  have  done  your 
worst ;  and  what  you  get  you  may  put  in  your  eyes,  and  weep  it  out 
again,3  Acts  v.  38,  39,  ix.  4,  5.  Those  that  strive  for  mastery  with 
God,  God  will  over-master  with  a  witness  :  Isa.  xxvii.  4,  '  Who  would 
set  the  briars  and  thorns  against  me  in  battle  ?  I  would  go  through 
them,  I  will  burn  them  together.'  God  can  nod  a  soul  to  hell  ;  he  can 
speak  a  soul  miserable  in  a  moment.  Who  ever  stood  out  against  him, 
and  prospered  ?  There  is  such  a  near  union  between  God  and  his 
people,  between  God  and  his  ways,  that  you  cannot  possibly  oppose 
them  but  you  oppose  God  himself,  who  can  presently  cause  the 
greatest  arm  of  human  power  to  shrink  up,  as  you  may  see  in  his  deal- 
ing with  Pharaoh,  Haman,  Belshazzar,  and  others,  &c.  Is  a  dry  reed 
able  to  stand  against  a  consuming  fire  ?  Is  a  worm  able  to  overcome 
a  lion  ?  Is  weakness  able  to  overcome  strength  :  '  Behold,  the  nations 
are  as  a  drop  of  a  bucket,  and  are  counted  as  the  small  dust  of  the 
balance ;'  '  Behold,  he  taketh  up  the  isles  as  a  very  little  thing,'  as  the 
prophet  Isaiah  speaks,  Isa.  xl.  15.  And  what,  then,  is  the  poor  creature, 
that  he  should  fight  against  an  almighty  Creator  ?  Cassar  told  Metellus 
he  could  as  easily  destroy  him  as  bid  it  be  done.  So  can  God.  Who 
dares  then  engage  against  him  ?4 

[3.]  You  may  be  confident,  that  though  I  hate  your  sins,  yet  I  don't 
hate  your  persons.  I  am  willing  to  live  in  love  and  peace  with  all 
men,  so  far  as  I  may  without  sin  ;  but  I  abhor  compliancy  with  any 
man,  to  the  dishonour  of  Christ,  to  the  wounding  of  my  conscience,  to 
the  profaning  of  holy  things,  or  to  the  prejudice  and  disadvantage  of 
the  truth.  It  is  below  humanity  to  hate  a  man,  whose  nature  and 
similitude  he  may  behold  in  the  humanity  of  Christ.     JDeum  odit  qui 

1  It  was  the  saying  of  an  ancient  philosopher,  Whosoever  sinneth,  doth  in  that  decline 
from  his  purposed  end,  and  is  certainly  deceived. 

2  Hark,  scholar,  eaid  the  harlot  to  Apuleius,  it  is  but  a  bitter-sweet  that  you  are  so  fond 
of.    Ah  !  your  scoffing  and  mocking  will  prove  but  a  bitter-sweet  at  last. 

3  Constantino  the  Great's  symbol  [Qu.  'saying'? — G.]  was  immedicabile  vulnus  ense 
rescindendam  est,  when  there  is  no  hope  of  curing,  men  must  fall  a-cutting ;  and  so  will 
God  deal  with  sinners'  souls.     Therefore,  look  about  you,  sinners. 

4  Said  Caligula,  speaking  to  the  consuls,  to  think  that  I  can  kill  you  with  a  nod  of  my 
head  ;  and  can't  God  do  it  with  as  much  ease  ? 


hominem  odit,  he  hateth  God  that  hateth  man.  I  must  love  men,  but 
hate  their  vice.  It  is  said  of  Ephesus,  that  they  hated  the  deeds  of 
the  Nicolaitans  ;  their  errors,  not  their  persons.  So  Jacob  cursed  the 
wrath  of  his  sons,  but  blessed  their  persons.  So  Paul,  1  Cor.  iv.  15, 
and  so  do  I,  through  free  mercy.1 

|  4.  |  You  may  be  confident  that  I  don't  refuse  the  baptizing  of  your 
children,  and  the  giving  you  the  sacrament,  &c.,  out  of  pride  or  envy, 
or  upon  any  carnal  account  in  the  world,  but  only  upon  the  grounds 
that  I  have  before  laid  down.  I  take  the  Searcher  of  all  hearts  to 
witness,  that  I  should  much  rejoice  and  bless  the  Lord  if  he  would  be 
pleased  to  work  such  a  thorough  work  of  grace  upon  all  your  hearts 
as  that  I  might  without  sin  dispense  all  the  precious  things  of  Christ 
to  you.  Ah  !  it  is  not  a  joy,  but  a  real  grief  to  my  soul,  that  others 
have  not  that  right,  and  can't  come  to  those  ordinances  which  God 
hath  made  so  sweet  and  advantageous  to  me,  and  many  others  of  the 
sons  of  Zion. 

Oh  !  how  willing  should  I  be,  and  those  that  walk  with  me,  to  give 
you  the  right  hand  of  fellowship,  if  we  could  but  see  that  the  Lord 
has  taken  you  into  fellowship  with  his  blessed  self,  that  so  the  ordi- 
nance might  be  a  cordial,  and  not  poison  to  you.2 

I  do  profess  before  the  Lord,  that  I  do  from  my  soul  forgive  you  the 
wrong  and  injuries  that  you  have  done  me,  or  attempted  to  do.  God 
has  been  good  to  me,  notwithstanding  my  failing  towards  him  and  my 
sins  against  him  ;  and  the  sense  of  his  love  and  rich  goodness  makes 
my  bowels  to  yearn  towards  you. 

Oh  !  it  is  a  mercy  more  worth  than  a  world  to  me  that  God  hath 
given  me  such  a  frame  of  spirit  as  that  I  can  pray  for  your  souls,  and 
weep  over  your  sins,  and  that  I  am  ready  to  serve  you  in  all  those 
ways  wherein  I  may  further  the  eternal  welfare  of  your  souls,  &c. 
Make  use  of  me  in  anything  wherein  I  may  serve  you  without  sin  ;  and 
see  whether  I  shall  not  be  willing  to  act  for  your  good,  notwithstand- 
ing all  provocations  to  the  contrary.3 

[5.]  For  a  close, — because  I  would  not  be  over-tedious,  I  shall  draw 
many  things  within  a  narrow  compass, — you  may  be  confident  that 
my  end  in  writing  is  your  due  conviction  and  satisfaction,  that  you 
may  weigh  my  arguments,  and  clearly  see  that  it  is  not  will,  nor 
humour,  &c,  but  conscience,  reason,  and  religion  that  acts  me.  If, 
notwithstanding  what  I  have  said,  you  shall  continue  in  your  malice, 
envy,  hatred,  &c,  I  shall  have  comfort  in  this,  that  I  have  in  all  faith- 
fulness freed  myself  from  being  guilty  of  the  blood  of  your  souls  ;  and 

1  Rom.  xiv.  19  ;  Heb.  xii.  14.  Luther  said,  that  in  the  cause  of  God  he  was  content, 
totius  mundi  odium  et  impetum  sustinere,  to  undergo  the  hatred  and  violence  of  the  whole 
world.  The  heathen  orator  could  say,  A  recta  conscientia  ne  latum  quidem  unguem  disceden- 
dum,  a  man  may  not  depart  an  hair's-breadth  all  his  life  long  from  the  dictates  of  a  good 

'  Cant.  viii.  1 ;  Ps.  lxiii.  1-3;  Rom.  xiv.  1,  and  xv.  1  ;  1  John  i.  3,  4;  Luke  xxiii.  24  ; 
Acts  vii.  39,  GO  ;  Mat.  vi.  12-15.  Tully  said  of  Caesar,  Nihil  oblivisci  soles,  nisi  injuria*, 
that  lie  forgat  nothing  but  injuries. 

3  Lilmod  lelammed,  we  therefore  learn,  tbat  we  may  teach,  is  a  proverb  among  the 
Rabbins.  I  could  havo  dealt  with  you  in  another  way,  bad  1  not  intended  the  good  of 
your  souls.  Jer.  xliv.  16,  et  seq ;  Acts  xx.  26,  27  Ezek.  iii.  17-19  ;  1  Cor.  ix.  20-22  ; 
John  xii.  48;  2  Cor.  v.  10;  Rom.  viii.  28;  Micah  vii.  8-10;  Jer.  xx.  9-12;  Mai.  iii. 
17,  18;  Isa.  xlix.  4,  5. 


in  that  I  have  declared  to  all  the  world  my  willingness  to  serve  the 
interest  of  your  souls  in  all  things  wherein  I  may  without  sin.  And 
most  confident  I  am.  that  if  what  I  have  written  do  not  better  you,  it 
will  be  a  witness  against  you  when  you  and  I  shall  meet  before  Christ's 
judgment-seat.  And  confident  I  am,  that  God  will  bring  much  good 
to  me  out  of  all  the  plots,  designs,  and  actings  that  have  been,  or  that 
shall  be,  by  vain  men  against  me.  And  confident  I  am,  that  the  more 
you  stir  in  any  way  of  baseness  or  wickedness,  the  more  the  Lord  wiil 
make  you  to  stink,  and  the  more  contempt  he  will  pour  upon  you,  and 
the  more  bright  he  will  cause  my  innocency  to  shine,  and  the  more 
weighty  shall  be  my  crown  in  the  day  of  Christ. 

My  desires  for  you  before  the  Lord  are  these,  that  you  may  have 
such  a  sight  of  your  sins  as  may  work  you  to  '  kiss  the  Son,  lest  he  be 
angry,  and  you  perish  when  his  wrath  is  kindled  but  a  little  ;'  and 
that  you  may  not  trifle  away  the  day  of  grace,  and  '  the  things  that 
belong  to  your  eternal  peace/  '  lest  God  should  swear  in  his  wrath 
that  you  shall  never  enter  into  his  rest/1  Oh  !  that  in  the  lio-ht  of  the 
Spirit  you  may  see  Christ  to  be  the  greatest  good,  the  most  desirable 
good,  the  most  necessary  good,  the  most  suitable  good,  to  be  a  total 
good,  an  only  good,  and  an  eternal  good  ;  that  so  your  souls  may  in 
good  earnest  fall  in  love  with  Christ,  and  may  cry  out  with  that 
martyr,  '  None  but  Christ,  none  but  Christ/  Oh  !  none  but  Christ  to 
save  us,  and  none  but  Christ  to  rule  us  !  none  but  Christ  to  justify  us, 
and  none  but  Christ  to  command  us  I  Oh  !  that  you  may  cease  from 
doing  evil,  and  learn  to  do  well ;  that  so  you  may  be  happy  in  life, 
blessed  in  death,  and  glorious  in  the  morning  of  the  resurrection, 
Isa.  i.  16,  17. 

B. — Close  of  Farewell  Sermon  ;  see  page  ante  xxxi.  From  the 
Collection  of  1662  (4to).  The  text  is  not  given,  nor  the  body  of 
the  Sermon,  but  only  what  follows  : — 

All  that  I  shall  do  shall  be  to  answer  two  or  three  queries,  and  then 
I  shall  leave  a  few  legacies  with  you,  that  may  speak  when  I  am  not 
advantaged  to  speak  to  you. 

The  first  query  is  this,  What  should  be  the  reason  that  men  make 
such  opposition  against  the  gospel,  against  the  plain,  powerful,  con- 
scientious preaching  of  it  \  This  is  not  the  principal  thing  that  I  in- 
tend, and  therefore  I  shall  only  touch  upon  the  reason  of  it. 

1.  Men's  hatred  and  opposition  ariseth  against  the  gospel  because  it 
doth  discover  their  hidden  works  of  darkness  :  John  iii.,  '  They  hate  the 
light,  lest  their  deeds  should  be  reproved.'  The  gospel  brings  their 
deeds  of  darkness  to  light,  and  this  stirs  up  a  spirit  of  hatred  and  op- 
position against  the  gospel. 

2.  Ground  is  this  :  because  sinners  under  the  gospel,  cannot  sin  at  so 

1  Prayer  is  porta  cceli,  clavis  paradisi.  the  gate  of  heaven,  a  key  to  let  us  in  to  para- 
dise, Heb.  iii.  7-12.  Nee  Christus  nee  coelum  patitur  hypeibolem,  a  man  cannot  hyperbolize 
in  speaking  of  Christ  and  heaven.  Omne  bonum,  in  surnmo  bono,  all  good  is  in  the  chiefest 


cheap  a  rate  as  otherwise  they  might  do ;  the  drunkard  cannot  be  drunk 
at  so  cheap  a  rate ;  nor  can  the  opposer  and  persecutor  oppose  and 
persecute  at  so  cheap  a  rate  as  they  might  do  where  the  gospel  doth 
not  shine  in  power  and  glory. 

3.  Because  the  gospel  puts  persons  upon  very  hard  service,  upon  very 
difficult  work,  pulling  out  a  right  eye,  cutting  oft*  a  right  hand,  offering 
up  an  Isaac,  throwing  overboard  a  Jonas,  parting  with  bosom  lusts  and 
darling  sins.  Herod  heard  John  Baptist  gladly,  till  he  came  to  touch 
his  Herodias,  and  then  off  goes  his  head.  As  they  say.  John  vi.,  '  This 
is  a  hard  saying,  and  who  can  abide  it  ?'  and  from  that  time  they  walked 
no  more  with  him.  This  is  a  hard  gospel  indeed,  and  at  this  their 
blood  riseth. 

4.  Because  of  the  differing  and  distinguishing  work  that  the  gospel 
makes  among  the  sons  of  men  ;  it  softens  one,  and  hardens  another 
that  sits  next  to  him  ;  enlightens  one,  and  strikes  the  other  blind  ;  it 
wins  one  and  enrages  the  other.  The  same  sun  hath  different  effects 
on  the  objects  on  which  it  shineth.  The  gospel  puts  a  difference  be- 
tween the  precious  and  the  vile  ;  and  this  the  vile  cannot  bear.  It  was 
never  good  days,  say  they,  since  such  and  such  must  be  saints,  and  none 
else  ;  we  have  as  good  hearts  as  any,  and  this  enrageth  them. 

Lastly,  It  is  from  Satan,  Satan  knows  that  the  very  tendency  of  the 
gospel  is  to  shake  his  kingdom  about  his  ears.  Satan  and  antichrist 
know  that  their  kingdom  must  down  by  the  power  and  light  of  the 
o-ospel;  and  therefore  Satan  and  men  of  an  antichristian  spirit  do  all 
they  can  to  oppose  and  shew  their  hatred  against  the  everlasting  gos- 
pel; and  this  makes  them  to  be  in  such  a  rage  against  the  gospel. 

Query  2.  When  the  gospel  goes  from  a  people,  what  goes  ?  I  shall 
give  but  a  touch  here. 

1.  When  the  gospel  goes,  peace,  plenty,  and  trading  go,  2  Chron.  xv. 
3,  5,  6,  compared.  Now  for  a  long  season  Israel  had  been  without  the 
true  God,  and  without  a  teaching  priest.  Why  ?  They  had  priests  ; 
but  they  were  Jeroboam's  priests,  as  you  may  see,  chap.  xiii.  9,  '  Have 
you  not  cast  out  the  priests  of  the  Lord,  the  sons  of  Aaron  and  the 
Levites,  and  have  made  you  priests  after  the  manner  of  the  nations  of 
other  lands  %  so  that  whosoever  comes  to  consecrate  himself  with  a 
young  bullock  and  seven  rams,  the  same  may  be  a  priest  of  them  that 
are  no  gods.  A  little  business  will  buy  a  priesthood  ;  and  so  they  are 
said  to  be  without  the  true  God,  without  a  teaching  priest,  and  without 
law.  Mark  what  follows:  'And  in  those  times,  there  was  no  peace 
to  him  that  went  out,  nor  to  him  that  came  in ;  but  great  vexations 
were  upon  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  country,  and  nation  was  destroyed 
of  nation,  and  city  of  city,  for  God  did  vex  them  with  all  adversity.' 

2.  Safety  and  security  goes  when  the  gospel  goes ;  so  in  the  text  but 
now  cited.  The  ark  was  taken  away,  and  when  that  was  taken  away, 
their  strength  and  safety  was  gone.  When  the  Jews  rejected  the  gos- 
pel, the  Romans  came  and  took  away  both  their  place  and  nation  :  John 
xi.  48,  '  If  we  let  him  thus  alone,  the  Romans  will  come  and  take 
away  both  our  place  and  nation/  About  forty  years  after,  Titus  and 
Vespasian  took  away  their  city  ;  they  cried,  '  If  we  let  this  man  alone, 
the  Romans  will  take  away  our  nations.'  And  this  was  the  ready  way 
to  bring  the  Romans  upon  them. 


3.  When  the  gospel  goes,  civil  liberty  goes.  When  the  Jews  slighted 
the  gospel,  and  turned  their  backs  upon  it,  they  quickly  became  bond- 
slaves to  the  Romans. 

4.  When  the  gospel  goes,  the  honour  and  glory,  splendour  and  beauty 
of  a  nation  goes.  It  is  the  gospel  that  is  the  honour  and  glory  of  a 
nation,  and  when  that  goes,  all  the  glory  goes.  As  old  Eli  said,  when 
the  ark  was  taken  away,  '  The  glory  is  departed  from  Israel,'  1  Sam. 
iv.  32.  Jer.  ii.  11-13,  '  Hath  a  nation  changed  their  gods,  which  are 
yet  no  gods  ?  but  my  people  have  changed  their  glory  for  that  which 
doth  net  profit,'  that  is,  the  worship  of  God  into  the  traditions  of  men. 
What  is  it  that  lifts  up  one  nation  above  another  but  the  gospel  ? 
Above  all  nations  of  the  earth,  England  hath  been  lifted  up  to  heaven. 

5.  When  the  gospel  goes,  all  soul-happiness  and  blessedness  goes. 
The  gospel,  you  know,  is  the  means  appointed  by  God  to  bring  souls  to 
an  acquaintance  with  Christ,  to  an  acceptance  of  Christ,  to  an  interest 
in  Christ,  to  an  assurance  that  he  is  theirs,  and  they  are  his.  Now, 
when  this  goes,  all  soul-happiness  and  blessedness  goes. 

Lastly,  When  the  gospel  goes,  the  special  presence  of  God  goes,  for  that 
still  goes  with  the  gospel.  There  is  a  general  presence  of  God,  as  the 
psalmist  speaks,  Ps.  cxxxix.,  'Where  shall  I  go  from  thy  Spirit?  whither 
shall  I  fly  from  thy  presence  V  This  presence  of  God  reacheth  from 
heaven  to  hell ;  in  that  sense,  God  is  included  in  no  place,  not  excluded 
out  of  any  place.  But,  alas !  what  is  this  general  presence  ?  When  the 
gospel  goes,  the  special  presence  of  God  goes.  This  leads  me  by  the 
hand  to  the  third  query. 

Query  3.  And  that  is  this,  Whether  God  will  remove  the  gospel  from 
England  or  no  ? 

It  is  the  fears  of  many;  but  I  humbly  suppose  no.  Whatsoever  dark- 
ness may  be  upon  it,  yet  that  God  will  not  remove  it ;  and,  if  you 
please,  I  will  offer  a  few  things  that  signify  something,  as  to  my  own 
satisfaction,  and  it  may  be  so  to  you. 

1.  The  rooting  that  it  hath  got  in  the  hearts  of  sinners  and  saints,  in 
the  judgments,  affections,  and  consciences,  both  of  sinners  and  saints. 
Certainly  it  hath  got  so  deep  a  root  in  the  hearts  of  manv  thousands 
of  saints  and  sinners,  that  it  shall  not  be  in  the  power  of  hell  to  raze 
it  out. 

2.  The  glorious  anointings  that  are  to  be  found  upon  many  thousands 
of  God's  servants  in  this  nation  to  preach  the  everlasting  gospel,  and 
who  would  be  glad  to  preach  upon  the  hardest  terms,  keeping  God  and 
a  good  conscience,  to  preach  it  freely,  as  the  apostles  of  old  did.  And 
certainly  God  hath  not  laid  in  this  treasure  that  it  should  be  turned 
into  a  heap  of  confusion,  but  that  it  should  serve  to  the  end  for  which 
he  laid  it  in. 

3.  The  ineffectualness  of  all  former  attempts  and  designs  to  destroy 
the  gospel.  You  know  what  endeavours  of  old  there  hath  been  to 
darken  this  sun,  to  put  out  the  light  of  heaven,  in  the  Marian  days,  and 
in  other  days  since  then ;  and  yet  it  hath  not  been  in  prisons,  racks, 
flames,  pillories,  nor  anything  else  to  extinguish  the  glory  of  it.  And 

4.  All  designs  and  attempts  to  extinguish  the  everlasting  gospel  have 
turned  to  the  advancement,  flourishing,  and  spreading  of  the  gospel. 


5.  God  never  takes  away  the  gospel  from  a  people  till  the  body  of  that 
people  have  thrust  the  everlasting  gospel  from  them  ;  when,  indeed, 
they  have  been  so  bold  as  to  thrust  away  the  everlasting  gospel,  God 
hath  been  severe  unto  them  ;  but  till  the  body  of  a  people  have  thrust 
away  the  everlasting  gospel,  God  hath  not  taken  it  away  from  them. 
2  Chronicles  the  3(ith  chapter  and  the  15th  verse  to  the  end,  God  sent  his 
messengers  early  and  late;  they  abused,  and  slighted,  and  scorned  them, 
till  there  was  no  remedy.  So  in  the  35th  of  Jeremiah  from  the  1st  to 
the  12th;  it  is  a  famous  text  for  this.  So  in  the  13th  chapter  of  the 
Acts  and  the  45th,  4Gth,  and  47th  verses,  '  Because  you  have  thought 
yourselves  unworthy  of  salvation ;  lo,  we  turn  to  the  Gentiles.'  Till  the 
Jews  came  to  thrust  away  the  everlasting  gospel,  the  Lord  continued 
it  to  them. 

6.  The  spreading  of  the  everlasting  gospel  is  the  special  means  appointed 
by  God  for  the  destruction  of  antichrist.  First,  He  is  to  be  consumed  by 
the  spirit  of  his  mouth,  then  destroyed  by  the  brightness  of  his  coming; 
the  spirit  of  faith  and  prayer  in  them  that  would  be  Avilling  to  lay  down 
anything  rather  than  part  with  the  gospel.  God  will  not  put  his  blessed 
church  to  the  blush ;  he  will  not  make  them  ashamed  of  their  con- 

7.  Are  there  not  multitudes  of  the  children  of  believers  that  fall 
under  many  promises  ?  And  will  not  God  make  good  his  engagements 
to  them  ?  'I  will  circumcise  your  hearts,  and  the  hearts  of  your  seed; 
and  the  seed  of  the  upright  shall  be  blessed,  &c. 

8.  The  strange  and  wonderful  affections  and  tenderness  that  God 
hath  wrought  in  his  children  to  the  gospel ;  what  meltings  and  mourn- 
ings, and  what  a  spirit  of  prayer  hath  God  put  upon  his  people ! 

9.  There  are  many  young  tender  plants  and  buds  of  grace,  such  in 
whom  the  Spirit  of  God  hath  stirred  an  hungering,  thirsting,  and  long- 
ing after  the  great  concerments  of  eternity.  I  would,  upon  these 
grounds,  with  others  of  the  like  import,  hope  and  believe  that  the  Lord 
will  not  remove  his  everlasting  gospel,  however  he  may  correct  his 
people  for  their  trifling  with  and  slighting  the  glorious  gospel.  I  have 
several  times  thought  what  a  day  of  darkness  was  upon  the  world,  in 
respect  of  sin  and  superstition.  When  Christ  brought  the  everlasting 
gospel,  what  a  day  of  darkness  and  superstition  was  on  the  whole  earth  ! 
But  you  know  what  the  apostle  speaks,  2  Cor.  i.  2J,  '  For  after  that,  in 
the  wisdom  of  God,  the  world  by  wisdom  knew  not  God,  it  pleased 
God,  by  the  foolishness  of  preaching,  to  save  them  that  believe.' 

When  it  is  nearest  day,  then  it  is  darkest.  There  may  be  an  hour  of 
darkness  that  may  be  upon  the  gospel,  as  to  its  liberty,  purity,  and 
c-lory;  and  yet  there  may  be  a  sunshining  day  ready  to  tread  on  the 
heels  of  it.     And  so  much  for  the  resolution  of  those  queries. 

I  shall  proceed,  as  I  said,  and  leave  some  legacies  with  you,  which 
may,  by  the  finger  of  the  Spirit,  be  made  advantageous  to  you,  whom 
we  are  not  advantaged  to  speak  unto  you. 

Legacy  1.  The  first  legacy  I  would  leave  with  you,  shall  be  this: 
Secure  your  interest  in  Christ ;  make  it  your  great  business,  your  work, 
your  heaven,  to  secure  your  interest  in  Christ.  This  is  not  an  age,  an 
hour,  for  a  man  to  be  between  fears  and  hopes,  between  doubting  and 


Take  not  up  in  a  name  to  live,  when  you  are  dead  God-ward  and 
Christ-ward  ;  take  not  up  in  an  outward  form,  and  outward  privilege. 
They  cried  out,  '  The  temple  of  the  Lord,  the  temple  of  the  Lord,'  that 
had  no  interest  in,  or  love  to,  the  Lord  of  the  temple.  Follow  God, 
leave  no  means  unattempted  whereby  your  blessed  interest  may  be 
cleared  up. 

Leg.  2.  Make  Christ  and  Scripture  the  only  foundation  for  your  souls 
and  faith  to  build  on  :  as  the  apostle  saith,  1  Cor.  iii.  11,  '  Other  foun- 
dations can  no  man  lay  than  that  which  is  laid,  even  Jesus  Christ.' 
Isa.  xxviii.  6,  '  Behold,  I  lay  in  Zion  for  a  foundation,  a  stone,  a  tried 
stone,  a  corner  stone,  a  precious  stone,  a  sure  foundation,'  Eph.  ii.  10. 
Since  it  is  a  very  dangerous  thing,  as  much  as  your  souls  and  eternity 
is  worth,  for  you  to  build  on  anything  beside  Jesus  Christ,  many  will 
say,  Come,  build  on  this  authority  and  that,  on  this  saying  and  that ; 
but  take  heed. 

Leg.  3.  In  all  places  and  company,  be  sure  to  carry  your  soul  pre- 
servative with  you  :  go  into  no  place  or  company,  except  you  carry  your 
soul  preservations  with  you,  that  is,  a  holy  care  and  wisdom.  You 
know,  in  infectious  times,  men  will  carry  outward  preservatives  with 
them  ;  you  had  need  to  carry  your  preservatives  about  you,  else  you 
will  be  in  danger  of  being  infected  with  the  ill  customs  and  vanities  of 
the  times  wherein  you  live,  and  that  is  a  third. 

Leg.  4.  I  would  leave  with  you  is  this  :  Look  that  all  within  you 
rises  higher  and  higher,  by  oppositions,  threatenings  and  sufferings, 
that  is,  that  your  faith,  your  love,  your  courage,  your  zeal,  your  resolu- 
tions, and  magnanimity  rises  higher  by  opposition  and  a  spirit  of  prayer. 
Thus  it  did,  Acts  iv.  18-21,  29-31  compared  ;  all  their  sufferings  did 
but  raise  up  a  more  noble  spirit  in  them,  they  did  but  raise  up  their 
faith  and  courage.  So  Acts  v.  40-42,  they  looked  on  it  as  a  grace  to 
be  disgraced  for  Christ,  and  as  an  honour  to  be  dishonoured  for  him. 
They  say,  as  David,  '  If  this  be  to  be  vile,  I  will  be  more  vile.'  If  to 
be  found  in  the  way  of  my  God,  to  act  for  my  God,  to  be  vile,  I  will  be 
more  vile. 

Leg.  5.  Take  more  pains,  and  make  more  conscience  of  keeping  your- 
selves from  sin  than  suffering  ;  from  the  pollutions  and  defilements  of 
the  day,  than  from  the  sufferings  of  the  day.  This  legacy  I  would  beg 
that  you  would  consider;  take  more  pains,  and  make  more  conscience  of 
keeping  yourselves  from  the  evil  of  sin  than  the  evil  of  punishment,  from 
the  pollutions  and  corruptions  of  the  times  than  the  sufferings  of  the 
times  :  Acts  ii.  40,  '  Save  yourselves  from  this  untoward  generation.' 
Philip,  ii.  15,  'The  children  of  God  must  be  harmless  and  blameless, 
without  rebuke  in  the  midst  of  a  crooked  and  perverse  generation.' 
Heb.  xi.  speaks  full  to  the  point  in  hand.  Rev.  iii.  4,  '  Thou  hast  a  few 
names  even  in  Sardis  that  have  not  defiled  their  garments  ;  and  they 
shall  walk  with  me  in  white :  for  they  are  worthy.'  White  was  the 
habit  of  nobles,  which  imports  the  honour  that  God  will  put  on  those 
that  keep  their  garments  pure  in  a  defiling  day.  Rev.  xviii.  4,  '  And  I 
heard  another  voice  from  heaven,  saying,  Come  out  of  her,  my  people, 
that  ye  be  not  partakers  of  her  sins,  and  that  ye  receive  not  of  her 
plagues/  If  you  will  be  tasting  and  sipping  at  Babylon's  cup,  you 
must  resolve  to  receive  more  or  less  of  Babylon's  plagues. 

VOL.  l  e 


Leg.  6.  I  would  Leave  with  you  is  this:  Be  always  doing  or  receiving 
good.  Our  Lord  and  Master  went  up  and  down  in  this  world  doing 
good  ;  he  was  still  doing  good  to  body  and  soul ;  he  was  acted  by  an 
untired  power.  Be  still  doing  or  receiving  good.  This  will  make  your 
lives  comfortable,  your  deaths  happy,  and  your  account  glorious,  in  the 
great  day  of  our  Lord.  Oh  !  how  useless  are  many  men  in  their  gene- 
ration !  Oli  !  that  our  lips  might  be  as  so  many  honey-combs,  that  we 
might  scatter  knowledge! 

Leg.  7-  I  would  leave  with  you  is  this  :  Set  the  highest  examples  and 
patterns  before  your  face  of  grace  and  godliness  for  your  imitation.  In 
the  business  of  faith,  set  an  Abraham  before  your  eyes  ;  in  the  business 
of  courage,  set  a  Joshua  ;  in  the  business  of  uprightness,  set  a  Job  ;  of 
meekness,  a  Moses,  &c.  There  is  a  disadvantage  that  redounds  to 
Christians  by  looking  more  backwards  than  forwards.  Men  look  on 
whom  they  excel,  not  on  those  they  fall  short  of.  Of  all  examples,  set 
them  before  you  that  are  most  eminent  for  grace  and  holiness,  for  com- 
munion with  God,  and  acting  for  God.  Next  to  Christ,  set  the  pattern 
of  the  choicest  saints  before  you. 

Leg.  8.  Hold  fast  your  integrity,  and  rather  let  all  go  than  let  that 
go.  A  man  had  better  let  liberty,  estate,  relations,  and  life  go,  than  let 
his  integrity  go.  Yea,  let  ordinances  themselves  go,  when  they  cannot 
be  held  with  the  hand  of  integrity :  Job  xxvii.  5,  6,  '  God  forbid  that  I 
should  justify  you  till  I  die.  I  will  not  remove  my  integrity  from  me; 
my  righteousness  I  will  hold  fast,  and  I  will  not  let  it  go  :  my  heart  shall 
not  reproach  me  so  long  as  I  live.'  Look,  as  the  drowning  man  holds 
fast  that  which  is  cast  forth  for  to  save  him,  as  the  soldier  holds  fast  his 
sword  and  buckler  on  which  his  life  depends,  so,  saith  Job,  '  I  will  hold 
fast  my  integrity;  my  heart  shall  not  reproach  me.  I  had  rather  all  the 
world  should  reproach  me,  and  my  heart  justify  me,  than  that  my  heart 
should  reproach  me,  and  all  the  world  justify  me.'  That  man  will  make 
but  a  sad  exchange  that  shall  exchange  his  integrity  for  any  worldly 
concernment.  Integrity  maintained  in  the  soul  will  be  a  feast  of  fat 
things  in  the  worst  of  days  ;  but  let  a  man  lose  his  integrity,  and  it  is 
not  in  the  power  of  all  the  world  to  make  a  feast  of  fat  things  in  that 

Leg.  0.  That  I  would  leave  with  you  is  this :  Let  not  a  day  pass  over 
your  head  without  calling  the  whole  man  to  an  exact  account.  Well, 
where  have  you  been  acting  to-day  ?  Hands,  what  have  you  done  for 
God  to-day  ?  Tongue,  what  have  you  spoke  for  God  to-day.  This  will 
be  an  advantage  many  ways  unto  you,  but  I  can  only  touch  on  these 

Leg.  10.  Labour  mightily  for  a  healing  spirit.  This  legacy  I  would 
leave  with  you  as  matter  of  great  concernment.  Labour  mightily  for 
a  healing  spirit.  Away  with  all  discriminating  names  whatever  that 
may  hinder  the  applying  of  balm  to  heal  your  wounds.  Labour  for  a 
healing  spirit.  Discord  and  division  become  no  Christian.  For  wolves 
to  worry  the  lambs,  is  no  wonder  ;  but  for  one  lamb  to  worry  another, 
this  is  unnatural  and  monstrous.  God  hath  made  his  wrath  to  smoke 
against  us  for  the  divisions  and  heart-burnings  that  have  been  amongst 
us.  Labour  for  a  oneness  in  love  and  affection  with  every  one  that  is 
one  with  Christ.     Let  their  forms  be  what  they  will,  that  which  wins 


most  upon  Christ's  heart,  should  win  most  upon  ours,  and  that  is  his 
own  grace  and  holiness.  The  question  should  be,  What  of  the  Father, 
what  of  the  Son,  what  of  the  Spirit  shines  in  this  or  that  person  ?  and 
accordingly  let  your  love  and  your  affections  run  out.  That  is  the  tenth 

Leg.  11.  Be  most  in  the  spiritual  exercises  of  religion.  Improve  this 
legacy,  for  much  of  the  life  and  comfort,  joy  and  peace  of  your  souls  is 
wrapped  up  in  it.  I  say,  be  most  in  the  spiritual  exercises  of  religion. 
There  are  external  exercises,  as  hearing,  preaching,  praying,  and  con- 
ference ;  and  there  are  the  more  spiritual  exercises  of  religion,  exercise 
of  grace,  meditation,  self-judging,  self-trial,  and  examination.  Bodily 
exercise  will  profit  nothing  if  abstracted  from  those  more  spiritual.  The 
glory  that  God  hath,  and  the  comfort  and  advantage  that  will  redound  to 
your  souls  is  mostly  from  the  spiritual  exercises  of  religion.  How  rare 
is  it  to  find  men  in  the  work  of  meditation,  of  trial  and  examination, 
and  of  bringing  home  of  truths  to  their  own  souls  ? 

Leg.  12.  Take  no  truths  upon  trust,  but  all  upon  trial,  1  Thes.  v.  21, 
so  1  John  iv.  1,  Acts  xvii.  11.  It  was  the  glory  of  that  church,  that  they 
would  not  trust  Paul  himself;  Paul,  that  had  the  advantage  above  all 
for  external  qualifications  ;  no,  not  Paul  himself.  Take  no  truth  upon 
trust  ;  bring  them  to  the  balance  of  the  sanctuary.  If  they  will,  not 
hold  weight  there,  reject  them. 

Iieg.  13.  The  lesser  and  fewer  opportunities  and  advantages  you  have 
in  public  to  better  and  enrich  your  souls,  the  more  abundantly  address 
your  souls  to  God  in  private  :  Mai.  iii.  16,  17,  'Then  they  that  feared 
the  Lord,  spake  often  one  to  another,'  &c. 

Leg.  14.  Walk  in  those  ways  that  are  directly  cross  and  contrary  to 
the  vain,  sinful,  and  superstitious  ways  that  men  of  a  formal,  carnal, 
lukewarm  spirit  walk  in  ;  this  is  the  great  concernment  of  Christians. 
But  more  of  that  by  and  by. 

Leg.  15.  Look  upon  all  the  things  of  this  world  as  you  will  look  upon 
them  when  you  come  to  die.  At  what  a  poor  rate  do  men  look  on  the 
things  of  this  world  when  they  come  to  die  !  What  a  low  value  do  men 
set  upon  the  pomp  and  glory  of  it,  when  there  is  but  a  step  between 
them  and  eternity  !  Men  may  now  put  a  mask  upon  them,  but  then 
they  will  appear  in  their  own  colours.  Men  would  not  venture  the  loss 
of  such  great  things  for  them  did  they  but  look  on  them  now,  as  they 
will  do  at  the  last  day. 

Leg.  16.  Never  put  off  your  conscience  with  any  plea  or  with  anv 
argument  that  you  dare  not  stand  by  in  the  great  day  of  your  account. 
It  is  dreadful  to  consider  how  many  in  these  days  put  off  their  con- 
sciences. We  did  this  and  that  for  our  families,  they  would  have  else 
perished.  I  have  complied  thus,  and  wronged  my  conscience  thus,  for 
this  and  that  concernment.  Will  a  man  stand  by  this  argument  when 
he  comes  before  Jesus  Christ  at  the  last  day  ?  Because  of  the  souls  of 
men,  many  plead  this  or  that.  Christ  doth  not  stand  in  need  of  indirect 
ways  to  save  souls  ;  he  hath  ways  enough  to  bring  in  souls  to  himself. 

Leg.  17.  Eye  more,  mind  more,  and  lay  to  heart  more,  the  spiritual 
and  eternal  workings  of  God  in  your  souls,  than  the  external  providences 
of  God  in  the  world.  Beloved,  God  looks  that  we  should  consider  the 
operations  of  his  hand  ;  and  the  despising  the  works  of  his  hands  is  so 


provoking  to  him  that  he  threatens  them  to  lead  them  into  captivity 
for  not  considering  of  them.  But  above  all  look  to  the  work  that  God 
is  carrying  on  in  your  souls.  Not  a  soul  but  he  is  carrying  on  soma 
work  or  other  in  it,  either  blinding  or  enlightening,  bettering  or 
worstening  ;  and  therefore  look  to  what  God  is  doing  in  thy  soul.  All 
the  motions  of  God  within  you  are  steps  to  eternity,  and  every  soul  shall 
be  blessed  or  cursed,  saved  or  lost  to  all  eternity,  not  according  to  out- 
ward dispensations,  but  accoixling  to  the  inward  operations  of  God  in 
your  souls.  Observe  what  humbling  work,  reforming  work,  sanctifying 
work,  he  is  about  in  thy  spirit ;  what  he  is  doing  in  that  little  world 
within  thee.  If  God  should  carry  on  never  so  glorious  a  work  in  the 
world,  as  a  conquest  of  the  nations  to  Christ,  what  would  it  advantage 
thee  if  sin,  Satan,  and  the  world  should  triumph  in  thy  soul,  and  carry 
the  day  there. 

Leg.  18.  Look  as  well  on  the  bright  side  as  on  the  dark  side  of  the 
cloud  ;  on  the  bright  side  of  providence  as  well  as  on  the  dark  side  of. 
providence.  Beloved,  there  is  a  great  weakness  amongst  Christians  ; 
they  do  so  pore  on  the  dark  side  of  the  providence  as  that  they  have  no 
heart  to  consider  of  the  bright  side.  If  you  look  on  the  dark  side  of 
the  providence  of  God  to  Joseph,  how  terrible  and  amazing  was  it !  but 
if  you  look  on  the  bright  side,  his  fourscore  years'  reign,  how  glorious 
was  it !  If  you  look  on  the  dark  side  of  the  providence  of  God  to  David, 
in  his  five  years'  banishment,  much  will  arise  to  startle  you  ;  but  if  you 
turn  to  the  bright  side,  his  forty  years'  reign  in  glory,  how  amiable  was 
it  !  Look  on  the  dark  side  of  the  providence  of  God  to  Job,  oh,  how 
terrible  was  it  in  the  first  of  Job  I  but  compare  this  with  the  last  of  Job, 
where  you  have  the  bright  side  of  the  cloud,  and  there  God  doubles  all  his 
mercies  to  him.  Consider  the  patience  of  Job,  and  the  end  that  the  Lord 
made  with  him.  Do  not  remember  the  beginning  only,  for  that  was  the 
dark  side ;  but  turn  to  the  end  of  him,  and  there  was  his  bright  side. 
Many  sins,  many  temptations,  and  much  affliction  would  be  prevented  by 
Christians  looking  on  the  bright  side  of  providence  as  well  as  on  the  dark. 

Leg.  19.  Keep  up  precious  thoughts  of  God  under  the  sourest,  sharpest, 
and  severest  dispensations  of  God  to  you  :  Ps.  xxii.  1-3,  '  My  God,  my 
God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me  ?  why  art  thou  so  far  from  helping  me, 
and  from  the  words  of  my  roaring  ?  O  my  God,  I  cry  in  the  daytime, 
but  thou  hearest  not ;  and  in  the  night  season,  and  am  not  silent.' 
There  was  the  psalmist  under  smart  dispensations,  but  what  precious 
thoughts  had  he  of  God  after  all :  '  But  thou  art  holy,  O  thou  that  in- 
habitest  the  praises  of  Israel :  though  I  am  thus  and  thus  afflicted,  yet 
thou  art  holy  ;'  Ps.  lxv.  5,  '  By  terrible  things  in  righteousness  wilt  thou 
answer  us,  O  God  of  our  salvation. 

Leg.  20.  Hold  on  and  hold  out  in  the  ways  of  well-doing,  in  the  want 
of  all  outward  encouragements,  and  in  the  face  of  all  outward  dis- 
couragements. It  is  nothing  to  hold  out  when  we  meet  with  nothing 
but  encouragements  ;  but  to  hold  out  in  the  face  of  all  discouragements 
is  a  Christian  duty  :  Ps.  xliv.,  '  Though  thou  hast  sore  broken  us  in  the 
place  of  dragons,  and  covered  us  with  the  shadow  of  death,  yet  have  we 
not  dealt  falsely  in  thy  covenant :  our  heart  is  not  turned  back, 
neither  have  we  declined  from  thy  ways.'  It  is  perseverance  that 
crowns  all :  '  Be  thou  faithful  to  the  death,  and  I  will  give  thee  a  crown 


of  life,'  Rev.  ii.  10  ;  'And  he  that  endureth  to  the  end  shall  be  saved,' 
Mat.  xxiv.  It  is  perseverance  in  well-doing  that  crowns  all  our  actions. 
If  you  have  begun  in  the  Spirit,  don't  end  in  the  flesh  ;  do  not  go  away 
from  the  Captain  of  your  salvation  ;  follow  the  Lamb,  though  others 
follow  the  beast  and  the  false  prophets. 

Leg.  21.  In  all  your  natural,  civil,  and  religious  actions,  let  divine 
glory  still  rest  on  your  souls,  Rom.  xiv.  7,  8,  1  Cor.  x.  31.  In  all  your 
bearings,  in  all  your  prayings,  let  the  glory  of  Christ  carry  it  ;  in  all 
your  closet  duties,  let  the  glory  of  Christ  lie  nearest  your  hearts. 

Leg.  22.  Record  all  special  favours,  mercies,  providences,  and  experi- 
ences. It  is  true,  a  man  should  do  nothing  else,  should  he  record  all  the 
favours  and  experiences  of  God  towards  him  ;  and  therefore  my  legacy 
is,  record  all  special  favours,  peculiar  experiences.  Little  do  you  know 
the  advantage  that  will  redound  to  your  soul  upon  this  account  by 
recording  all  the  experiences  of  the  shinings  of  his  face,  of  the  leadings 
of  his  Spirit.     Many  a  Christian  loseth  much  by  neglecting  this  duty. 

Leg.  23.  Never  enter  upon  the  trial  of  your  estate,  but  when  your 
hearts  are  at  the  best,  and  in  the  fittest  temper.  It  is  a  great  design  of 
Satan,  when  the  soul  is  deserted  and  strangely  afflicted,  to  put  the  soul 
on  trying  work.  Come,  see  what  thou  art  worth  for  another  world, 
what  thou  hast  to  shew  for  a  better  state,  for  an  interest  in  Christ,  a 
title  for  heaven.  This  is  not  a  time  to  be  about  this  work.  Thy  work 
is  now  to  get  off  from  this  temptation,  and  therefore  to  pray  and  believe, 
and  wait  upon  God,  and  to  be  found  in  all  those  ways  whereby  you  may 
get  off  the  temptation. 

Leg.  24.  Always  make  the  Scripture,  and  not  yourselves,  nor  your 
carnal  reason,  nor  your  bare  opinion,  the  judges  of  your  spiritual  state 
and  condition.  I-  cannot  see  my  condition  to  be  good.  I  cannot 
perceive  it.  What  !  must  your  sense  and  your  carnal  reason  be  the 
judge  of  your  spiritual  state  ?  Isa,  viii.  20,  '  To  the  law  and  to  the 
testimony,  if  they  speak  not  according  to  this  rule,  it  is  because  there 
is  no  light,  no  morning  in  them  ;'  John  xii.  48,  '  The  word  that  I  have 
spoken,  the  same  shall  judge  you  in  the  last  day.'  The  Scripture  is 
that  which  must  determine  the'case  in  the  great  day,  whether  you  have 
grace  or  no,  or  whether  it  be  true  or  no. 

Leg.  25.  Make  much  conscience  of  making  good  the  terms  on  which 
you  closed  with  Christ.  You  know  the  terms,  how  that  you  would  deny 
yourselves,  take  up  his  cross,  and  follow  the  Lamb  wheresoever  he  should 
go.  Now  you  are  put  to  take  up  the  cross,  to  deny  yourselves,  to  follow 
the  Lamb  over  hedge  and  ditch,  through  thick  and  thin.  Do  not  turn 
your  backs  on  Christ ;  the  worst  of  Christ  is  better  than  the  best  of  the 
world.  Make  conscience  of  making  good  your  terms,  to  deny  yourself, 
your  natural  self,  your  sinful  self,  your  religious  self,  to  follow  him  ; 
and  if  you  do  so,  oh  !  what  an  honour  will  it  be  to  Christ,  and  advan- 
tage to  your  souls,  and  a  joy  to  the  upright  ! 

Leg.  26.  Walk  by  no  rule  but  such  as  you  dare  die  by  and  stand  by 
in  the  great  day  of  Jesus  Christ.  You  may  have  many  ways  prescribed 
to  worship  by  ;  but  walk  by  none  but  such  as  you  dare  die  by,  and 
stand  by,  before  Jesus  Christ.  Walk  not  by  a  multitude,  for  who  dare 
stand  by  that  rule  when  he  comes  to  die  % 

Make  not  the  example  of  great  men  a  rule  to  go  by,  for  who  dare  die 


by  and  stand  by  this  in  the  great  day  of  account.  Do  not  make  any 
authority  that  stands  in  opposition  to  the  authority  of  Christ  a  rule  to 
walk  by,  for  who  dare  Btand  by  this  before  Jesus  Christ?  Ah  !  sirs,  walk 
by  no  rule  but  what  you  dare  die  by,  and  stand  by  at  the  great  day. 

Leg.  27.  And  lastly,  sit  down  and  rejoice  with  fear:  Ps.  ii.,  'Let  the 
righteous  njoicr,  hut  let  them  rejoice  with  fear.'  Rejoice,  that  God  hath 
done  your  souis  good  by  the  everlasting  gospel  ;  that  he  did  not  leave 
you  till  he  brought  you  to  an  acceptance  of,  to  a  closing  with,  and  a 
resignation  of,  your  souls  to  Christ,  and  the  clearing  up  of  your  interest 
in  him.  Rejoice,  that  you  have  had  the  everlasting  gospel  in  so  much 
light,  purity,  power,  and  glory,  as  you  have  had  for  many  years  together. 
Rejoice  in  the  riches  of  grace  that  hath  carried  it  in  such  a  way  towards 
you.  And  weep,  that  you  have  provoked  God  to  take  away  the  gospel, 
that  you  have  no  more  improved  it;  that  you  have  so  neglected  the  seasons 
and  opportunities  of  enriching  your  souls.  When  you  should  have  come 
to  church-fellowship,  anything  would  turn  you  out  of  the  way.  Oh  ! 
sit  down  and  tremble  under  your  barrenness,  under  all  your  leanness. 
Notwithstanding  all  the  cost  and  charge  that  God  hath  been  at,  that 
you  have  grown  no  more  into  communion  with  God,  and  conformity 
to  God,  and  into  the  lively  hope  of  the  everlasting  fruition  of  God. 
Here  are  your  legacies,  and  the  Lord  make  them  to  work  in  your  souls, 
and  then  they  will  be  of  singular  use  to  you,  to  preserve  you  so  that 
you  may  give  up  your  account  before  the  great  and  glorious  God  with 
joy.  Labour  to  make  conscience  of  putting  these  legacies  into  practice, 
of  sucking  at  these  breasts,  which  will  be  of  use  to  us,  till  we  shall  be 
gathered  up  into  the  fruition  of  God,  where  we  shall  need  no  more  ordi- 
nances, no  more  preaching  or  praying. 

C. — Introductory  '  Epistles.'    See  ante  page  xxxiii. 

I.  '  The  Gospel  Treasury  Opened,  or  the  holiest  of  all  unveiling  ;  discover- 
ing yet  more  the  riches  of  grace  and  glory  to  the  vessels  of  mercy.  Unto  whom 
only  it  is  given  to  know  the  mysteries  of  that  kingdom  and  the  excellency  of 
Spirit,  Power,  Truth,  above  Letters,  Forms,  Shadows.  In  several  Sermons, 
preached  at  Kensington  and  elsewhere,'  by  John  Everard,  D.D.,  deceased. 
1679.  (2d  edition,  '  very  much  enlarged').  12mo.  The  following  Epistle,  en- 
titled '  An  Approbation,'  is  by  Brooks,  though  good  Matthew  Barker  adds  his 
name  also. 

'  The  Publisher  of  this  book  is  desirous  that  it  might  pass  with  some  testi- 
monial into  the  world  ;  but  it  needs  not  testimony  from  man  ;  for  I  find  it 
impressed  with  such  a  divine  image,  and  bearing  such  clear  lineaments  of 
heaven-born  truths  as  testify  it  to  be  of  God  ;  and  therefore  strongly  bespeaks 
us  to  receive  it,  as  into  our  houses,  so  chiefly  into  our  hearts.  I  dare  assure 
thee,  Reader,  if  thou  hast  received  a  spiritual  relish,  thou  shalt  taste  much 
sweetness  in  it;  and  if  thou  canst  rejoice  to  be  "laid  low,"  and  made 
nothing,  that  God  may  be  exalted  and  made  "  all  in  all,"  then  shalt  thou  find 
here  that  which  will  help  thy  joy.  And  let  me  entreat  thee,  that  as  thou  readest 
the  book,  to  read  also  thine  own  heart ;  and  by  this  thou  mayest  come  to  find 
thine  heart  in  the  book,  and  the  book  in  thine  heart,  and  [this]  will  make  thee 
fall  upon  thy  face  with  that  idiot,  and  worship  God  and  report,  "  God 
is  in  this  word  of  a  truth,"  1  Cor.  xiv.  25.     Some  are  casting  off  the  letter  of 


the  Scriptures,  others  resting  in  it ;  some  are  despising  ordinances,  others 
are  overvaluing  them.  I  find  the  author  walking  warily  betwixt  both ;  giving 
due  honour  to  the  letter  and  to  the  form,  while  he  is  exalting  the  power  and 
the  Spirit  incomparably  above  both  ;  and  thou  shalt  find  him  laying  the  axe  of 
truth  and  the  edge  of  the  Spirit  close  to  that  cursed  root  of  self-approbation  in 
man,  which  is  daily  bringing  forth  such  bitter  fruits  in  his  heart,  in  his  life,  and 
in  the  world  ;  and  yet  remains  unseen  and  untouched  in  the  hearts  of  many  that 
would  be  thought  to  be  arrived  at  the  brink  of  perfection,  while  they  scarce 
understand  wherein  the  great  imperfection  of  the  natural  man  doth  lie. 

Some  expressions  in  thy  reading  may  seem  harsh  or  obscure  to  thee,  as  they 
did  to  me  ;  but  read  it  over  and  over  with  prayer,  strongly  desirous  to  be  taught 
of  God;  and  in  reading  be  not  weary,  but  blow  and  take  breath,  and  at  it  again  : 
and  thou,  comparing  one  place  with  another,  wilt  clearly  see  what  the  author 
means,  and  shalt  find  his  whole  discourse  to  have  a  sacred  tendency  to  lay  man 
low,  and  so  to  put  him  into  a  rich  capacity  of  coming  in  to  the  nearest  fellowship 
with  God.  So  that  while  some  seek  to  build  up  themselves  upon  the  deceitful 
foundation  of  corrupted  nature,  and  struggle,  though  in  vain,  in  the  light  and 
power  of  it,  to  advance  towards  perfection ;  he  is  planting  his  spiritual  artillery 
against  it,  to  throw  it  into  the  dust,  so  that  man  may  come  to  be  surely  rooted 
and  bottomed  upon  the  righteousness,  power,  and  wisdom  of  Jesus  Christ ; 
which  is  the  only  foundation  that  God  hath  laid,  and  the  gospel  revealed. 

And  in  some  things  thou  must  give  him  a  latitude  to  his  judgment,  as  thou 
desirest  by  thine  own  in  others.  If  thou  findest  some  truths  delivered  and 
enforced  with  re-iterated  expressions;  consider  they  were  delivered  for  the  most 
part  in  several  congregations  ;  so  that  in  some  particulars  the  same  things  may 
be  reinforced,  but  yet  with  more  lustre,  to  make  truth  more  clear.  Thou  hast 
them  as  they  were  preached  and  pressed  in  sermons  to  the  capacity  and  con- 
science of  his  auditors,  and  taken  from  his  mouth  by  a  Notary ;  yet  afterwards 
owned  and  approved  by  himself,  he  desiring  to  peruse  them,  they  lying  with  him 
three  or  four  months,  and  compared  with  his  own  notes.  Read,  consider,  and 
try  «  and  hold  fast  that  which  is  good.'  Tho.  Brooks. 

March  26,  1653.  M.  Barker. 

II.  '  Altum  Silentium,  or  Silence  the  Duty  of  Saints.  By  John  Durant, 
12mo.     1659. 

To  the  Reader. — Christian  Friend, — The  book  of  Job  (saith  Augustine)  is 
the  afflicted  man's  Scripture ;  and  I  may  say  this  little  book  is  the  afflicted 
man's  duty.  A  little  pearl  may  be  of  great  price  ;  and  such  is  this  little  treatise 
that  now  is  put  into  thy  hand. 

The  waves  did  but  lift  Noah's  ark  nearer  to  heaven ;  and  the  higher  the 
waters  rose,  the  nearer  the  ark  was  lifted  up  to  heaven  :  sometimes  such  an 
operation  afflictions  have  upon  Noahs,  upon  preachers  of  righteousness  ;  and  if 
they  have  not  had  the  same  operation  upon  the  author  of  the  ensuing  discourse, 
I  am  much  mistaken.  Afflictions  to  some  are  like  the  prick  at  the  nightin- 
gale's breast,  that  awakes  her,  and  puts  her  upon  her  sweet  and  delightful  notes  ; 
and  whether  they  have  not  had  such  an  operation  upon  the  worthy  author,  I 
will  leave  the  reader  to  judge.  The  more  precious  odours  and  the  purest 
spices  are  beaten  and  bruised,  the  sweeter  scent  and  savour  they  send  abroad. 
Had  not  God  bruised  to  death  one  of  the  choicest  and  sweetest  flowers  in  the 
author's  garden,  he  had  not  sent  abroad  this  sweet  and  savoury  sermon. 

We  try  metal  by  knocking  it ;  if  it  sound  well,  then  we  like  it  well.  That  is 
a  tried  Christian,  a  thorough  Christian  indeed,  that  gives  a  pleasant  sound 
when  under  the  knocking  hand  of  God.  If  thou  layest  thine  ear,  thy  heart,  close 
to  the  following  tract,  thou  wilt  hear  such  a  sound  as  will  be  sweeter  to  thee 
than  the  honey  or  the  honey-comb. 


That  Christian  is  worth  a  world  who,  under  the  sorest  and  sharpest  afflictions, 
is  like  the  stone  in  Thracia,  that  neither  burnetii  in  the  fire  nor  sinketh  in  the 
water  ;  whose  silence  and  patience  is  invincible  and  impregnable.  None  are 
such  an  honour  to  God,  such  a  glory  to  the  gospel,  such  a  shame  to  Satan,  and 
such  a  wonder  to  the  world  as  those  ;  who  can  lay  their  hands  upon  their 
mouths  when  God's  rod  lays  heavy  upon  their  backs.  That  this  is  every 
Christian's  duty  and  glory  is  fully  and  sweetly  evinced  in  the  following  dis- 

Happy  are  we  when  God's  corrections  are  our  instructions,  his  lashes  our 
lessons,  his  scourges  our  schoolmasters,  his  chastisements  our  advertisements. 
And  to  note  this,  the  Hebrews  and  Greeks  both  express  chastening  and  teach- 
ing by  one  and  the  same  word,  (">D10,  <zaihiia),  [margin,  Isa.  xxxvi.  9  ;  Ps. 
xciv.  12  ;  Prov.  iii.  12,  13  ;  chap.  vi.  23],  because  the  latter  is  the  true  end 
of  the  former,  according  to  that  in  the  proverb,  Smart  makes  wit,  and  vexa- 
tion gives  understanding.  That  this  happiness  the  reader  may  attain  to,  is  the 
thing  endeavoured  by  the  author. 

Reader,  thou  hast  much  wrapped  up  in  a  little ;  it  is  more  to  be  admired  than 
to  have  Homer's  Iliads  compressed  in  a  nutshell ;  it  is  a  mourning  sermon,  and 
mourning  should  be  plain.  The  reverend  author  knew  right  well,  that  it  was 
better  to  present  truth  in  her  native  plainness  than  to  hang  her  ears  with 
counterfeit  pearls.  He  knew  that  the  king  of  Nineveh  was  a  king  as  well  in  his 
sackcloth,  as  in  his  royal  robes.  The  author  is  known  to  be  a  master-workman, 
and  one  that  could  easily  shoot  his  arrows  over  his  hearers'  heads  [margin,  See 
his  precious  works  in  print,  and  then  judge],  but  he  had  rather  shoot  them  into 
his  hearers'  hearts.  He  dares  not  affect  sublime  notions,  obscure  expressions, 
which  are  but  mysterious  nothings.  He  dares  not  do  as  many,  who  make 
plain  truths  difficult,  and  easy  truths  hard ;  and  so  darken  counsel  by  words 
without  knowledge,  Job  xxxviii.  2.  If  thou  will  but  taste  and  try,  thou  wilt 
find  this  little  treatise  to  be  a  heavenly  honey-hive  to  thy  soul. 

If  thou  shalt  say,  Oh  !  it  is  sweet,  it  is  seasonable,  it  is  suitable  to  my  con- 
dition, and  to  God's  dispensations  abroad  in  the  world ;  but  why  have  we  no 
more  of  this  sweet  wine,  no  more  of  this  water  of  life,  no  more  of  these  clusters 
of  Canaan  ?  I  must  tell  thee,  that  the  honoured  author  buried  his  dear  and 
hopeful  daughter  on  the  Friday,  and  preached  this  sermon  on  the  Sabbath  day 
following  ;  and  therefore  there  has  been  more  cause  to  bless  the  Lord,  and 
admire  the  Lord  for  his  goodness,  assistance,  and  presence  with  the  author, 
that  has  enabled  him  to  bring  forth  a  truth  of  so  great  weight  and  concernment 
to  us,  even  then,  when  he  was  under  such  sore  and  sharp  rebukes  of  God.  It 
is  not  every  one's  happiness  to  have  such  a  presence  of  God  with  them,  when 
the  rod  of  God  is  heavy  upon  them. 

Reader,  the  point  insisted  on  is  a  point  of  special  use  to  Christians  ;  espe- 
cially to  such  as  are  under  the  afflicting  hand  of  God,  whether  in  spirituals  or 
temporals  ;  and  if  storms  should  fall  upon  us  from  abroad  or  at  home,  it  will 
be  found  (in  the  use  of  it)  more  worth  than  gold.  I  have  read  of  the  stone 
Garamantides,  that  had  drops  of  gold  in  it  :  many  a  golden  drop  wilt  thou  find 
in  the  following  lines.  As  Moses  laid  up  the  manna  in  the  golden  pot,  and  as 
Alexander  kept  Homer's  Iliad  in  a  cabinet  embroidered  with  gold,  so  do  thou 
lay  up  this  sermon  in  the  golden  cabinet  of  thy  heart.  If  troubles  at  present 
are  not  upon  thee,  yet  thou  must  remember  that  thou  art  born  to  them,  as 
the  sparks  fly  upwards  [margin,  Job  v.  7;  John  xvi.  ult.  14;  Acts  xxi.  22]. 
God  had  but  one  Son  without  sin,  he  hath  no  son  without  sorrow;  he  had  but 
one  without  corruption,  he  bath  none  without  correction ;  he  scourges  every 
son  whom  he  receives  ;  he  can  quickly  turn  thy  summer  day  into  wrinter  night, 
and  then  this  sermon  may  be  to  thee  a  suitable  and  invaluable  mercy.  I  shall 
only  take  leave  to  hint  a  few  things  to  the  author,  my  reverend  brother,  and 


to  my  dear  sister,  his  virtuous  yoke-fellow,  who  are  above  all  others  concerned 
in  this  sharp  and  sweet  dispensation,  and  so  conclude. 

First,  That  well-grounded  hope,  confidence,  and  assurance,  that  you  and 
others  had  of  the  buddings  and  blossomings  of  grace  in  her,  in  her  tender  age, 
and  of  her  being  now  at  rest  in  the  bosom  of  the  Father,  should  not  only  quiet 
and  silence  you,  but  also  joy  and  rejoice  you  [margin,  Heb.  xi.  4].  Why  may 
you  not  think  that  you  hear  her,  though  dead,  yet  speaking  thus  unto  you  ? 

Where  God  has  stamp'd  his  image  upon  a  mite, 

'Tis  meet  that  God  should  have  his  right : 

After  a  few  years  past,  a  wearied  hreath 

I  have  exchanged  for  a  happy  death. 

Short  was  my  life,  the  longer  is  my  rest ; 

God  takes  them  soonest  whom  he  loveth  best. 

She  that  is  born  to-day,  and  dies  to-morrow, 

Loses  some  hours  of  joy,  but  years  of  sorrow  ; 

Other  diseases  often  come  to  grieve  us, 

Death  strikes  but  once,  and  that  stroke  relieves  us  : 

Therefore  (my  parents  dear),  take  heed  of  weeping  cross, 

And  mind  my  happiness  more  than  your  own  great  loss. 

This  is  all  I'll  say  to  make  the  reckoning  even, 

Your  dearest  mercy  is  not  too  good  for  heaven. 

Hasten  to  me,  where  now  I  am  possess'd 

With  joys  eternal,  in  Christ  my  only  rest. 

Secondly,  The  designs  of  God  in  all  the  sharp  afflictions  he  exercises  his 
children  with,  as  (1.)  the  purging  away  of  their  sins,  Isa.  i.  25;  (2.)  the  making 
of  them  more  partakers  of  his  holiness,  Heb.  xii.  10  ;  (3.)  the  trial  of  their 
graces,  Job  xxiii.  10;  (4.)  the  communication  of  more  of  himself  and  of  his 
love  to  their  souls,  Hosea  i.  14  ;  (5.)  the  multiplying  of  their  spiritual  expe- 
riences, 2  Cor.  i.  4,  5  ;  (6.)  the  crucifying  of  their  hearts  to  the  world,  and  the 
world  to  their  hearts,  Gal.  vi.  14  [margin,  Nam  finis  dat  amabilitatem  et  facili- 
tatem  mediis]  ;  (7.)  to  draw  them  to  look  and  fix  their  souls  upon  the  great 
concernment  of  another  world,  John  xiv.  1-3 ;  (8.)  that  heaven  may  be  the 
more  sweet  and  precious  to  them  at  last,  2  Cor.  iv.  16-18,  Rom.  viii.  17,  18; 
how  sweet  is  a  calm  after  a  storm,  and  summer  days  after  long  winter  nights  ; 
(9.)  to  make  them  more  and  more  conformable  to  Christ  their  head,  Rom.  viii. 
17  ;  (10.)  that  sinners  may  at  the  last  be  found  dumb  and  speechless,  1  Peter  iv. 
17,  18.  Now,  is  there  not  enough  in  these  glorious  ends  and  designs  of  God 
to  make  his  people  sit  mute  under  the  sharpest  trials  ?  Surely  there  is.  Why 
then  don't  they  sit  silent  before  the  Lord  ? 

Thirdly,  All  the  mercies  you  enjoy,  were  first  the  Lord's  before  they  were 
yours,  and  always  the  Lord's  more  than  they  were  yours,  1  Chron.  xxix.  14. 
'  All  things  come  of  thee,  and  of  thine  own  have  we  given  thee.'  The  sweet  of 
mercy  is  yours,  but  the  sovereign  right  to  dispose  of  your  mercies  is  the  Lord's. 
Quicquid  es  debes  creanti;  quicquid  potes,  debes  redimenti  (Bern),  whatsoever  thou 
art,  thou  owest  to  him  that  made  thee ;  and  whatsoever  thou  hast,  thou  owest 
to  him  that  redeemed  thee.  Say,  as  Jerome  adviseth  a  friend  of  his  (in  the 
like  case),  Thou  hast  taken  away  whom  thou  hast  given  me :  I  grieve  not 
that  thou  hast  taken  them,  but  praise  the  Lord  that  was  pleased  to  give  them. 
You  think  it  but  just  and  reasonable  that  men  should  deal  with  their  own  as 
they  please ;  and  is  it  not  much  more  just  and  reasonable  that  God  should  do 
with  his  own  as  he  pleases  ? 

Fourthly,  That  God  that  has  taken  one,  might  have  taken  all ;  there  are 
several  left,  though  one  be  taken.  Job,  you  know,  was  a  nonsuch  in  his 
generation,  and  yet  the  sentence  of  death  was  passed  upon  all  his  children  at  a 
clap ;  and  under  this  said  clap  Job  does  not  blaspheme,  but  bless  ;  he  does 
not  murmur,  but  worships ;  he  accuses  not  God,  but  clears  God  of  injustice 


under  saddest  and  severest  strokes  of  justice,  Job  i.  Geographers  write  that 
the  city  of  Syracuse  in  Sicily  is  so  curiously  situated,  that  the  sun  is  never  out 
of  sight :  though  one  mercy  be  gone,  yet  you  have  several  that  remain,  and 
this  should  make  you  mute. 

Themistoclcs  invited  many  philosophers  to  supper ;  the  owner  sends  for  one 
half  of  those  necessaries  that  he  was  using.  Can  you  endure  this  disgrace  ? 
said  the  philosophers.  Yes,  said  he,  very  well,  for  he  might  have  sent  justly 
tor  thorn  all.  The  application  is  easy.     Oh  !  let  not  nature  do  more  than  grace. 

Fifthly  and  butty,  Under  sharp  afflictions,  we  ought  carefully  to  look  that 
natural  afflictions  don't  hinder  the  exercise  of  gracious  dispositions.  Though  we 
may  weep,  yet  we  may  not  weep  out  either  the  eye  of  faith,  or  the  eye  of  hope 
[margin,  1  Thes.  iv.  13j  :  though  you  may  water  your  flowers,  yet  you  may 
not  drown  your  flowers.  They  that  wept,  yea,  that  wept  much,  yet  said,  The 
will  of  the  Lord  be  done  [margin,  Acts  xxi.  13,  14].  Jacob  doated  too  much 
upon  his  Joseph,  and  his  affections  were  too  strong  for  his  judgment,  when,  upon 
the  sight  of  the  bloody  coat,  he  refused  to  be  comforted,  and  said,  I  will  go 
down  into  the  grave  unto  my  son,  mourning  [margin,  Gen.  xxxvii.  33-35]. 
And  David  was  too  fond  of  his  son  Absalom,  when,  like  a  puny  baby,  he  wept 
and  said,  0  my  son  Absalom  !  my  son  !  my  son  !  Absalom  !  would  God  I  had 
died  for  thee,  0  Absalom,  my  son!  my  son!  [margin,  2  Sam.  xviii.  32,  33]. 
The  Egyptians  mourned  for  Jacob  seventy  days,  but  Joseph  (though  he  had 
more  cause)  mourned  but  seven  days ;  because  he  had  more  grace,  and  better 
hopes  of  Jacob's  eternal  welfare,  than  the  infidels  had.  In  the  midst  of  all 
your  tears,  keep  up  the  exercise  of  grace,  and  then  you  shall  not  mourn  that 
you  have  mourned. 

That  your  own  is  no  sooner  in  your  hand,  is  only  from  the  remissness  and 
dilatoriness  of  him  into  whose  hands  you  had  ordered  the  copy. 

To  conclude  :  that  you  and  I,  and  all  others  (into  whose  hands  this  sermon 
may  fall)  may  live  up,  and  live  out,  the  following  discourse,  under  all  the 
changes  that  has  or  shall  pass  upon  us,  is  the  earnest  desire  and  hearty  prayer 
of  him  who  is  your  entire  friend  and  servant  in  our  dearest  Lord. 

Tho.  Brooks. 

III.  The  <  Epistle'  prefixed  to  the  '  Works'  of  Dr  Thomas  Taylor,  of  «  Alder- 
manbury,  London,'  (folio,  1653),  bears  the  name  of  Brooks,  only  in  common  with 
Gouge  and  Calamy, Jackson,  Ashe,  Caryl,  Manton,  Greenhill,  Strong,  Griffith, 
Venning,  and  Jemmat.  The  first  signature  is  that  of  Dr  William  Gouge  ;  and 
probably  the  '  Epistle'  was  drawn  up  by  him,  and  simply  signed  by  the  others. 
Yet  does  there  seem  touches  from  the  hand  of  Brooks. 

IV.  '  Gospel  Fear  ;  or  the  Heart  trembling  at  the  Word  of  God  evidenceth  a 
blessed  frame  of  spirit.  Delivered  in  several  Sermons  from  Isa.  lxvi.  2,  and  2 
Kings  xxii.  14.  By  Jeremiah  Burroughes.1  "  His  mercy  is  on  them  that  fear 
him  from  generation  to  generation,"  Luke  i.  50.  "  Work  out  your  own  salva- 
tion with  fear  and  trembling,"  Philip,  ii.  12.  London  :  Printed  by  J.  D.  for 
B.  Aylmer  at  the  three  Pigeons  in  Cornhill.     1674.'      12mo. 

To  The  Reader. — Christian  Reader, — These  following  sermons  are  the 
labours  of  that  prince  of  preachers,  Mr  Jer.  Burroughs,  who  is  now  a  shining 
sun  in  that  upper  world.  But  they  that  ai-e  taken  out  of  this  valley  of  Baca,  and 
carried  up  by  troops  of  glorious  angels  into  the  highest  heaven,  stand  in  no  need 
of  the  praises  of  men,  having  the  fruition  of  the  eternal  God.  And  therefore  I  shall 
wheel  about  to  these  choice  sermons  that  are  here  presented  to  thine  eyes.2     In 

i  Died  Nov.  14.  1646.— G. 

2  Chrysostom,  in  his  learned  oration  compiled  upon  the  death  [of]  Philogonius.  Melanch- 
ton  saitli  of  Pomerauus,  He  was  the  grammarian  ;  of  himself,  that  he  was  the  logician  ;  of 


the  three  first  thou  wilt  find  this  great  and  glorious  truth,  viz., 'that  a  heart  trem- 
bling at  God's  word  is  very  precious  in  God's  eyes, — Heb.  vi.  10 ;  Isa.  lxii.  6  ; 
Ezek.  xxxvi.  37, — clearly  opened,  fully  proved,  and  sweetly  and  faithfully  im- 
proved, so  as  that,  by  a  blessing  from  on  high,  it  may  contribute  greatly 
to  the  internal  and  eternal  welfare  of  thy  precious  and  immortal  soul. 
Concerning  the  "Word,  premise  this  with  me,  viz.  that  in  these  six  following 
acceptations  the  word  is  taken  in  the  blessed  Scriptures,  (1.)  By  the  Word  is 
sometimes  meant  the  whole  Scriptures,  Old  and  New  Testament.  (2.)  By  the 
Word  is  meant  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  is  the  spirit,  life,  and  soul  of  the 
word,  John  i.  (3.)  By  the  Word  is  sometimes  meant  the  commands  of  the 
word,  Heb.  i.  (4.)  By  the  Word  is  sometimes  meant  the  threatenings  of  God. 
(5.)  By  the  Word  is  sometimes  meant  the  precious  promises  :  Ps.  cxix.  49, 
'  Remember  the  word  unto  thy  servant,  upon  which  thou  hast  caused  me  to 
hope.'  God  is  not  unrighteous  to  forget,  yet  we  must,  as  his  remembrancers, 
put  his  promises  in  suit.  (6.)  By  the  Word  is  sometimes  meant  those  holy 
prophecies  which  are  scattered  up  and  down  in  the  Scriptures,  Jude  14.  The 
word  thus  considered  occasioned  one  Baldusgar,  a  famous  minister  in  Germany, 
to  say,  Veniat,  venial  verbum  Domini  et  submittemus  illi  sexcenta,  si  nobis  essent, 
col  la,  let  the  word  of  the  Lord  come,  let  it  come,  saith  he  ;  we  will  submit  to 
it  if  we  had  many  hundred  necks  to  put  under  it.  The  design  of  the  worthy 
author  in  this  little  piece  is,  to  win  and  work  the  reader  to  submit  to  the  Word, 
to  be  guided  by  the  Word,  to  prize  the  Word,  to  lay  up  the  Word,  and  to  live 
out  the  Word  in  a  conversation  becoming  the  gospel.  The  Jewish  Rabbins 
were  wont  to  say,  that  upon  every  letter  of  the  law  there  hangs  mountains  of 
profitable  matter.  I  am  sure  in  the  following  discourse  thou  wilt  find  even 
mountains  of  heavenly  matter  hanging  upon  all  the  main  particulars  that  this 
blessed  author  offers  to  thy  serious  consideration  in  this  small  treatise.  Here 
you  have  Homer's  Iliads  in  a  nutshell ;  much  choice  matter  in  a  little  room.  It 
is  said  of  Cassar,  Major  fait  cura  Ccesari  libelloram  qnam  parparce,  he  had  greater 
care  of  his  books  than  of  his  royal  robes  ;  for,  swimming  through  the  waters  to 
escape  his  enemies,  he  carried  his  books  in  his  hand  above  the  waters,  but  lost 
his  robes.  But  what  are  Caesar's  books  to  God's  books  ?  or  to  this  little  book 
that  is  now  put  into  thy  hand  ?  Surely  the  word  of  the  Lord  is  very  sweet  to 
all  those  gracious  souls  who  make  conscience  of  trembling  at  it,  Ps.  xix.  10  ; 
cxix.  103  ;  Job  xxiii.  12  ;  Cant.  ii.  3.  Luther  said  he  could  not  live  in  para- 
dise, if  he  might,  without  the  Word,  at  cam  verbo  etiam  in  inferno  facile  est 
vivere,  but  with  the  Word  he  could  live  in  hell  itself.1  The  philosopher  gave 
thanks  that  he  was  born  in  the  time  of  true  philosophy.  Ah  !  how  happy  are 
we  that  are  born  in  such  a  time  wherein  the  Lord  doth  effnndere  Spiritum,  pour 
forth  his  Spirit,  not  by  drops,  as  in  the  time  of  the  Law,  but  showers  down  of 
his  gifts  and  graces,  as  was  most  evident  in  the  author  of  this  following  piece. 
Not  only  the  day-star,  but  the  Sun  of  righteousness  was  risen  upon  that  people 
that  had  once  the  happiness  to  sit  under  the  author's  ministry ;  neither  is  it  a 
small  part  of  this  world's  happiness  that  they  are  blessed  with  his  most  excellent 
labours  to  this  very  day.  One  cannot  say  of  any  divine  thing,  that  it  is  his  own 
properly  till  in  his  heart.  I  can  say  of  a  bird,  or  of  this  or  that,  it  is  my  own 
when  in  my  hand  ;  but  I  cannot  say  God  is  mine  till  in  my  heart,  or  that  Christ 
is  mine  till  in  my  heart,  or  that  the  Spirit  is  mine  till  in  my  heart,  or  that  grace 
is  mine  till  in  my  heart,  or  that  the  word  is  mine  till  in  my  heart.  '  I  have 
kept  thy  word  in  my  heart,  that  I  may  not  sin  against  thee,'  saith  David,  Ps. 
cxix.  11  ;  and  therefore,  reader,  it  highly  concerns  thee  to  get  that  word  into 

Justus   Ionius,  that  he  was  the  orator;  hut  of  Luther  he  was  omnia  in  omnibus,  all  in  all. 
Adam  in  vit   Luther,  p.  170.    The  application  is  easty. 

1  Sacrce  Scripturoe  tucB  sunt  sanctce  delicice  mece. — Augustine.       Dolphins,  they  say,  love 
music  ;  so  do  gracious  souls  love  the  music  of  the  word. 


thy  heart  that  is  here  presented  to  thine  eye.  Ah  !  Christians,  your  hearts  are 
never  in  so  good  a  frame,  so  safe  a  frame,  so  sweet  a  frame,  so  happy  a  frame, 
so  gospel  a  frame,  as  when  they  are  in  a  tremhling  frame  ;  and  therefore  make 
this  little  piece  your  delightful  companion  till  your  hearts  are  brought  into  such 
a  blessed  frame,  &c. 

Obj.  But  may  not  reprobates  and  devils  tremble  at  the  word  ?  did  not  Bel- 
shazzar  tremble  at  the  handwriting  ?  did  not  Felix  tremble  at  the  word  preached 
by  Paul  ?  and  is  it  not  said  that  the  devils  believe  and  tremble  ?  Dan.  v.  5,  6  ; 
Acts  xxiv.  24,  25  ;  James  ii.  19. 

Am.  1.  Wicked  men  and  devils  may  tremble  at  the  judgments  denounced  in 
the  word,  but  they  tremble  not  at  the  offence  committed  against  the  holy  com- 
mandments of  God,  as  sincere  Christians  do  :  Ezra  x.  3,  Shechaniah  said,  '  We 
have  trespassed  against  our  God  ;  let  us  make  a  covenant  with  our  God  accord- 
ing to  the  counsel  of  my  Lord,  and  of  those  that  tremble  at  the  commandments 
of  God.'  The  commandments  discovering  their  sin,  they  tremble  who  before 
were  hardened  in  their  practice  of  marrying  with  the  Canaanites  ;  but  we  hear 
nothing,  we  find  nothing  of  this  in  Belshazzar,  or  Felix,  or  the  devils.     But, 

Am.  2.  Secondly,  I  answer,  the  wicked  tremble,  but  never  mend  their  ways. 
Pharaoh  trembles,  but  never  mends.  Saul  trembles,  but  never  mends.  Bel- 
shazzar trembles,  but  never  mends.  Felix  trembles,  but  never  mends ;  and 
devils  tremble,  but  never  mend.  But  Paul  trembles,  and  cries  out,  '  Lord, 
what  wilt  thou  have  me  to  do  ?'  And  the  jailor  trembles,  and  cries  out,  '  Sirs, 
what  must  I  do  to  be  saved  ?'  Acts  ix.  4-6  ;  xvi.  29,  30.     But, 

Am.  3.  Thirdly,  The  trembling  of  the  wicked  drives  them  further  and  further 
off  from  God,  and  off  from  duty  ;  as  you  see  in  Saul,  who,  under  his  tremblings, 
runs  to  a  witch  ;  but  gracious  tremblings  draw  the  soul  nearer  and  nearer  to 
God,  as  you  see  in  Jehoshaphat,  who  feared  and  set  himself  to  seek  the  Lord, 
and  proclaimed  a  fast  throughout  all  Judah,  2  Chron.  xxiii.  3.  The  saints, 
under  all  their  holy  tremblings,  they  follow  after  God  as  the  people  followed 
after  Saul's  tremblings,  1  Sam.  xiii.  7.     But, 

Ana.  4.  Fourthly,  The  godly  tremble,  and  mourn  and  tremble.  Their 
trembling  hearts  are  broken  hearts,  and  their  broken  hearts  are  trembling 
hearts  ;  they  look  upon  sin  and  tremble,  and  they  look  upon  sin  and  mourn, 
Isa.  lxvi.  2  ;  Jer.  ix.  1,  2;  Ps.  cxix.  136  :  Jer.  xxv.  13,  17,  '  But  if  ye  will 
not  hear  it,  my  soul  shall  weep  in  secret  places  for  your  pride,  and  mine  eyes 
shall  weep  sore  and  run  down  with  tears,'  &c.  The  wicked  tremble,  but,  under 
all  their  tremblings,  their  hearts  are  as  dry  and  hard  as  rocks,  yea,  harder  than 
the  very  rocks :  Jer.  v.  3,  '  They  made  their  faces  harder  than  a  rock  ;  they 
have  refused  to  return,'  Ezek.  iii.  7-9  ;  Jer.  vii.  26.  Pharaoh  trembled,  but 
yet  was  hardened  ;  the  devils  tremble,  but  yet  are  hardened.  If  one  penitent 
tear  could  purchase  heaven,  hell  could  not  afford  that  one  tear.  Repenting 
tears  are  precious  ;  the}'  are,  saith  Gregory,  '  the  fat  of  the  sacrifice  ;'  and,  as 
Basil  saith,  '  the  medicine  of  the  soul ;'  and,  as  Bernard,  '  the  wine  of  angels.' 
But  these  are  only  to  be  found  among  those  choice  souls  who  make  conscience 
of  trembling  at  God's  word,  and  who  enjoy  that  choice  tenderness  of  heart  that 
is  in  this  little  treatise  drawn  to  the  life.  Verily  we  cannot  meet  on  this  side 
hell  with  a  worse  temper  of  spirit  than  that  which  inclines  a  sinner  to  drop 
counterfeit  tears,  and  to  despise  the  forbearance  of  God,  and  to  kick  against  the 
bowels  of  his  goodness,  Rom.  ii.  4,  as  that  profane  Arian  did  who  was  executed 
at  Harwich,  concerning  whom  Mr  Greenham  acquainteth  us  with  this  strange 
and  prodigious  narration.  This  hellish  heretic,  saith  he — for  so  were  the  deniers 
of  Christ's  divinity  accounted  of  in  those  days,  whatever  thoughts  men  have  of 
them  now — a  little  before  he  was  executed,  afforded  a  few  whorish  tears,  asking 
whether  he  might  be  saved  by  Christ  or  no  ?  when  one  told  him  that  if  he  truly 
repented,  he  should  surely  not  perish,  he  breaks  out  into  this  speech,  Nay,  if 


your  Christ  be  so  easy  to  be  entreated  indeed  as  you  say,  then  I  defy  him,  and 
care  not  for  him.  Oh  horrible  blasphemy,  and  desperate  wickedness  !  for  a  man 
to  draw  himself  back  from  repentance  by  that  very  cord  of  love  whereby  he 
should  have  been  drawn  to  it.1     But, 

Ans.  5.  Fifthly  and  lastly,  The  hearts  of  wicked  men  and  devils  only  tremble 
upon  the  account  of  punishment  and  the  judgment  to  come,  Acts  xxiv.  25  * 
Mat.  viii.  28,  29.  As  a  malefactor  trembleth  before  the  judge,  and  under  the 
sense  of  his  doom  ;  but  a  child  of  God  trembles  under  the  sense  of  God's  Good- 
ness and  kindness  to  him  :  Hosea  iii.  7,  '  And  shall  fear  the  Lord  and  his  good- 
ness ; '  or,  as  some  sense  it,  '  they  shall  fear  the  Lord  because  of  his  goodness.' 
The  Hebrew  is,  ■  they  shall  fear  to  the  Lord  pavebunt  ad  Dominum,  that  is, 
trembling  they  shall  make  haste  to  him  as  frighted  doves  do  to  their  columbaries. 
See  Hosea  xi.  11.  Look'J  as  holy  tremblings  and  gladness  are  consistent  to- 
gether, Ps.  ii.  11  ;  and  as  a  holy  fear  and  joy  are  consistent  together,  as  you 
see  in  those  good  women  who  went  from  Christ's  sepulchre  with  fear  and  great 
joy,  Mat.  xxviii.  8,  a  strange  composition  of  two  contrary  passions,  but  fre- 
quently found  in  the  best  hearts  ;  so  a  holy  love  and  trembling  are  consistent 
together.2  A  child  whose  heart  is  full  of  love  to  his  father,  when  he  looks  upon 
him  as  offended  or  grieved,  he  trembles-,  like  that  poor  woman,  Mark  v.  33, 
who,  fearing  that  she  had  offended  Christ  in  her  approaching  to  him,  came 
trembling,  but  yet  with  a  heart  full  of  love  to  Christ.  So  here,  when  a  child 
of  God  fixes  one  eye  upon  the  holiness  and  justice  of  God,  he  trembles  ;  and 
when,  at  the  same  time,  he  fixes  his  other  eye  upon  the  patience,  the  goodness, 
the  graciousness,  and  readiness  of  God  to  forgive  as  a  father,  he  loves  and  joys; 
but  now  all  the  tremblings  of  the  wicked  are  from  apprehensions  of  wrath  to 
come,  and  from  a  hansel3  of  hell  in  their  consciences  on  this  side  hell.  These 
five  things  I  thought  to  hint  at,  that  the  reader  may  be  the  better  able  to  grapple 
with  the  same  objection  when  he  meets  with  it  in  this  little  piece. 

The  dew  of  heaven  hath  richly  fallen  among  many,  and  yet,  like  Gideon's 
fleece,  they  are  dry  when  all  the  regions  about  them  are  wet,  Judges  vi.  37-40* 
and  is  it  not  so  with  many  in  these  days,  who  sit  under  gospel  droppings,  and 
who  have  the  labours  of  many  famous  men  put  every  day  into  their  hands  ?  and 
yet  how  are  their  souls  like  the  mountains  of  Gilboa,  upon  which  there  fell 
neither  dew  nor  rain !  This  is  and  this  must  be  for  a  lamentation,  2  Sam.  i.  21. 
If  the  books  of  the  law  chance  to  fall  upon  the  ground,  the  Jews'  custom  is 
presently  to  proclaim  a  fast.  Ah,  friends  !  what  cause  have  we  to  fast  and 
mourn,  when  we  see  the  word  preached,  printed,  offered,  to  fall  upon  the  oround, 
and  to  be  trampled  upon,  as  it  is  this  day  by  atheists,  papists,  Socinians,  and 
other  vain  persons  !  &c.  The  Jews  have  a  law  which  enjoins  them  to  take  up 
any  paper  which  they  see  lying  on  the  ground  ;  and  the  reason  is,  lest  haply 
the  word  of  God  be  written  in  the  paper  and  ignorantly  trodden  under  foot. 
Though  Christians  ought  to  be  free  from  such  superstitious  curiosities,  yet  they 
ought  to  be  very  careful  that  the  least  tittle  of  the  word,  the  least  truth  revealed 
in  the  word,  be  not  trodden  under  foot  either  by  themselves  or  others  ■  con- 
sidering its  excellency  and  usefulness  as  a  guide,  a  light,  to  lead  us  through  the 
wilderness  of  this  world  to  the  heavenly  Canaan  :  Prov.  vi.  22,  ■  When  thou 
goest,  it  shall  lead  thee  ;  when  thou  sleepest,  it  shall  keep  thee ;  when  thou 
awakest,  it  shall  talk  with  thee.'  That  is,  according  to  the  gloss  of  the  Kab- 
binical  interpreters,  when  thou  goest,  it  shall  lead  thee,  viz.  in  thy  passage 
through  this  world  ;  when  thou  sleepest,  it  shall  keep  thee,  viz.  when  thou 
liest  down  in  the  grave ;  and  when  thou  awakest,  it  shall  talk  with  thee,  viz. 
when  thou  art  awakened  at  the  glorious  resurrection.     But,  that  I  may  not 

1  Mr  Greenham  in  his  treatise,  entitled  A  sweet  Comfort  for  an  afflicted  Conscience,  on 
Prov.  xviii.  14.        2  God  loves  at  once  familiarity  and  fear.        3  Earnest,  foretaste. G. 


make  the  porch  too  large,  I  shall  hasten  to  a  close.     There  are  three  sorts  of 
persorjs,  above  all  others,  that  I  would  seriously  recommend  this  treatise  to. 

(1.)  First,  Those  that  do  tremble  at  the  word,  and  those  that  have  soft  and 
tender  hearts  ;  for  these  will  find  choice  comforts,  special  encouragements,  and 
singular  supports  to  cheer  and  bear  up  their  hearts  in  their  greatest  trials,  in- 
ward or  outward,  or  in  the  worst  of  times. 

(2.)  Secondly,  Those  that  are  bold  sinners,  secure  sinners,  stupid  sinners, 
insensible  sinners  ;  for  these  will  find  variety  of  arguments  to  awaken  them,  to 
startle  them,  to  soften  them,  and  to  work  them  into  a  trembling  frame  and  a 
tender  frame,  with  singular  directions  and  counsel  how  to  obtain  those  spiritual 
frames  which  are  infinitely  more  worth  than  all  those  crowns  and  kingdoms  that 
men  are  this  day  contending  for  in  blood. 

(3.)  Thirdly,  Those  that  are  under  many  fears,  and  doubts,  and  disputes  in 
their  own  hearts,  whether  they  do  tremble  at  this  word  or  no,  and  whether  they 
have  a  tender  heart  or  no ;  for  I  dare  venture  to  say  that  such  persons  will 
find  in  this  treatise  those  blessed  truths  that  will,  by  a  blessing  from  on  high, 
scatter  their  fears,  resolve  their  doubts,  and  put  a  happy  issue  to  all  their 

Reader,  When  thou  hast  once  seriously  read  over  this  little  treatise,  I  cannot 
but  judge  that  thou  wilt  readily  conclude  with  me,  viz.  That  the  two  special 
points  here  handled,  viz.  our  trembling  at  God's  word,  and  a  tender  heart,  are, 
(1.)  Two  great  and  weighty  points.  (2.)  Two  very  noble  and  necessary  points, 
which  all  should  labour  to  know  and  understand  who  would  be  blessed  here  and 
happy  hereafter.  (3.)  Two  seasonable  and  suitable  points  to  the  days  and 
times  wherein  we  live,  which  abound  with  all  sorts  of  sins,  and  which  are 
attended  with  the  sorest  of  spiritual  judgments,  such  as  blindness,  hardness,  in- 
sensibleness.  (4.)  Two  important  points  that  have  singular  other  points  wrapped 
up  in  the  womb  of  them,  and  that  are  dependent  upon  them.  (5.)  Two  points 
that  are  not  every  day  handled  in  the  pulpit,  nor  sent  unto  the  press. 

Reader,  The  importunity  of  a  worthy  friend  hath  prevailed  with  me  to  give 
thee  the  trouble  of  reading  this  epistle.  And  now  I  shall  conclude  with  a  few 
words  of  counsel  :  (1.)  Let  him  that  casts  his  eye  on  this  book  not  borrow  it, 
but  buy  it ;  (2.)  seriously  read  it ;  (3.)  highly  prize  it ;  (4.)  earnestly  pray 
over  it ;  (5.)  endeavour  to  have  his  heart  and  life  made  conformable  to  the 
matter  contained  in  it ;  (6.)  to  lay  it  up  among  his  choicest  treasures  ;  and 
(7.)  when  he  is  in  the  mount,  to  remember  him  who  unfeignedly  and  earnestly 
desires  that  this  little  piece  may  be  highly  blessed  to  the  writer,  reader,  and 
hearer  :  and  so  I  shall  take  leave  and  rest, 

Thy  real  friend  and  soul's  servant, 

Thomas  Brooks. 


D. — Mrs  Brooks.     (See  ante,  p.  xxxiv). 

The  following  is  the  title-page  of  the  Funeral  Sermon  of  the  first  Mrs 
Brooks : — 






Preached  at  the  FUNERAL  of 

Mrs.    MARTHA    BROOKS, 

Late  WIFE  to 

Mr.  THO.  BROOKS  Minister  of  the  Gospel  in  London  ; 

Who  Departed  this  Life  June  20.  1676. 

To  which  are  Added 

Some  EXPERIENCES  of  the  Grace  and  Dealings  of 

GOD,  Observed  and  Gathered  by  a  near  Relation  of 

the  said  Mrs.  Brooks. 

By  J.  C.  a  Friend  of  the  Deceased,  and  her  Surviving  Husband. 
2  COR.  12.  10. 

HEB.  II.  34. 

Ei/idvva&cui0-/i<ruv  affo  air^ivita,;, — 


Printed  for  John  Hancock  at  the  Three  Bibles  in  Popes-Head 

Alley,  Cornhill.     1676.     [4to.] 

We  give  the  '  Notes'  that  were  furnished  by,  no  doubt,  Brooks. 

A  short  account  of  some  of  the  choice  experiences,  blessed  discoveries,  and 
gracious  evidences,  of  Mrs  Martha  Brooks,  who  fell  asleep  in  Jesus, 
June  20.  1676.  Drawn  up  by  a  near  relation,  that  best  understood  her 
spiritual  estate  and  condition. 

It  is  long  since  that  the  Lord  made  it  the  day  of  his  power — Ps.  ex.  3 — upon 
her  soul.  Many  years  ago,  the  great  and  glorious  God,  by  his  Spirit  and  power, 
by  his  word  and  rod,  brought  her  from  under  the  power,  use,  and  dominion  of 
sin  and  Satan,  1  Thes.  i.  5  ;  Prov.  xxix.  15,  and  brought  her  off  from  resting 
or  stayings  upon  her  own  righteousness — which  she  daily  looked  upon  to  be  but 
filthy  rags,  and  as  a  menstruous  cloth — and  brought  her  into  fellowship  and  com- 
munion with  himself,  his  Son,  and  his  blessed  Spirit,  &c,  Rom.  vi.  14  •  Acts 
xxvi.  18  ;  Isa.  lxiv.  6  ;  John  i.  3,  4  ;  2  Cor.  xiii.  14. 

To  make  a  full  narration  of  these  great  things,  would  make  this  little  piece  to 
swell  beyond  its  due  proportion ;  and  though  it  might  please  some,  yet  it  might 
dissatisfy  others  ;  and  therefore  I  shall  do  little  more  than  hint  at  things,  that 
so  I  may  bring  all  I  intend  to  say  into  a  narrow  compass. 

Should  I  say  all  I  could, 

First,  About  her  knowledge  and  acquaintance  with  Christ,  when  and  where 
should  I  make  an  end  ?  Only  this  I  may  say  :  1,  her  knowledge  was  inward  ; 
2,  it  was  affectionate  ;  3,  experimental  ;  4,  humbling ;  5,  growing  ;  6,  com- 
municative ;  7,  practical,  Job  xxii.  21  ;  John  xvii.  3,  vii.  17,  xiii.  1. 

Secondly,  Should  I  say  all  I  could  about  her  high  approbation  of  Christ, — 


Acts  iv.  12;  1  Tim.  i.  15;  Col.  i.  19,  i.  2,  3;  Acts  v.  31;  Col.  ii.  6;  Horn.  vii.  12; 
Ps.  cxix.  72;  Rev.  iii.  19;  Dan.  ix.  14  ;  Neh.  ix.  33 — when  and  where  should  I 
make  an  end?  Only  this  I  may  hint:  1,  that  she  highly  approved  of  the  person 
of  Christ  as  the  most  suitable  good  in  heaven  or  earth  to  her  soul  ;  2,  she 
highly  approved  of  the  personal  excellencies  of  Christ  as  the  most  transcendent 
excellencies  ;  3,  she  highly  approved  of  Christ  in  all  his  offices,  both  kingly, 
prophetical,  and  priestly  ;  4,  she  highly  approved  of  all  the  precious  things  of 
Christ,  as  his  day,  his  laws,  his  worship,  his  ordinances,  his  ways,  his  saints  ; 
5,  she  highly  approved  of  the  rebukes,  of  the  severe  rebukes,  of  Christ,  knowing 
that  they  were  the  fruits  of  his  love,  and  that  he  was  holy  and  wise,  just  and 
righteous,  in  all  his  rebukes,  &c. 

Thirdly,  About  her  choice  and  election  of  Christ  to  be  her  Head  and  Husband, 
Cant.  ii.  16  ;  Deut.  xxvi.  17,  her  Sovereign  and  Saviour;  upon  choice  she  would 
have  none  but  Christ  to  save  her,  nor  none  but  Christ  to  rule  her. 

Fourthly,  About  her  reception  of  Christ,  Job  i.  12 ;  Ps.  xxiv.  7-10  :  1,  in 
all  his  offices  ;  2,  into  every  room  of  her  soul ;  3,  once  for  all ;  4,  upon  his  own 
gospel  terms,  Mat.  xvi.  24. 

Fifthly,  About  her  high,  her  very  high,  estimation  of  Christ,  1  Peter  ii.  7,  she 
prized  above  all  her  duties,  above  all  her  privileges,  above  all  her  graces,  above 
all  her  outward  contentments,  and  above  all  her  spiritual  enjoyments  ;  he  was 
to  her  the  chiefest  of  ten  thousand,  Cant.  v.  10  ;  Ps.  xlv.  2  ;  Mat.  xiii.  26  ;  Prov. 
viii.  11;  Philip,  iii.  8  ;  he  was  fairer  than  the  children  of  men  ;  he  was  the  pearl 
of  price  in  her  eye  ;  he  was  more  precious  than  rubies  to  her  soul.  She  looked 
upon  all  things  as  nothing  in  comparison  of  Christ ;  she  had  rather  have  one 
Christ  than  a  thousand  worlds. 

Sixthly,  About  her  marriage  union  and  communion  with  Christ,  of  which 
freely  and  frequently  she  discoursed  both  with  ministers  and  Christians  through- 
out her  sickness.  Her  marriage  union  with  Christ  was  breasts  of  consolation  and 
•wells  of  salvation  to  her,  Cant.  iii.  11  ;  Hoseaii.  18-20  ;  2  Cor.  xi.  2  ;  Ps.  lxvi. 
11,  xii.  3.  Throughout  her  nine  months'  sickness  by  these  she  did  live,  and 
in  these  things  were  the  life  of  her  spirit,  Isa.  xxxviii.  16. 

Seventhly,  About  her  trustings  and  cleavings  to  Christ  as  the  ivy  cleaves  to 
the  oak,  the  child  to  the  mother,  or  as  the  wife  cleaves  to  the  husband.  In  all 
her  ups  and  downs,  she  would  be  still  hanging  upon  Christ,  and  cleaving  to 
Christ,  John  xiii.  15  ;  Acts  xi.  23 ;  Ruth  i.  14 ;   Gen.  ii.  24. 

Eighthly,  About  her  thirstiugs,  breathings,  and  longings,  after  higher,  clearer, 
and  fuller  enjoyments  of  Christ,  she  could  never  have  enough  of  Christ,  Ps.  xiii. 
1,  2,  lxiii.  ;  Mai.  i.  2,  3  ;  Ps.  lxxxiv.,  xxvii.  4,  8,  nor  enough  of  his  presence, 
nor  enough  of  his  Spirit,  nor  enough  of  his  grace,  nor  enough  of  his  manifesta- 
tions, nor  enough  of  his  consolations ;  the  constant  cry  of  her  soul  was,  More  of 
Christ !  more  of  Christ !  0  more  of  Christ ! 

Ninthly,  About  her  sad  lamenting  and  bewailing  the  withdrawings  of  Christ, 
Cant.  v.  6  ;  Isa.  viii.  17,  7  ;  Micah  vii.  8,  9,  2.  There  were  no  days  so  sad,  so 
dark,  so  gloomy,  so  grievous,  so  afflictive  to  her,  as  those  days  wherein  he  that 
should  comfort  her  soul  stood  afar  off,  Lam.  xvi.  The  shinings  of  Christ's  face 
made  a  heaven  in  her  heart ;  and  the  hidings  of  his  face  was  her  only  hell.  Let 
whoso  would  frown,  if  Christ  did  but  smile,  all  was  well. 

Tenthly,  About  her  sympathising  with  Christ  in  all  the  dishonours  that  were 
done  to  his  name,  his  person,  his  day,  bis  offices,  his  ordinances,  his  ways,  his 
saints  ;  and  it  was  a  grief  to  her  to  see  others  grieving  of  Christ,  Ps.  cxix.  53, 
cxxxvi. ;  Jer.  ix.  1,  2  ;  Ezek.  ix.  4,  6  ;  1  Peter  ii.  4,  7,  8.  Other  men's  sins  were 
matter  of  her  sorrow  ;  the  sins  of  others  hath  cost  her  many  a  prayer,  many  a 
si"h,  many  a  tear,  and  many  a  groan.  Now,  should  I  say  all  I  could  upon  these 
ten  particulars,  when  should  I  make  an  end  ?  and  therefore  I  must  satisfy 
myself  and  the  reader  with  a-hinting  at  things. 


Her  whole  life  (human  frailties  excepted)  since  God  made  it  the  day  of  his 
power  upon  her  soul,  was  a  daily  walking  with  God ;  and  all  the  days  that  ever 
passed  over  her  head,  there  was  none  for  delight,  pleasure,  profit,  comfort, 
content,  boldness,  and  satisfaction,  to  those  wherein  she  walked  most  evenly, 
most  closely,  and  most  exactly  with  God,  Gen.  v.  22,  vi.  9,  xvii.  1;  Ps.  cxix., 
cxii.  44,  45  ;  Acts  xxiv.  16  ;  Heb.  xiii.  18. 

Concerning  Sin.  1.  Sin  of  all  burdens  was  her  greatest,  Ps.  xxxviii.  4,  xl.  12. 
2.  Her  hatred  and  indignation  against  sin  was  universal,  Ps.  cxix.  104,  128  ; 
Isa.  ii.  20,  xxx.  22  ;  Hosea  xiv.  8  ;  Ps.  cxix.  176.  3.  Her  whole  life  was  a  daily 
conflicting  with  sin,  Rom.  vii.  23,  24  ;  Ps.  xvii.  4.  She  had  rather  be  rid  of  all 
her  sins,  than  be  rid  of  all  her  troubles,  sorrows,  trials,  bodily  ailments,  Job  vii. 
20,  21,  xxxiv.  31,  32;  Hosea  xiv.  2.  Others  are  all  for  the  removing  of  the  judg- 
ments and  afflictions  they  are  under,  Exod.  viii.  8;  Num.  xxi.  6,  7  ;  Jer.  xxx.  15. 
5.  She  durst  not  allow  herself  in  any  known  sin,  much  less  in  a  course  or  way 
of  sin,  Ps.  cxix.  1,3;  Rom.  vii.  15  ;  1  John  iii.  9;  Prov.  xvi.  17.  6.  Her  greatest 
conflict  was  with  heart  sins,  secret  sins,  spiritual  sins,  invisible  sins  ;  sins  that 
lie  most  hid  and  remote  from  the  eyes  of  the  world,  Ps.  xix.  12,  cxix.,  cxiii.  'I 
hate  vain  thoughts :'  secret  self-love,  secret  pride,  secret  unbelief,  secret  hypo- 
crisy, secret  murmurings,  secret  carnal  confidence,  &c,  2  Chron.  xxxii.  25  ; 
2  Cor.  vii.  1,  did  sit  saddest  upon  her  spirit.  7.  There  was  an  irreconcilable 
opposition  in  her  soul  against  sin  ;  she  could  not,  she  would  not,  she  durst  not 
upon  anv  terms  in  the  world,  admit  of  any  truce  or  reconciliation  with  sin, 
1  Kings  xiv.  30  ;  Rom.  vii.  23  ;  Gal.  v.  17 ;  Rom.  vi.  6  ;  Ps.  Ii.  2,  7,  &c.  8.  Her 
daily  slips  and  falls  did  daily  produce  more  soul- loathings,  soul-humiliation, 
self-judging,  self-abasement,  self-abhorrency,  Ezek.  xvi.  61,  63  ;  2  Cor.  vii.  11  ; 
Ps.  xviii.  9.  Her  constant  desires  and  earnest  endeavours  were  to  avoid  and 
shun  all  known  appearances  of  sin,  Gen.  xxxix.  12 ;  2  Cor.  viii.  20,  21  ;  1  Cor. 
ix.  11-15  ;  1  Thes.  v.  22  ;  Jude  23  ;  Exod.  xxiii.  7  ;  Deut.  xii.  30 ;  Prov.  v.  8. 
10.  And,  lastly,  she  set  herself,  her  soul,  her  greatest  strength  against  her  bosom 
sins,  her  constitution  sins,  her  most  powerful  and  most  prevalent  sins  ;  she  set 
herself  most  against  right-e}re  sins,  and  right-hand  sins. 

Concerning  closet-prayer.  I  never  knew  any  woman  spend  more  time  in  her 
closet,  nor  keep  more  private  days  to  God  than  she  did.  The  duties  of  her 
closet  were  her  meat  and  drink,  and  she  was  always  best  when  she  was  most 
with  God  in  a  corner.  She  has  many  a  whole  day  been  pouring  out  her  soul 
before  God  in  her  closet,  for  the  nation,  for  Sion,  and  the  great  concerns  of  her 
own  soul,  when  them  about  her  did  judge  it  more  expedient  that  she  had  been 
in  her  bed,  by  reason  of  some  bodily  infirmity  that  did  hang  upon  her ;  but  the 
divine  pleasures  that  she  took  in  her  closet  did  drown  the  sense  of  pain.  Secret 
enjoyments  of  God  makes  heavy  afflictions  light,  long  afflictions  short,  and  bitter 
afflictions  sweet,  Isa.  xxxiii.  24,  2  Cor.  iv.  16-18.  She  found  by  frequent 
experience  that  closet-duties  were  mighty  enriching,  soul-fattening,  soul-strength- 
ening, soul-nourishing  ;  and  this  endeared  her  to  her  closet. 

Concerning  ordinances.  All  that  did  thoroughly  know  her  did  know,  1,  that 
she  greatly  loved  the  ordinances  in  the  power  and  purity  ;  2,  that  she  highly 
prized  them  ;  3,  that  she  made  improvements  of  them,  &c,  endeavouring, 
according  to  her  measure  received,  so  to  live  as  that  she  might  reflect  honour 
and  glory  upon  the  ordinances  ;  4,  she  made  conscience  of  one  ordinance  as 
well  as  another,  Luke  i.  5,  6  ;  she  did  not  as  some,  cry  up  some  ordinances 
and  cry  down  others,  nor  keep  close  to  some,  and  live  in  the  neglect  of  others  ; 
5,  she  ran  all  hazards  in  times  of  dangers  to  enjoy  the  ordinances,  and  chose 
rather  with  Moses  to  suffer  afflictions  with  the  people  of  God,  than  to  enjoy  the 
pleasures  of  sin,  which  were  but  for  a  season,  Heb.  xi.  24-27.  6.  I  never  knew 
any  Christian  under  such  a  load  of  weaknesses  strive  and  labour  to  enjoy  the 
ordinances  as  she  did  the  three  last  years  before  her  death. 

VOL.  I.  / 


Concerning  her  lore  to  the  saints.  First,  It  was  sincere  for  the  image  of  God, 
of  Christ,  of  grace,  and  holiness,  1  John  Hi.  14,  18  ;  1  John  v.  1.  The  image 
of  God  was  the  loadstone  that  drew  out  her  love  to  the  saints. 

2.  It  was  universal,  to  one  Christian  as  well  as  another,  to  all  as  well  as  any, 
to  poor  Lazarus  as  well  as  rich  Abraham,  to  an  afflicted  and  despised.  Job  as 
well  as  to  an  admired  David,  to  an  o  "flic-ted  Jacob  as  well  as  to  a  raised  Joseph, 
Neb.  i.  15  ;  Col.  i.  4  ;  Philip,  iv.  21 ;  1  Peter  ii.  17. 

3.  It  was  an  extensive  love  ;  it  extended  to  those  that  were  remote  in  respect 
of  place,  as  well  as  to  those  that  were  near,  to  those  saints  wbose  faces  she 
never  saw,  a°  well  as  to  those  whose  faces  she  daily  beheld  ;  and  all  upon  the 
serious  reports  of  the  grace  of  God  that  has  been  sparkling  and  shining  in  them, 
Rom.  v.  26. 

4.  It  was  a  fervent  love,  an  active  love,  a  love  that  put  her  upon  doing,  upon 
acting  for  them,  and  distributing  to  them  according  to  her  ability  and  their 
necessity,  1  Peter  i.  22  ;  Acts  xi.  28-30 ;  1  Peter  iv.  11.  Her  love  was  not  a 
cold,  idle,  1  izy  love,  like  theirs  in  James  ii.  14-17. 

5.  It  was  a  constant  love,  a  permanent  love,  1  Cor.  xiii.  8,  Heb.  xiii.  1 : 
'  Let  brotherly  love  continue,'  1  John  iv.  16,  Prov.  xvii.  17.  It  was  a  love  like 
that  of  Christ,  who  loved  his  to  the  end,  John  xiii.  1,  xv.  12.  Look,  as  our 
love  must  be  sincere  without  hypocrisy,  so  it  must  be  constant  without  deficiency. 
That  love  was  never  true  that  is  not  constant.  True  love,  like  the  pulse,  will 
still  be  beating,  it  will  still  be  working,  and  turning  out  to  the  person  beloved. 

6.  She  loved,  honoured,  and  prized  them  most  and  best  in  whom  the  spiritual 
and  supernatural  causes  of  love  did  most  shine  and  sparkle,  Ps.  xv.  4,  xvi.  3, 
xlv.  13,  cxix.  119.  Such  saints  as  were  magnificent  in  grace,  noble  in  grace, 
idorious  in  grace,  wonderful  in  grace,  had  most  of  her  heart,  and  were  most 
honoured  and  prized  by  her  ;  she  loved  them  best  that  were  best. 

Concerning  the  signal  and  blessed  ])resence  of  God  with  her  throughout  her  nine 
months'  sickness.  This  divine  presence  with  his  sick  and  weak  handmaid  did 
manifest  itself  several  ways  ;  at  first  by  preserving  her  eminently  from  sinning 
under  her  sufferings,  as  she  would  often  say,  Though  I  groan,  yet  I  bless  God 
I  do  not  grumble.  I  remember  what  Job,  Jeremiah,  and  Jonah  said  and  did 
in  the  days  of  their  sore  sufferings ;  but  God  stood  by  his  poor  handmaid,  and 
greatly  armed  her  against  those  particular  sins  that  an  afflicted  state  lays  the 
afflicted  open  to.  Secondly,  this  glorious  presence  of  God  was  manifested  by 
keeping  up  in  her  daily  exercise  of  those  particular  graces  that  was  to  be  acted 
in  an  offiicted  condition,  as  faith,  hope,  patience,  self-denial,  contentation  and 
submission.  Thirdly,  this  gracious  presence  of  God  did  manifest  itself  by 
enabling  his  weak  and  sick  handmaid  in  all  her  continued  weakness  to  be  still 
•i-justifying  of  God,  and  crying  out,  The  Lord  is  righteous,  the  Lord  is  righteous  ; 
he  is  holy  and  just,  he  can  do  me  no  wrong,  he  will  do  me  no  wrong.  Though 
the  cup  be  bitter  to  the  flesh,  yet  it  is  a  cup  that  my  Father  hath  put  into  my 
band,  and  therefore  I  will  drink  it,  and  lay  my  hand  upon  my  mouth,  and  be 
silent  at  my  Father's  foot,  Lam.  i.  18  ;  Ps.  cxix.  75  ;  Gen.  xviii.  25  ;  John 
xviii.  11  ;  Lam.  iii.  26-28  ;  Rev.  xx.  2. 

Fourthly,  This  gracious  presence  of  God  was  signally  manifested  in  the 
:ning  up  of  Satan  ;  for  the  greatest  part  of  her  sickness,  her  body  being 
very  low,  her  spirits  low,  and  her  strength  low,  and  by  reason  of  her  great  and 
many  weaknesses,  she  was  cast  unavoidably  under  great  indispositions,  both  as 
to  civil  and  sacred  things  ;  the  greater  was  the  mercy  in  God's  chaining  up  of 
Satan  ;  and  if  now  and  then  Satan  began  to  be  busy,  the  Lord  quickly  rebuked 
him,  and  laid  a  law  of  restraint  upon  him.  Fifthly,  this  gracious  presence  of 
God  was  signally  manifested  in  keeping  down  and  in  keeping  off  the  fears  and 
terrors  of  death.  She  could  all  along  cast  the  gauntlet  to  death,  and  say  with 
the  apostle,  «  0  death,  where  is  thy  sting?  0  grave,  where  is  thy  victory?'  &c, 


1  Cor.  xv.  55-57.  Death  is  the  king  of  terrors,  as  Job  speaks,  Job  xviii.  14, 
Heb.  ii.  14, 15,  and  the  terror  of  kings,  as  the  philosopher  speaks ;  and  yet  the 
great  and  blessed  God  took  away  the  dread  and  terror  of  death  rrom  her.  If 
vqu  ask  those  that  lie  under  the  fears  and  terrors  of  death,  they  will  tell  you 
that  deliverance  from  those  fears  and  terrors  would  be  a  heaven  on  this  side 
heaven  unto  them.  I  could  greatly  enlarge,  but  that  both  the  press  and  the 
bookseller  calls  aloud  upon  me  to  conclude. 

The  design  of  these  few  hints  is  to  comfort  and  encourage  relations  and 
friends  to  write  after  this  blessed  copy  and  example  of  that  dear  servant  of 
Christ  who  hath  now  exchanged  earth  for  heaven,  a  wilderness  for  a  paradise, 
a  sick-bed  for  a  royal  throne,  pains,  strong  and  long  pains,  for  everlasting 
pleasures,  and  the  presence  of  poor,  frail,  sinful  mortals  for  the  presence  of  God, 
Christ,  angels,  and  the  spirits  of  just  men  made  perfect,  Ps.  xvi.  11,  Heb.  xii. 
22,  23. 

E. — WILL.     See  ante  page  xxxv. 

Extbacted  from  the  Principal  Registry  of  Her  Majesty's  Court  of 


(In  the  Prerogative  Court  of  Canterbury.) 

Death  is  a  fall  that  came  in  by  a  Fall :  that  statute  Law  of  Heaven  '  Dust 
thou  art  and  to  dust  thou  shalt  returne'  will  first  or  last  take  hold  of  all  mortalls ; 
the  core  of  that  apple  that  Adam  eat  in  Paradise  will  choke  us  all  round  one 
by  one  ;  there  is  not  one  man  living  that  shall  not  see  death  ;  though  all  men 
shall  not  meete  in  Heaven,  nor  in  Hell,  yet  all  men  shall  meete  in  the  grave 
whether  wee  and  all  a  [re]  going.  To  prevent  ill  consequences  and  the  mis- 
chiefes  that  follow  without  making  a  Will  and  to  sett  my  house  in  order  I  doo 
make  this  short  following  Will.  First  I  bequeath  unto  my  loveing  Couson 
Mistress  Elenor  Crith,  fifty  pounds  which  1  will  that  my  Executrix  pay  within 
a  twelve  moneths  after  my  death.  I  give  to  Vice  Admirall  Goodsons  eldest 
daughters  sonne  that  shee  had  by  her  husband,  Captain  Magger1  twenty  five 
pounds  but  in  case  of  his  Mortallity  to  what  child  shee  pleaseth.  I  will  and 
bequeath  unto  her  sister  Maryes  eldest  child  twenty  five  pounds  both  of  which 
summes  my  Executrix  is  to  pay  within  a  yeare  after  my  death.  Item  I  give 
my  studdy  of  bookes  to  be  sold  by  my  Couson  Ford  and  my  couson  Henry 
Goodman  and  Master  Crouch ;  and  the  money  thence  ariseing  to  be  equally 
divided  into  foure  proportions,  one  for  my  couson  Martha  Wright,  another  for 
Mary  Wright,  the  other  two  for  Roger  Timborland's  two  children  which  he  had 
by  my  couson  Joan,  as  soon  as  the  sale  is  made2  my  Will  is  that  my  Executrix 
pay  it  into  my  couson  Martha  and  Mary  Wright,  and  to  Master  Collins  of  New- 
bury I  give  for  the  use  of  the  other  two  ;  And  should  it  soo  happen  that 
either  of  the  Girls  should  dye  before  age  or  marriage,  that  then  the  surviving 
sister  should  have  her  sisters  loss,  and  in  case  of  both  their  Mortalities  before 
age  or  Marriage  that  then  Master  Collins  gives  the  money  to  Ministers  and 
Ministers  Widows  that  hee  and  Master  Woodbridge  the  minister  is  acquainted 
with3  Item  that  one  hundred  pounds  that  I  have  upon  Master  John  Juxon  and 

1  Query — the  shipwright  and  purveyor  of  wood  to  the  Navy  frequently  mentioned  in 
the  '  Calendar'  of  Charles  II.  [1660-1667],  who  was  termed  Robert  Magore'?— G. 

2  Mr  Mayor  of  the  University  Library,  Cambridge,  informs  me  that  there  was  a  '  printed 
catalogue'  of  Brooks's  Library  issued  for  the  sale.  I  have  not  been  so  fortunate  as  to 
trace  it. — G. 

3  Benjamin  Woodbridge,  M.A.,  was  the  venerable  'Ejected'  of  Newbury  in  1662. 
See  Palmer's  •  Nonconformist's  Memorial,'  vol.  i.  pp.  290,  291. — G. 


that  is  now  in  the  hand  of  Master  Shepheard  he  delivered  into  the  hands  of  my 
honoured  Father '  Master  Thomas  Cartwright  And  that  the  money  upon 
that  Bond  to  pave  in  as  he  is  able  into  the  hands  of  my  Father  Master  Thomas 
Cartwright  And  my  Will  is  that  this  Money  so  paid  in  be  by  my  Father  Cart- 
wright  and  my  Couson  Ford  and  my  Couson  Henry  Goodman  distributed 
amongst  such  ministers  and  ministers  Widows  as  they  think  meete  Item  I  give 
to  my  deare  and  honoured  Mother  Mistress  Patience  Cartwright  my  Sedan  : 
And  all  the  rest  my  real  and  personal  Estate  I  give  unto  my  deare  and  honoured 
Wife  |  in]  whom  God  hath  made  all  relations  to  meet  in  one.2  I  doo  ordaine  my 
said  Wife  to  be  solo  Executrix  of  this  my  last  Will  and  Testament  and  my 
honoured  Father  Master  Thomas  Cartwright  the  only  Overseer  and  Assistant 
to  my  Executrix  In  witnesses  hereof  I  putt  my  hand  and  seale  the  day  and  year 
under  written — Thomas  Brooks — March  the  twenty  seventh  one  thousand  six 
hundred  and  Eighty — Witness  Edward  Wylde — Henry  Chandler — Tho.  Cart- 

Probatum  apud  London  fuit  hujusmodi  Testamentum  coram  Venerabili 
viro  Domino  Thoma  Lyton  Milite,  Legum  Doctore,  Surrogato  Venerabilis  et 
egregij  viri  Domini  Leolini  Jenkins  Militis,  Legum  etiam  Doctoris,  Curirc 
Praerogativae  Cantuariensis  Magistri  Custodis  sive  Commissary  legitime  con- 
stitute decimo  quinto  die  mensis  Octobris  Anno  Domini  Millesimo  sexcentesimo 
Octogesimo  ;  Juramento  Patienciae  Brooks  Relictae  dicti  defuncti  et  Executricis 
in  hujusmodi  Testamento  nominat;  Cui  commissa  fuit  Administratio  omnium  et 
singulorum  bonorum,  jurium  et  creditorum  dicti  defuncti,  de  bene  et  fideliter 
Administrando  eadem  ad  sancta  Dei  Evangelia  in  debita  Juris  forma  Jurat. 

1  Father-in-law. — G. 

2  Mrs  Brooks.  In  accord  with  this  loving  mention  of  his  second  as  before  of  his  first 
wife,  1  .add  here  the  second  '  Dedication'  of  Brooks's  funeral  sermon  by  John  Reeve,  M.A. 
[See  ante  page  xxxv.]     It  is  as  follows  :— 

*  To  my  honoured  and  worthy  friend,  Mrs  Patience  Brooks,  the  relict  of  that  faithful 
pastor  deceased,  J.  R.  wisheth  external,  internal,  and  eternal  happiness.  The  loss  of  a 
Christian  friend  is  a  great  loss,  much  more  of  a  Christian  relation,  and  yet  more  of  such  a 
near  relation,  most  of  all  of  such  a  relation  as  was  both  a  loving  husband  and  a  spiritual 
guide.  These  twisted  sorrows,  like  a  four-fold  cord,  are  not  easily  broken  loose  from.  1 
cannot  hut  condole  with  you  in  your  affliction,  and  pray  for  great  supports  for  you  under 
so  great  a  trial.  You  have  need  of  patience,  and  that  patience  itself  should  be  more 
patient.  It  is  a  Father's  rod  in  a  Father's  hand,  and,  though  smarting,  yet  instructive 
and  medicinal.  Let  not  time  but  grace  overcome  your  sorrow.  Then  will  you  approve 
yourself  a  Christian  indeed,  and  do  more  than  others.  I  need  not  use  arguments  to  you 
that  are  so  well  skilled  in  your  duty  through  grace.  The  indefatigable  pains  you  have 
taken  to  write  from  your  husband's  mouth  such  large  and  frequent  meditations  and  divine 
truths  which  were  continually  dropping  from  his  lips  under  his  weakness,  they  cannot 
but  make  an  extraordinary  deep  impression  of  themselves  upon  your  heart.  You  are  much 
admired — I  don't  flatter  you,  but  commend  you — for  your  excessive  love  and  tenderness 
to  him  under  all  those  infirmities  he  so  quietly  submitted  himself  to,  your  cheerfulness 
under  the  hardest  services,  that  none  but  yourself  could  have  gone  through  with  so  much 
content  to  him  ;  and  your  perseverance  in  it  to  the  last,  speaks  a  rejoicing  to  your  con- 
science, and  may  be  an  alleviation  of  your  grief.  And  it  is  to  be  observed  that  God  fore- 
said what  must  be  provided  him,  a  loving  wife,  and  a  skilful  and  careful  nurse,  to  be  his 
consort  and  comfort.  And  now  he  is  at  rest,  be  you  at  rest ;  and  let  the  love  you  bear 
him  rejoice  in  his  present  discharge  from  sin  and  sorrow.  We  must  not  dispute  Provi- 
dence, but  submit.  I  have  been  bold,  without  your  leave,  to  affix  your  name  to  your 
husband's  memorials.  Accept  the  service  as  from  one  that  honours  you,  and  shall  upon 
all  occasions  approve  himself  your  very  entire  friend  and  servant  in  the  Lord,  John  Reeve.' 


VOL.  I. 


The  editions  of  '  Precious  Remedies,'  from  its  original  publication  in  1G52,  have 
been  very  numerous.  The  '2d '  was  issued  in  1653,  'corrected  and  enlarged.'  For 
many  years  reprints  followed  in  rapid  succession,  more  numerous  indeed  than  at 
first  sight  appears,  e.g.  those  of  1661  and  1669,  though  distinct  impressions,  being 
without  designation  as  new  editions.  The  '7th'  appeared  in  1671,  the  '  8th '  in 
1676,  and  the  '9th'  in  1682.  Our  text  is  that  of  the  '  8th,*  collated  with  the  l*t 
and  2d.  The  '  8th  '  was  chosen,  as  having  been  the  last  during  the  author's  own 
lifetime :  but  the  collation  was  found  necessary,  inasmuch  as  Brooks,  after  a  '  2d  ' 
and  usually  'corrected'  and  'enlarged'  edition,  seems  to  have  allowed  his  books  to 
be  reprinted  without  further  oversight.  Thus  in  our  text  (page  11)  for  'Dan's  adder' 
it  misprints  '  Pan's  adder,'  and  so  on  in  a  multitude  of  like  cases  in  all  the  after- 
editions  of  all  his  writings.  Hence  the  later  editions  prove  much  more  incorrect 
than  the  earlier,  especially  in  the  textual  and  marginal  references,  &c,  and  a  recur- 
rence to  the  original  or  early  'corrected'  edition  often  enables  us  to  see  the  source 
of  the  error.     The  title-page  of  the  '  8th  '  edition  is  given  below.  G. 




Satan's  Devices : 


(    Believers    ") 

(Unbelievers  J 

Being  a  Companion  for  those  that  are  in  Christ, 
or  out  of  Christ;  that  slight  or  neglect  Ordinances, 
under  a  pretence  of  living  above  them  ;  that  are 
growing  (in  Spirituals)  or  decaying ;  that  are 
Tempted,  or  Deserted  ;  Afflicted  or  opposed;  that 
have  Assurance,  or  that  want  Assurance,  $c. 

By  Thomas  Brooks,  formerly  a  willing  Servant 
unto  God,  and  the  Faith  of  his  People,  in  the  glo- 
rious Gospel  of  Christ  at  St.  Margarets Fishstreet-hill. 

The  Eighth  Edition. 

Ephes.  6.  11. 

Put  on  the  whole  Armour  of  God,  that  ye  may  be 

able  to  stand  against  the  wiles  of  the  Devil. 


Printed  for  John  Ilancock,  and  are  to  be  sold  at  the 

three  Bibles,  the  first  shop  in  Popes-head 

Alley,  next  to  Cornhill.     1676. 


To  his  most  dear  and  precious  ones,  the  sons  and  daughters  of  the 
Most  High  God,  over  whom  the  Holy  Ghost  hath  made  him  a  Watch- 

Beloved  in  our  dearest  Lord,  Christ,  the  Scripture,  your  own  hearts, 
and  Satan's  devices,  are  the  four  prime  things  that  should  be  first  and 
most  studied  and  searched.  If  any  cast  off  the  study  of  these,  they 
cannot  be  safe  here,  nor  happy  hereafter.  It  is  my  work  as  a  Chris- 
tian, but  much  more  as  I  am  a  Watchman,  to  do  my  best  to  discover 
the  fulness  of  Christ,  the  emptiness  of  the  creature,  and  the  snares  of 
the  great  deceiver;1  which  I  have  endeavoured  to  do,  in  the  following 
Discourse,  according  to  that  measure  of  grace  which  I  have  received 
from  the  Lord.  God  once  accepted  a  handful  of  meal  for  a  sacrifice 
[Lev.  ii.  2,  v.  12],  and  a  gripe  of  goat's  hair  for  an  oblation  ;2  and  I 
know  that  you  have  not  so  'learned  the  Father,'  as  to  despise  'the  day 
of  small  things '  [Zech.  iv.  1  ()]. 

Beloved,  Satan  being  fallen  from  light  to  darkness,  from  felicity  to 
misery,  from  heaven  to  hell,  from  an  angel  to  a  devil,  is  so  full  of 
malice  and  envy  that  he  will  leave  no  means  unattempted,  whereby 
he  may  make  all  others  eternally  miserable  with  himself;  he  being- 
shut  out  of  heaven,  and  shut  up  '  under  the  chains  of  darkness  till  the 
judgment  of  the  great  day'  [Jude  6],  makes  use  of  all  his  power  and 
skill  to  bring  all  the  sons  of  men  into  the  same  condition  and  con- 
demnation, with  himself.  Satan  hath  cast  such  sinful  seed  into  our 
souls,  that  now  he  can  no  sooner  tempt,  but  we  are  ready  to  assent ; 
he  can  no  sooner  have  a  plot  upon  us,  but  he  makes  a  conquest  of  us. 
If  he  doth  but  shew  men  a  little  of  the  beauty  and  bravery3  of  the 
world,  how  ready  are  they  to  fall  down  and  worship  him  ! 

Whatever  sin  the  heart  of  man  is  most  prone  to,  that  the  devil  will 
help  forward.  If  David  be  proud  of  his  people,  Satan  will  provoke 
him  to  number  them,  that  he  may  be  yet  prouder,  2  Samuel  xxiv. 

If  Peter  be  slavishly  fearful,  Satan  will  put  him  upon  rebuking  and 

1  If  a  minister  had  as  many  eyes  as  Argus,  to  watch,  and  as  many  heads  as  Typheus, 
to  dispose,  and  as  many  hands  as  Briareus,  to  labour,  he  might  find  employment 
enough  for  them  all.  [(1.)  Argus,  surnamed  Panoptes,  all-seeing.  Cf.  iEschylus,  Prom. 
Apollod.  Ov.  II.  cc.  (X.)  Tvpheus,  i.e.  Typhoeus.  Cf.  Pindar,  Pyth.  i.  31  ;  viii.  21 ;  01. 
iv.  12.    (3.)  Briareus,  i.e.  iEgseon.    Cf  Apollod.  i.  9,  \  1  ;  Hesiod,  Theog.  957.— G.] 

2  Gripe  or  '  handful.'     Cf.  Exod.  xxv.  4  ;  xxxv.  26. — G.  s  Finery. — G. 


denying  of  Christ,  to  save  his  own  skin,  Mat.  xvi.  22,  chap.  xxvi.  69-75. 
If  Ahab's  prophets  be  given  to  flatter,  the  devil  will  straightway  be- 
come  a  lying  spirit  in  the  mouths  of  four  hundred  of  them,  and  they 
shall  flatter  Ahab  to  his  ruin,  1  Kings  xxii.  If  Judas  will  be  a  traitor, 
Satan  will  quickly  enter  into  his  heart,  and  make  him  sell  his  master 
for  money,  which  some  heathens  would  never  have  done,  John  xiii.  2. 
If  Ananias  will  lie  for  advantage,  Satan  will  fill  his  heart  that  he  may 
lie,  with  a  witness,  to  the  Holy  Ghost,  Acts  v.  3.  Satan  loves  to  sail 
with  the  wind,  and  to  suit  men's  temptations  to  their  conditions  and 
inclinations.  If  they  be  in  prosperity,  he  will  tempt  them  to  deny 
God,  Prov.  xxx.  9  ;  if  they  be  in  adversity,  he  will  tempt  them  to  dis- 
trust God  ;  if  their  knowledge  be  weak,  he  will  tempt  them  to  have 
low  thoughts  of  God  ;  if  their  conscience  be  tender,  he  will  tempt  to 
scrupulosity  ;  if  large,  to  carnal  security  ;  if  bold-spirited,  he  will 
tempt  to  presumption  ;  if  timorous,  to  desperation  ;  if  flexible,  to  in- 
constancy ;  if  stiff,  to  impenitency,  &c. 

From  the  power,  malice,  and  skill  of  Satan,  doth  proceed  all  the 
soul-killing  plots,  devices,  stratagems,  and  machinations,  that  be  in 
the  world.  Several  devices  he  hath  to  draw  souls  to  sin,  and  several 
plots  he  hath  to  keep  souls  from  all  holy  and  heavenly  services,  and 
several  stratagems  he  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  mourning,  staggering, 
doubting,  and  questioning  condition. 

He  hath  several  devices  to  destroy  the  great  and  honourable,  the 
wise  and  learned,  the  blind  and  ignorant,  the  rich  and  the  poor,  the 
real  and  the  nominal  saints. 

One  while  he  will  restrain  from  tempting,  that  we  may  think  our- 
selves secure,  and  neglect  our  watch  ;  another  while  he  will  seem  to 
fly,  that  he  may  make  us  proud  of  the  victory  ;  one  while  he  will  fix 
men's  eyes  more  on  others'  sins  than  their  own,  that  he  may  puff  them 
up  ;  another  while  he  may  fix  their  eyes  more  on  others'  graces  than 
their  own,  that  he  may  overwhelm  them,  &c. 

A  man  may  as  well  tell  the  stars,  and  number  the  sands  of  the  sea, 
as  reckon  up  all  the  Devices  of  Satan ;  yet  those  which  are  most  con- 
siderable, and  by  which  he  doth  most  mischief  to  the  precious  souls  of 
men,  are  in  the  following  Treatise  discovered,  and  the  Remedies  against 
them  prescribed. 

Beloved,  I  think  it  necessary  to  give  you  and  the  world  a  faithful 
account  of  the  reasons  moving  me  to  appear  in  print,  in  these  days, 
wherein  we  may  say,  there  was  never  more  writing  and  yet  never  less 
practising,  and  they  are  these  that  follow,  &c. 

Reason  1.  First,  Because  Satan  hath  a  greater  influence  upon  men, 
and  higher  advantages  over  them  (having  the  wind  and  the  hill,  as  it 
were),  than  they  think  he  hath,  and  the  knowledge  of  his  high  advan- 
tage, is  the  highway  to  disappoint  him,  and  to  render  the  soul  strong 
in  resisting,  and  happy  in  conquering,  &c. 

Reason  2.  Your  importunity,  and  the  importunity  of  many  other 
'  precious  sons  of  Sion,'  Lam.  iv.  2,  hath  after  much  striving  with  God, 
my  own  heart,  and  others,  made  a  conquest  of  me,  and  forced  me  to 
do  that  at  last,  which  at  first  was  not  a  little  contrary  to  my  inclina- 
tion and  resolution,  &c. 


Reason  3.  The  strange  opposition  that  I  met  with  from  Satan,  in 
the  study  of  this  following  discourse,  hath  put  an  edge  upon  my  spirit, 
knowing  that  Satan  strives  mightily  to  keep  those  things  from  seeing 
the  light,  that  tend  eminently  to  shake  and  break  his  kingdom  of 
darkness,  and  to  lift  up  the  kingdom  and  glory  of  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  in  the  souls  and  lives  of  the  children  of  men,  &C.1 

Reason  4.  Its  exceeding  usefulness  to  all  sorts,  ranks,  and  conditions 
of  men  in  the  world.  Here  you  have  salve  for  every  sore,  and  a  plas- 
ter for  every  wound,  and  a  remedy  against  every  disease,  especially 
against  those  that  tend  most  to  the  undoing  of  souls,  and  the  ruin  of 
the  State,  &c. 

Reason  5.  1  know  not  of  any  one  or  other  that  have  writ  of  this 
subject ;  all  that  ever  I  have  seen  have  only  touched  upon  this  string, 
which  hath  been  no  small  provocation  to  me,  to  attempt  to  do  some- 
thing this  way,  that  others,  that  have  better  heads  and  hearts,  may  be 
the  more  stirred  to  improve  their  talents  in  a  further  discovery  of 
Satan's  Devices,  and  in  making  known  of  such  choice  Remedies,  as 
may  enable  the  souls  of  men  to  triumph  over  all  his  plots  and  strata- 
gems,2 «Sic. 

Reason  6.  I  have  many  precious  friends  in  several  countries,  who 
are  not  a  little  desirous  that  my  pen  may  reach  them,  now  my  voice 
cannot.  I  have  formerly  been,  by  the  help  of  the  mighty  God  of 
Jacob,  a  weak  instrument  of  good  to  them,  and  cannot  but  hope  and 
believe  that  the  Lord  will  also  bless  these  labours  to  them  ;  they 
being,  in  part,  the  fruit  of  their  desires  and  prayers,  &c. 

Reason  7.  Lastly,  Not  knowing  how  soon  my  glass  may  be  out, 
and  how  soon  I  may  be  cut  off  by  a  hand  of  death,  from  all  oppor- 
tunities of  doing  further  service  for  Christ  or  your  souls  in  this  woiid, 
I  was  willing  to  sow  a  little  handful  of  spiritual  seed  among  you ;  that 
so,  when  I  put  off  this  earthly  tabernacle,  my  love  to  you,  and  that 
dear  remembrance  of  you,  which  I  have  in  my  soul,  may  strongly 
engage  your  minds  and  spirits  to  make  this  book  your  companion,  and 
under  all  external  or  internal  changes,  to  make  use  of  this  heavenly 
salve,  which  I  hope  will,  by  the  blessing  of  the  Lord,  be  as  effectual 
for  the  healing  of  all  your  wounds,  as  their  looking  up  to  the  brazen 
serpent  was  effectual  to  heal  theirs  that  were  bit  and  stung  with 
fiery  serpents.  I  shall  leave  this  book  with  you  as  a  legacy  of  my 
dearest  love,  desiring  the  Lord  to  make  it  a  far  greater  and  sweeter 
legacy  than  all  those  carnal  legacies  are  that  are  left  by  the  high  and 
mighty  ones  of  the  earth  to  their  nearest  and  dearest  relations,  &c. 

Beloved,  I  would  not  have  affection  carry  my  pen  too  much  beyond 
my  intention.  Therefore,  only  give  me  leave  to  signify  my  desires  for 
you,  and  my  desires  to  you,  and  I  shall  draw  to  a  close. 

My  desires  for  you  are,  '  That  he  would  grant  you,  according  to  the 
riches  of  his  glory,  to  be  strengthened  with  might  by  his  Spirit  in  the 

1  Pirates  make  the  strongest  and  the  hottest  opposition  against  those  vessels  that  are 
most  richly  laden.  So  doth  Satan,  that  arch-pirate,  against  those  truths  that  have 
most  of  God,  Christ,  and  heaven  in  them. 

2  Brooks  overlooked  the  remarkable  '  Stratagema1  of  Acontius,  which,  previous  to 
1  Precious  Remedies,'  had  been  translated  by  no  less  a  man  than  John  Goodwin  into 
English,  and  by  others  into  almost  every  European  language G. 


inner  man  ;  that  Christ  may  dwell  in  your  hearts  by  faith,  that  ye, 
being  rooted  and  grounded  in  love,  may  be  able  to  comprehend  with 
all  saints  what  is  the  breadth,  and  length,  and  depth,  and  height;  and 
to  know  the  love  of  Christ  that  passeth  knowledge,  that  ye  might  be 
filled  with  all  the  fulness  of  God,'  Eph.  iii.  1G-19;  and  'That  ye  might 
walk  worthy  of  the  Lord  unto  all  pleasing,  being  fruitful  in  every 
good  work,  and  increased  in  the  knowledge  of  God,  strengthened  with 
all  might  according  to  his  glorious  power,  unto  all  patience  and  long- 
suffering,  with  joyfulness,'  Col.  i.  10,  11 ;  'That  ye  do  no  evil,'  2  Cor. 
xiii.  7 ;  '  That  your  love  may  abound  yet  more  and  more  in  know- 
ledge, and  in  all  judgment ;'  '  That  ye  may  approve  things  that  are 
excellent,  that  ye  may  be  sincere,  and  without  offence  till  the  day  of 
Christ/  Philip,  i.  27,  iv.  1  ;  and  that  '  our  God  would  count  you 
worthy  of  this  calling,  and  fulfil  all  the  good  pleasure  of  his  goodness, 
and  the  work  of  faith  with  power;'  '  That  the  name  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  may  be  glorified  in  you,  and  ye  in  him,  according  to  the  grace 
of  our  God  and  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,'  2  Thes.  i.  11,  12.  And  that 
you  may  be  eminent  in  sanctity,  sanctity  being  Zion's  glory,  Ps.  xciii.  5 ; 
that  your  hearts  may  be  kept  upright,  your  judgments  sound,  and 
your  lives  unblameable.  That  as  ye  are  now  '  my  joy,'  so  in  the  day 
of  Christ  you  may  be  '  my  crown  ;'  that  I  may  see  my  labours  in 
your  lives  ;  that  your  conversation  may  not  be  earthly,  wheu  the 
things  you  hear  are  heavenly  ;  but  that  it  may  be  '  as  becomes  the 
gospel,'  Philip,  i.  9,  10.  That  as  the  fishes  which  live  in  the  salt  sea 
yet  are  fresh,  so  you,  though  you  live  in  an  uncharitable  world,  may 
yet  be  charitable  and  loving  ;  That  ye  may,  like  the  bee,  suck  honey 
out  of  every  flower ;  that  ye  may  shine  in  a  sea  of  troubles,  as  the 
pearl  shines  in  the  sky,  though  it  grows  in  the  sea  ;  that  in  all  your 
trials  you  may  be  like  the  stone  in  Thracia,  that  neither  burnetii  in 
the  fire  nor  sinketh  in  the  water ;  That  ye  may  be  like  the  heavens, 
excellent  in  substance  and  beautiful  in  appearance  ;  that  so  you  may 
meet  me  with  joy  in  that  day  wherein  Christ  shall  say  to  his  Father, 
'Lo,  here  am  I,  and  the  children  that  thou  hast  given  me,'  Isa.  viii.  18. 
My  desires  to  you  are,  That  you  would  make  it  your  business  to 
study  Christ,  his  word,  your  own  hearts,  Satan's  plots,  and  eternity, 
more  than  ever ;  That  ye  would  endeavour  more  to  be  inwardly  sin- 
cere than  outwardly  glorious  ;  to  live,  than  to  have  a  name  to  live  ; 
That  ye  would  labour  with  all  your  might  to  be  thankful  under  mer- 
cies, and  faithful  in  your  places,  and  humble  under  divine  appear- 
ances, and  fruitful  under  precious  ordinances ;  That  as  your  means 
and  mercies  are  greater  than  others',  so  your  account  before  God  may 
not  prove  a  worse  than  others' ;  That  ye  would  pray  for  me,  who  am 
not  worthy  to  be  named  among  the  saints,  that  1  may  be  a  precious 
instrument  in  the  hand  of  Christ  to  bring  in  many  souls  unto  him, 
and  to  build  up  those  that  are  brought  in  in  their  most  holy  faith  ; 
and  '-that  utterance  may  be  given  to  me,  that  I  may  make  known  all 
the  will  of  God,'  Eph.  vi.  19;  That  I  may  be  sincere,  faithful,  frequent, 
fervent,  and  constant  in  the  work  of  the  Lord,  and  that  my  labour  be 
not  in  vain  in  the  Lord;  that  my  labours  may  be  accepted  in  the  Lord 
and  his  saints,  and  I  may  daily  see  the  travail  of  my  soul,  S:c. 


But,  above  all,  pray  for  me,  that  I  may  more  and  more  find  the 
power  and  sweet  of  those  things  upon  my  own  heart,  that  I  give  out 
to  you  and  others  ;  that  my  soul  be  so  visited  with  strength  from  on 
high,  that  I  may  live  up  fully  and  constantly  to  those  truths  that  I 
hold  forth  to  the  world  ;  and  that  I  may  be  both  in  life  and  doctrine 
'  a  burning  and  a  shining  light/  that  so,  when  the  Lord  Jesus  shall 
appear,  '  I  may  receive  a  crown  of  glory  which  he  shall  give  to  me  in 
that  day,  and  not  only  to  me,  but  to  all  that  love  his  appearance/  &c, 
John  v.  35  and  2  Tim.  i.  8. 

For  a  close,  remember  this,  that  your  life  is  short,  your  duties  many, 
your  assistance  great,  and  your  reward  sure  ;  therefore  faint  not,  hold 
on  and  hold  up,  in  ways  of  well-doing,  and  heaven  shall  make  amends 
for  all. 

I  shall  now  take  leave  of  you,  when  my  heart  hath  by  my  hand 
subscribed,  that  I  am, 

Your  loving  pastor  under  Christ,  according  to  all  pastoral  affections 
and  engagements  in  our  dearest  Lord, 

Thomas  Brooks. 


Dear  Friend  ! — Solomon  bids  us  buy  the  truth  (Prov.  xxiii.  23),  but 
doth  not  tell  us  what  it  must  cost,  because  we  must  get  it  though  it 
be  never  so  dear.  We  must  love  it  both  shining  and  scorching.1 
Every  parcel  of  truth  is  precious,  as  the  filings  of  gold  ;  we  must  either 
live  with  it,  or  die  for  it.  As  Ruth  said  to  Naomi,  '  Whither  thou 
goest  I  will  go,  and  where  thou  lodgest  I  will  lodge,  and  nothing  but 
death  shall  part  thee  and  me/  Ruth  i.  16,  17;  so  must  gracious  spirits 
say,  Where  truth  goes  I  will  go,  and  where  truth  lodges  I  will  lodge, 
and  nothing  but  death  shall  part  me  and  truth.2  A  man  may  lawfully 
sell  his  house,  land,  and  jewels,  but  truth  is  a  jewel  that  exceeds  all 
price,  and  must  not  be  sold  ;  it  is  our  heritage :  '  Thy  testimonies 
have  I  taken  as  an  heritage  for  ever,'  Ps.  cxix.  111.  It  is  a  legacy 
that  our  forefathers  have  bought  with  their  bloods,  which  should  make 
us  willing  to  lay  down  anything,  and  to  lay  out  anything,  that  we 
may,  with  the  wise  merchant  in  the  Gospel  (Mat.  xiii.  45),  purchase 
this  precious  pearl,  which  is  more  worth  than  heaven  and  earth,  and 
which  will  make  a  man  live  happily,  die  comfortably,  and  reign 

And  now,  if  thou  pleasest,  read  the  work,  and  receive  this  counsel 
from  me. 

First,  Thou  must  know  that  every  man  cannot  be  excellent,  that 
yet  may  be  useful.  An  iron  key  may  unlock  the  door  of  a  golden 
treasure,  yea  (ferrum  potest  quod  aurwm  -non  potest),  iron  can  do 
some  things  that  gold  cannot,  &c. 

Secondly,  Remember,  it  is  not  hasty  reading,  but  serious  meditating 
upon  holy  and  heavenly  truths,  that  makes  them  prove  sweet  and 
profitable  to  the  soul.4  It  is  not  the  bee's  touching  of  the  flower 
that  gathers  honey,  but  her  abiding  for  a  time  upon  the  flower  that 
draws  out  the  sweet.  It  is  not  he  that  reads  most,  but  he  that  medi- 
tates most,  that  will  prove  the  choicest,  sweetest,  wisest,  and  strongest 
( !hristian,  &c. 

Thirdly,  Know  that  it  is  not  the  knowing,  nor  the  talking,  nor  the 

1  Multi  amant  veritatem  hicentem,  oderunt  redarguentem. 

a  Si  Veritas  est  causa  discordio\  mori  possum,  lacere  non  possum. — St  Jerome, 

3  Veritas  vincit.     Truth  at  last  triumphs. 

4  It  is  a  law  among  the  Persees  [Parsees]  in  India,  to  use  premeditation  in  what 
they  are  to  do,  that  if  it  he  bad,  to  reject  it,  if  good,  to  act  it. 


reading  man,  but  the  doing  man,  that  at  last  will  be  found  the  happiest 
man.1  "  If  you  know  these  things,  blessed  and  happy  are  you  if  you 
do  them."  "  Not  every  one  that  saith,  Lord,  Lord,  shall  enter  into 
the  kingdom  of  heaven,  but  he  that  doth  the  will  of  my  Father  that 
is  in  heaven/'  John  xvi.  14,  Mat.  vii.  21.  Judas  called  Christ  Lord, 
Lord,  and  yet  betrayed  him,  and  is  gone  to  his  place.  Ah !  how  many 
Judases  have  we  in  these  days,  that  kiss  Christ,  and  yet  betray  Christ ; 
that  in  their  words  profess  him,  but  in  their  works  deny  him  ;  that 
bow  their  knee  to  him,  and  yet  in  their  hearts  despise  him  ;  that  call 
him  Jesus,  and  yet  will  not  obey  him  for  their  Lord. 

Reader,  If  it  be  not  strong  upon  thy  heart  to  practise  what  thou 
readest,  to  what  end  dost  thou  read  ?  To  increase  thy  own  condem- 
nation?2 If  thy  light  and  knowledge  be  not  turned  into  practice,  the 
more  knowing  man  thou  art,  the  more  miserable  man  thou  wilt  be  in 
the  day  of  recompense  ;  thy  light  and  knowledge  will  more  torment 
thee  than  all  the  devils  in  hell.  Thy  knowledge  will  be  that  rod 
that  will  eternally  lash  thee,  and  that  scorpion  that  will  for  ever  bite 
thee,  and  that  worm  that  will  everlastingly  gnaw  thee  ;  therefore  read, 
and  labour  to  know,  that  thou  mayest  do,  or  else  thou  art  undone  for 
ever.3  When  Demosthenes  was  asked,  what  was  the  first  part  of  an 
orator,  what  the  second,  what  the  third  ?  he  answered,  Action  ;  the 
same  may  I  say.  If  any  should  ask  me,  what  is  the  first,  the  second, 
the  third  part  of  a  Christian  ?  I  must  answer,  Action  ;  as  that  man 
that  reads  that  he  may  know,  and  that  labours  to  know  that  he  may 
do,  will  have  two  heavens — a  heaven  of  joy,  peace,  and  comfort  on 
earth,  and  a  heaven  of  glory  and  happiness  after  death. 

Fourthly  and  lastly,  If  in  thy  reading  thou  wilt  cast  a  serious  eye 
upon  the  margent,4  thou  wilt  find  many  sweet  and  precious  notes,  that 
will  oftentimes  give  light  to  the  things  thou  readest,  and  pay  thee  for 
thy  pains  with  much  comfort  and  profit.  So  desiring  that  thou  mayest 
find  as  much  sweetness  and  advantage  in  reading  this  Treatise  as  I 
have  found,  by  the  over-shadowings  of  heaven,  in  the  studying  and 
writing  of  it,  I  recommend  thee  'to  God,  and  to  the  word  of  his  grace, 
which  is  able  to  build  thee  up,  and  to  give  thee  an  inheritance  among 
them  which  are  sanctified,'  Acts  xx.  32.     And  rest,  reader, 

Thy  soul's  servant  in  every  office  of  the  gospel, 

Thomas  Brooks. 

1  It  was  a  good  saying  of  Justin  Martyr,  Non  in  verbis,  sed  in  factis  res  nostrce  reli- 
gionis  consistent. — [Apolog.  22. — G.] 

2  The  heathen  philosopher,  Seneca,  liked  not  such  as  are  semper  victuri,  always 
about  to  live,  but  never  begin. — [De  vita  beata,  et  alibi.  —  G.] 

3  God  loves,  saith  Luther,  curistas,  not  qito?ristas,  the  runner,  not  the  questioner.  .  .  . 
Pacunius  hath  an  elegant  saying :  I  hate,  saith  he,  the  men  that  are  idle  in  deed,  and 
philosophical  in  word,  &c. 

*  Margin  ;  transferred  here  and  throughout  in  our  edition  to  the  foot  of  page. — G. 


Lest  Satan  should  get  an  advantage  of  us:  for  we  are  not  ignorant 
of  his  devices. — 2  Cor.  II.  11, 

In  this  fifth  verse,  the  apostle  shews,  that  the  incestuous  person  had 
by  his  incest  sadded  those  precious  souls  that  God  would  not  have 
sadded.1  Souls  that  walk  sinfully  are  Hazaels  to  the  godly,  2  Kings 
viii.  12,  et  seq.,  and  draw  many  sighs  and  tears  from  them.  Jeremiah 
weeps  in  secret  for  Judah's  sins,  Jer.  ix.  1  ;  and  Paul  cannot  speak  of 
the  belly-gods  with  dry  eyes,  Philip,  iii.  18,  19.  And  Lot's  righteous 
soul  was  burdened,  vexed,  and  racked  by  the  filthy  Sodomites,  2  Peter 
ii.  7,  S.2  Every  sinful  Sodomite  was  a  Hazael  to  his  eyes,  a  Hadad- 
rimmon  to  his  heart,  Zech.  xii.  11.  Gracious  souls  use  to  mourn  for 
other  men's  sins  as  well  as  their  own,  and  for  their  souls  and  sins  who 
make  a  mock  of  sin,  and  a  jest  of  damning  their  own  souls.  Guilt  or 
grief  is  all  that  gracious  souls  get  by  communion  with  vain  souls,  Ps. 
cxix.  136,  158. 

In  the  6th  verse,  he  shews  that  the  punishment  that  was  inflicted 
upon  the  incestuous  person  was  sufficient,  and  therefore  they  should 
not  refuse  to  receive  him  who  had  repented  and  sorrowed  for  his 
former  faults  and  follies.  It  is  not  for  the  honour  of  Christ,  the  credit 
of  the  gospel,  nor  the  good  of  souls,  for  professors  to  be  like  those 
bloody  wretches,  that  burnt  some  that  recanted  at  the  stake,  saying, 
'  That  they  would  send  them  into  another  world  whiles  they  were  in  a 
good  mind/3 

In  the  7th,  8th,  9th,  and  10th  verses,  the  apostle  stirs  up  the  church 
to  forgive  him,  to  comfort  him,  and  to  confirm  their  love  towards  him, 
lest  he  should  be  'swallowed  up  with  over  much  sorrow,'  Satan  going 
about  to  mix  the  detestable  darnel,  Mat.  xiii.  25,  of  desperation  with 
the  godly  sorrow  of  a  pure  penitent  heart.  It  was  a  sweet  saying  of 
one,  '  Let  a  man  grieve  for  his  sin,  and  then  joy  for  his  grief.'4  That 
sorrow  for  sin  that  keeps  the  soul  from  looking  towards  the  mercy - 

1    '  Saddened.' — G.  *    xarafovovptvov,  s/Sairax^v. 

3  [Foxe.]  Acts  and  Mon.  fol.  1392  [Cf.  Under  Cranmer  and  Recantation,  ed.  1G31. 
Vol.  iii.  007,  6G8. — I*.]  4  Doleat  et  de  dolore  gaudeat. — Jerome. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  precious  remedies.  11 

seat,  and  that  keeps  Christ  and  the  soul  asunder,  or  that  shall  render 
the  soul  unfit  for  the  communion  of  saints,  is  a  sinful  sorrow. 

In  the  11th  verse,  he  lays  down  another  reason  to  work  them  to 
shew  pity  and  mercy  to  the  penitent  sinner,  that  was  mourning  and 
groaning  under  his  sin  and  misery ;  i.  e.  lest  Satan  should  get  an 
advantage  of  us  :  for  we  are  not  ignorant  of  his  devices.  A  little  for 
the  opening  of  the  words 

Lest  Satan  should  get  an  advantage  of  us  ;  lest  Satan  over-reach 
us.  The  Greek  word  irXionxr-ndai^v,  signifieth  to  have  more  than  be- 
longs to  one.  The  comparison  is  taken  from  the  greedy  merchant, 
that  seeketh  and  taketh  all  opportunities  to  beguile  and  deceive 
others.  Satan  is  that  wily  merchant,  that  devoureth,  not  widows' 
houses,  but  most  men's  souls. 

'  We  are  not  ignorant  of  Satan's  devices,'  or  plots,  or  machinations, 
or  stratagems,  Nojj^ara.  He  is  but  a  titular  Christian  that  hath  not 
personal  experience  of  Satan's  stratagems,  his  set  and  composed 
machinations,  his  artificially  moulded  methods,  his  plots,  darts,  depths, 
whereby  he  outwitted  our  first  parents,  and  fits  us  a  pennyworth  still, 
as  he  sees  reason. 

The  main  observation  that  I  shall  draw  from  these  words  is  this: 

Doct,  That  Satan  hath  his  several  devices  to  deceive,  entangle,  and 
undo  the  souls  of  men. 

I  shall,  1.  Prove  the  point. 

2.  Shew  you  his  several  devices  ;  and, 

3.  The  remedies  against  his  devices. 

4.  How  it  comes  to  pass  that  he  hath  so  many  several  devices  to 
deceive,  entangle,  and  undo  the  souls  of  men. 

5.  I  shall  lay  down  some  propositions  concerning  Satan's  devices. 

I.  For  the  proof  of  the  point,  take  these  few  Scriptures:  Eph.  vi.  11, 
'Put  on  the  whole  armour  of  God,  that  ye  may  be  able  to  stand  against 
the  wiles  of  the  devil/  The  Greek  word  that  is  here  rendered  'wiles,' 
is  a  notable  emphatical  word. 

(1.)  It  signifies  such  snares  as  are  laid  behind  one,  such  treacheries 
as  come  upon  one's  back  at  unawares.  It  notes  the  methods  or  way- 
layings  of  that  old  subtle  serpent,  who,  like  Dan's  adder  'in  the  path,' 
biteth  the  heels  of  passengers,  and  thereby  transfuseth  his  venom  to 
the  head  and  heart.1  The  word  Mi6o8tia$  signifies  an  ambushment  or 
stratagem  of  war,  whereby  the  enemy  sets  upon  a  man  ex  insidiis,  at 

(2.)  It  signifies  such  snares  as  are  set  to  catch  one  in  one's  road. 
A  man  walks  in  his  road,  and  thinks  not  of  it ;  on  the  sudden  he  is 
catched  by  thieves,  or  falls  into  a  pit,  &c. 

(3.)  It  signifies  such  as  are  purposely,  artificially,  and  craftily  set 
for  the  taking  the  prey  at  the  greatest  advantage  that  can  be.  The 
Greek  /leSoBtiag,  being  derived  from  fitrd  and  odbg,  signifies  properly  a 
waylaying,  circumvention,  or  going  about,  as  they  do  which  seek  after 

1  Cf.  Genesis  xlix.  17.  Misprinted  originally  '  Pan's,'  and  so  has  been  usually 
transmitted. — G. 

2  Spelled  '  anawares,'  which  is  to  be  noted  alcng  with  the  earlier  form  'anonywar.' 
Cf.  Richardson  sub  voce. — G. 

12  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

their  prey.  Julian,  by  his  craft,  drew  more  from  the  faith  than  all 
his  persecuting  predecessors  could  do  by  their  cruelty.  So  doth  Satan 
more  hurt  in  his  sheep's  skin  than  by  roaring  like  a  lion. 

Take  one  scripture  more  for  the  proof  of  the  point,  and  that  is  in 
2  Tim.  ii.  26,  '  And  that  they  might  recover  themselves  out  of  the 
snare  of  the  devil,  who  are  taken  captive  by  him  at  his  will.'  The 
Greek  word  that  is  here  rendered  recover  themselves,  ' Avavr^uaiv, 
signifies  to  awaken  themselves.  The  apostle  alludeth  to  one  that  is 
asleep  or  drunk,  who  is  to  be  awakened  and  restored  to  his  senses;  and 
the  Greek  word  that  is  here  rendered  '  taken  captive,'  signifies  to  be 
taken  alive,  e^uy^fiivoi.  The  word  is  properly  a  warlike  word,  and 
signifies  to  be  taken  alive,  as  soldiers  are  taken  alive  in  the  wars,  or 
as  birds  are  taken  alive  and  ensnared  in  the  fowler's  net.  Satan  hath 
snares  for  the  wise  and  snares  for  the  simple  ;  snares  for  hypocrites, 
and  snares  for  the  upright  ;  snares  for  generous  souls,  and  snares  for 
timorous  souls ;  snares  for  the  rich,  and  snares  for  the  poor ;  snares 
for  the  aged,  and  snares  for  youth,  &c.  Happy  are  those  souls  that 
are  not  taken  aud  held  in  the  snares  that  he  hath  laid  l1 

Take  one  proof  more,  and  then  I  will  proceed  to  the  opening  of  the 
point,  and  that  is  in  Rev.  ii.  24,  '  But  unto  you  I  say,  and  unto  the 
rest  in  Thyatira,  as  many  as  have  not  this  doctrine,  and  which  have 
not  known  the  depths  of  Satan,  as  they  speak,  I  will  put  upon  you  no 
other  burden  but  to  hold  fast  till  I  come.'  Those  poor  souls  called 
their  opinions  the  depths  of  God,  when  indeed  they  were  the  depths 
of  Satan.  You  call  your  opinions  depths,  and  so  they  are,  but  they 
are  such  depths  as  Satan  hath  brought  out  of  hell.  They  are  the 
whisperings  and  hissings  of  that  serpent,  not  the  inspirations  of 

II.  Now,  the  second  thing  that  I  am  to  shew  you  is,  his  several 
devices ;  and  herein  I  shall  first  shew  you  the  several  devices  that  he. 
hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin.     I  shall  instance  in  these  twelve,  which 
may  bespeak  our  most  serious  consideration. 

His  first  device  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 

Device  (1).  To  'present  the  bait  and  hide  the  hook;  to  present  the 
golden  cup,  and  hide  the  poison  ;  to  present  the  sweet,  the  pleasure, 
and  the  profit  that  may  flow  in  upon  the  soul  by  yielding  to  sin,  and 
by  hiding  from  the  soul  the  wrath  and  misery  that  will  certainly  follow 
the  committing  of  sin.  By  this  device  he  took  our  first  parents:  Gen. 
iii.  4,  5,  '  And  the  serpent  said  unto  the  woman,  Ye  shall  not  surely 
die  :  for  God  doth  know,  that  in  the  day  ye  eat  thereof,  then  your 
eyes  shall  be  opened;  and  ye  shall  be  as  gods,  knowing  good  and  evil.' 
Your  eyes  shall  be  opened,  and  you  shall  be  as  gods  !  Here  is  the 
bait,  the  sweet,  the  pleasure,  the  profit.  Oh,  but  he  hides  the  hook, 
— the  shame,  the  wrath,  and  the  loss  that  would  certainly  follow  !2 

There  is  an  opening  of  the  eyes  of  the  mind  to  contemplation  and 
joy,  and  there  is  an  opening  of  the  eyes  of  the  body  to  shame  and 

1  Cf.  [Daniel]  Pareus  in  loc.  1  Tim.  iv.  1.     [Works,  3  vols,  folio,  1647.— G.] 
*  So  to  reduce  Dr  [Rowland]  Taylor,  martyr,  they  promised  him  not  only  his  par- 
don, but,  a  bishopric.     Acts  &  Mon.  fol.  i.  86.     [Foxe.  ed.  1631.     Vol.  iii.  p.  176.— G.] 
....  lnest  peccatum  cum  delectaris  :  regnat  si  consentis.     [Augustine  in  Ps.  1. — G.] 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  13 

confusion.  He  promiseth  them  the  former,  but  intends  the  latter, 
and  so  cheats  them — giving  them  an  apple  in  exchange  for  a  paradise, 
as  he  deals  by  thousands  now-a-days.  Satan  with  ease  puts  fallacies 
upon  us  by  his  golden  baits,  and  then  he  leads  us  and  leaves  us  in  a  fool's 
paradise.  He  promises  the  soul  honour,  pleasure,  profit,  &c,  but  pays 
the  soul  with  the  greatest  contempt,  shame,  and  loss  that  can  be.  By 
a  golden  bait  he  laboured  to  catch  Christ,  Mat.  iv.  8,  9.  He  shews 
him  the  beauty  and  the  bravery  of  a  bewitching  world,  which  doubt- 
less would  have  taken  many  a  carnal  heart ;  but  here  the  devil's  fire 
fell  upon  wet  tinder,  and  therefore  took  not.  These  tempting  objects 
did  not  at  all  win  upon  his  affections,  nor  dazzle  his  eyes,  though 
many  have  eternally  died  of  the  wound  of  the  eye,  and  fallen  for  ever 
by  this  vile  strumpet  the  world,  who,  by  laying  forth  her  two  fair 
breasts  of  profit  and  pleasure,  hath  wounded  their  souls,  and  cast 
them  down  into  utter  perdition.  She  hath,  by  the  glistering  of  her 
pomp  and  preferment,  slain  millions  ;  as  the  serpent  Scytale,1  which, 
when  she  cannot  overtake  the  fleeing  passengers,  doth,  with  her 
beautiful  colours,  astonish  and  amaze  them,  so  that  they  have  no 
power  to  pass  away  till  she  have  stung  them  to  death.  Adversity 
hath  slain  her  thousand,  but  prosperity  her  ten  thousand.2 
Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  the  devil  are  these  : 
Remedy  (1).  First,  Keep  at  the  greatest  distance  from  sin,  and 
from  playing  with  the  golden  bait  that  Satan  holds  forth  to  catch 
you  ;  for  this  you  have  Rom.  xii.  9,  '  Abhor  that  which  is  evil,  cleave 
to  that  which  is  good.'  When  we  meet  with  anything  extremely  evil 
and  contrary  to  us,  nature  abhors  it,  and  retires  as  far  as  it  can  from 
it.  The  Greek  word  that  is  there  rendered  '  abhor,'  is  very  signifi- 
cant ;  it  signifies  to  hate  it  as  hell  itself,  to  hate  it  with  horror.3 

Anselm  used  to  say,  '  That  if  he  should  see  the  shame  of  sin  on  the 
one  hand,  and  the  pains  of  hell  on  the  other,  and  must  of  necessity 
choose  one,  he  would  rather  be  thrust  into  hell  without  sin,  than  to  go 
into  heaven  with  sin,'  so  great  was  his  hatred  and  detestation  of  sin. 
It  is  our  wisest  and  our  safest  course  to  stand  at  the  farthest  distance 
from  sin ;  not  to  go  near  the  house  of  the  harlot,  but  to  fly  from  all 
appearance  of  evil,  Prov.  v.  8,  1  Thes.  v.  22.  The  best  course  to  pre- 
vent falling  into  the  pit,  is  to  keep  at  the  greatest  distance  ;  he  that 
will  be  so  bold  as  to  attempt  to  dance  upon  the  brink  of  the  pit,  may 
find  by  woful  experience  that  it  is"  a  righteous  thing  with  God  that  he 
should  fall  into  the  pit.  Joseph  keeps  at  a  distance  from  sin,  and 
from  playing  with  Satan's  golden  baits,  and  stands.  David  draws 
near,  and  plays  with  the  bait,  and  falls,  and  swallows  bait  and  hook 
with  a  witness.      David  comes  near  the  snare,  and  is  taken  in  it,  to 

1  Scytale  :  Solinus,  c.  xxvii.  and  xl G. 

This  world  at  last  shall  be  burnt  for  a  witch,  saith  one.  .  .  .  Multi  amando  res 
noxias  sunt  miseri,  habendo  miseriores. — Aug\ustine\  in  Ps  xvi.  Many  are  miserable 
by  loving  hurtful  things,  but  they  are  more  miserable  by  having  them.  .  .  .  Men  had 
need  pray  with  Bernard,  Da  Domine  ut  sic  possideamus  temporalia,  ut  non  perdamus 
seterna.  Grant  us,  Lord,  that  we  may  so  partake  of  temporal  felicity,  that  we  may  not 
lose  eternal. 

3  a^otrruyovi/ri;.      The  simple  verb  imports  extreme  detestation,  which  is  aggravated 
by  the  composition. — Chrys\ostom~\. 

14  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

the  breaking  of  his  bones,  the  wounding  of  his  conscience,  and  the 
loss  of  his  God.1 

Sin  is  a  plague,  yea,  the  greatest  and  most  infectious  plague  in 
the  world  ;  and  yet,  ah  !  how  few  are  there  that  tremble  at  it,  that 
keep  at  a  distance  from  it  !  1  Cor.  v.  6,  '  Know  ye  not  that  a  little 
leaven  leavencth  the  whole  lump  ?'  As  soon  as  one  sin  had  seized 
upon  Adam's  heart,  all  sin  entered  into  his  soul  and  overspread  it. 
How  hath  Adam's  one  sin  spread  over  all  mankind  !  Horn.  v.  12, 
'  Wherefore  as  by  one  man  sin  entered  into  the  world,  and  death  by 
sin,  and  so  death  passed  upon  all  men,  for  that  all  have  sinned.' 
Ah,  how  doth  the  father's  sin  infect  the  child,  the  husband's  infect 
the  wife,  the  master's  the  servant !  The  sin  that  is  in  one  man's 
heart  is  able  to  infect  a  whole  world,  it  is  of  such  a  spreading  and 
infectious  nature.2 

The  story  of  the  Italian,  who  first  made  his  enemy  deny  God,  and 
then  stabbed  him,  and  so  at  once  murdered  both  body  and  soul,3 
declares  the  perfect  malignity  of  sin  ;  and  oh !  that  what  hath  been 
spoken  upon  this  head  may  prevail  with  you,  to  stand  at  a  distance 
from  sin ! 

The  second  remedy  is, 

Remedy  (2).  To  consider,  That  sin  is  but  a  bitter  sweet.  That 
seeming  sweet  that  is  in  sin  will  quickly  vanish,  and  lasting  shame, 
sorrow,  horror,  and  terror  will  come  in  the  room  thereof :  Job  xx. 
12-14,  'Though  wickedness  be  sweet  in  his  mouth,  though  he  hide 
it  under  his  tongue,  though  he  spare  it,  and  forsake  it  not,  but  keep  it 
still  within  his  mouth,  yet  his  meat  in  his  bowels  is  turned,  it  is  the 
gall  of  asps  within  him.'  Forbidden  profits  and  pleasures  are  most 
pleasing  to  vain  men,  who  count  madness  mirth,  &c.  Many  long  to  be 
meddling  with  the  murdering  morsels  of  sin,  which  nourish  not,  but 
rent  and  consume  the  belly,  the  soul,  that  receives  them.  Many  eat 
that  on  earth  that  they  digest  in  hell.  Sin's  murdering  morsels  will 
deceive  those  that  devour  them.  Adam's  apple  was  a  bitter  sweet ; 
Esau's  mess  was  a  bitter  sweet  ;  the  Israelites'  quails  a  bitter  sweet ; 
Jonathan's  honey  a  bitter  sweet ;  and  Adonijah's  dainties  a  bitter 
sweet.  After  the  meal  is  ended,  then  comes  the  reckoning.  Men 
must  not  think  to  dance  and  dine  with  the  devil,  and  then  to  sup 
with  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven  ;  to  feed 
upon  the  poison  of  asps,  and  yet  that  the  viper's  tongue  should  not 
slay  them.4 

When  the  asp  stings  a  man,  it  doth  first  tickle  him  so  as  it  makes 
him  laugh,  till  the  poison,  by  little  and  little,  gets  to  the  heart,  and 

1  It  was  a  divine  saying  of  a  heathen,  '  That  if  there  were  no  God  to  punish  him,  no 
devil  to  torment  him,  no  hell  to  burn  him,  no  man  to  see  him,  yet  would  he  not  sin  for 
the  ugliness  and  filthiuess  of  sin,  and  the  grief  of  his  own  conscience.' — Seneca.  [De 
Beneficiis.  1.  iv.  23,  and  often  in  his  '  Letters.'    Cf.  sub  Conscientia. — G.] 

2  Sin  is  like  those  diseases  that  are  called  by  physicians,  cormptio  totius  substantia. 

3  Told  in  Wanley's  Wonders,  with  authorities,  b.  iv.  c  xii. — G. 

4  When  the  golden  bait  is  set  forth  to  catch  us,  we  must  6ay  as  Demosthenes  the 
orator  did  of  the  beautiful  Lais,  when  he  was  asked  an  excessivo  sum  of  money  to 
behold  her,  '  I  will  not  buy  repentance  so  dear;'  I  am  not  so  ill  a  merchant  as  to  sill 
eternals  fur  temporals.     If  intemperance  could  afford  more  pleasure  than  temperance 
lleliogubalus  should  have  been  more  happy  than  Adam  in  paradise. — 1'lutarch. 

2  Cor.  II.  11]  against  satan's  devices.  15 

then  it  pains  him  more  than  ever  it  delighted  him.  So  doth  sin  ; 
it  may  please  a  little  at  first,  but  it  will  pain  the  soul  with  a  witness 
at  last ;  yea,  if  there  were  the  least  real  delight  in  sin,  there  could 
be  no  perfect  hell,  where  men  shall  most  perfectly  be  tormented  with 
their  sin. 

The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 

Remedy  (3).  Solemnly  to  consider,  That  sin  will  usher  in  the 
greatest  and  the  saddest  losses  that  can  be  upon  our  souls.  It  will 
usher  in  the  loss  of  that  divine  favour  that  is  better  than  life,  and  the 
loss  of  that  joy  that  is  unspeakable  and  full  of  glory,  and  the  loss  of 
that  peace  that  passeth  understanding,  and  the  loss  of  those  divine 
influences  by  which  the  soul  hath  been  refreshed,  quickened,  raised, 
strengthened,  and  gladded,  and  the  loss  of  many  outward  desirable 
mercies,  which  otherwise  the  soul  might  have  enjoyed.1 

It  was  a  sound  and  savoury  reply  of  an  English  captain  at  the  loss 
of  Calais,  when  a  proud  Frenchman  scornfully  demanded,  When  will 
you  fetch  Calais  again,  replied,  When  your  sins  shall  weigh  down 
ours.2  Ah,  England  !  my  constant  prayer  for  thee  is,  that  thou 
mayest  not  sin  away  thy  mercies  into  their  hands  that  cannot  call 
mercy  mercy,  and  that  would  joy  in  nothing  more  than  to  see  thy 
sorrow  and  misery,  and  to  see  that  hand  to  make  thee  naked,  that 
hath  clothed  thee  with  much  mercy  and  glory. 

The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 

Remedy  (4).  Seriously  to  consider,  That  sin  is  of  a  very  deceitful 
and  bewitching  nature.3  Sin  is  from  the  greatest  deceiver,  it  is  a 
child  of  his  own  begetting,  it  is  the  ground  of  all  the  deceit  in  the 
world,  and  it  is  in  its  own  nature  exceeding  deceitful.  Heb.  iii.  13, 
'  But  exhort  one  another  daily,  while  it  is  called  To-day,  lest  any 
of  you  be  hardened  through  the  deceitfulness  of  sin.'  It  will  kiss 
the  soul,  and  pretend  fair  to  the  soul,  and  yet  betray  the  soul  for 
ever.  It  will  with  Delilah  smile  upon  us,  that  it  may  betray  us  into 
the  hands  of  the  devil,  as  she  did  Samson  into  the  hauds  of  the 
Philistines.  Sin  gives  Satan  a  power  over  us,  and  an  advantage  to 
accuse  us  and  to  lay  claim  to  us,  as  those  that  wear  his  badge;  it  is 
of  a  very  bewitching  nature,  it  bewitches  the  soul,  where  it  is  upon 
the  throne,  that  the  soul  cannot  leave  it,  though  it  perish  eternally 
by  it.*  Sin  so  bewitches  the  soul,  that  it  makes  the  soul  call  evil  good, 
and  good  evil ;  bitter  sweet  and  sweet  bitter,  light  darkness  and  dark- 
ness light ;  and  a  soul  thus  bewitched  with  sin  will  stand  it  out  to  the 
death,  at  the  sword's  point  with  God  ;  let  God  strike  and  wound, 
and  cut  to  the  very  bone,  yet  the  bewitched  soul  cares  not,  fears  not, 
but  will  still  hold  on  in  a  course  of  wickedness,  as  you  may  see  in 
Pharaoh,  Balaam,  and  Judas.  Tell  the  bewitched  soul  that  sin  is  a 
viper  that  will  certainly  kill  when  it  is  not  killed,  that  sin  often  kills 

1  Isa.  lix.2,  Ps.  H.  12,  Isa,  lix.  8,  2  Chron.  xv.  3,  4,  Jer.  xvii.  18.  Jer.  v.  2. 

2  Quando  peccata  vestra  erunt  nostris  graviora. 

3  In  Sardis  there  grew  an  herb,  called  Appium  Sardis,  that  would  make  a  man  lie 
laughing  when  lie  was  deadly  sick  ;  such  is  the  operation  of  sin. 

4  Which  occasioned  Chrysostom  to  say,  when  Eudoxia  the  empress  threatened  him, 
Go  tell  her,  '  Nil  nisi  peccatum  timeo,'  1  fear  nothing  but  sin. 


secretly,  insensibly,  eternally,  yet  the  bewitched  soul  cannot,  nor  will 
not,  cease  from  sin. 

When  the  physicians  told  Theotimus  that  except  he  did  abstain 
from  drunkenness  and  uncleauness,  &c,  he  would  lose  his  eyes,  his 
heart  was  so  bewitched  to  his  sins,  that  he  answers,  '  Then  farewell 
Bweet  light  -,'1  he  had  rather  lose  his  eyes  than  leave  his  sin.  So  a 
man  bewitched  with  sin  had  rather  lose  God,  Christ,  heaven,  and  his 
own  soul  than  part  with  his  sin.  Oh,  therefore,  for  ever  take  heed 
of  playing  or  nibbling  at  Satan's  golden  baits. 

The  second  device  of  Satan  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (2).  By  'painting  sin  ivith  virtue's  colours.  Satan  knows 
that  if  he  should  present  sin  in  its  own  nature  and  dress,  the  soul 
would  rather  fly  from  it  than  yield  to  it ;  and  therefore  he  presents 
it  unto  us,  not  in  its  own  proper  colours,  but  painted  and  gilded 
over  with  the  name  and  show  of  virtue,  that  we  may  the  more  easily 
be  overcome  by  it,  and  take  the  more  pleasure  in  committing  of  it. 
Pride,  he  presents  to  the  soul  under  the  name  and  notion  of  neatness 
and  cleanliness,  and  covetousness  (which  the  apostle  condemns  for 
idolatry)  to  be  but  good  husbandry;2  and  drunkenness  to  be  good 
fellowship,  and  riotousness  under  the  name  and  notion  of  liberality, 
and  wantonness  as  a  trick  of  youth,  &c. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these, 
Remedy  (1).  First,  consider,  That  sin  is  never  a  whit  the  less 
filthy,  vile,  and  abominable,  by  its  being  coloured  and  painted 
ivith  virtue's  colours.  A  poisonous  pill  is  never  a  whit  the  less 
poisonous  because  it  is  gilded  over  with  gold  ;  nor  a  wolf  is  never 
a  whit  the  less  a  wolf  because  he  hath  put  on  a  sheep's  skin  ;  nor  the 
devil  is  never  a  whit  the  less  a  devil  because  he  appears  sometimes  like 
an  angel  of  light.  So  neither  is  sin  any  whit  the  less  filthy  and 
abominable  by  its  being  painted  over  with  virtue's  colours. 
The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
Remedy  (2).  That  the  more  sin  is  painted  forth  under  the  colour 
of  virtue,  the  more  dangerous  it  is  to  the  soids  of  men.  This  we 
see  evident  in  these  days,  by  those  very  many  souls  that  are  turned 
out  of  the  way  that  is  holy — and  in  which  their  souls  have  had  sweet 
and  glorious  communion  with  God — into  ways  of  highest  vanity  and 
folly,  by  Satan's  neat3  colouring  over  of  sin,  and  painting  forth  vice 
under  the  name  and  colour  of  virtue.  This  is  so  notoriously  known 
that  I  need  but  name  it.  The  most  dangerous  vermin  is  too  often 
to  be  found  under  the  fairest  and  sweetest  flowers,  and  the  fairest 
glove  is  often  drawn  upon  the  foulest  hand,  and  the  richest  robes  are 
often  put  upon  the  filthiest  bodies.  So  are  the  fairest  and  sweetest 
names  upon  the  greatest  and  the  most  horrible  vices  and  errors  that 
be  in  the  world.  Ah  !  that  we  had  not  too  many  sad  proofs  of  this 
amongst  us.4 

1  Vale  lumen  amicum.  —Ambrose.  '  '  Thrift,'  '  economy.' — G. 

3  Careful,  clever.— G. 

4  Turpiora  sunt  vitia  quaj  virtutum  specie  celantur. — Jer[ome.']  ....  Thus  the 
Illuminates  (as  they  called  themselves)  a  pestilent  sect  in  Arragon,  professing  and 
affecting  in  themselves  a  kind  of  angelic  purity,  fell  suddenly  to  the  justifying  of 
bestiality,  as  many  have  done  in  these  days. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  17 

The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 

Remedy  (3).  To  look  on  sin  with  that  eye  [with]  which  ivithin  a 
few  hours  we  shall  see  it.  Ah,  souls  !  when  you  shall  lie  upon  a  dying 
bed,  and  stand  before  a  judgment-seat,  sin  shall  be  unmasked,  and 
its  dress  and  robes  shall  then  be  taken  off,  and  then  it  shall  appear 
more  vile,  filthy,  and  terrible  than  hell  itself ;  then,  that  which  for- 
merly appeared  most  sweet  will  appear  most  bitter,  and  that  which 
appeared  most  beautiful  will  appear  most  ugly,  and  that  which  ap- 
peared most  delightful  will  then  appear  most  dreadful  to  the  soul.1 
Ah,  the  shame,  the  pain,  the  gall,  the  bitterness,  the  horror,  the  hell 
that  the  sight  of  sin,  when  its  dress  is  taken  off,  will  raise  in  poor 
souls  !  Sin  will  surely  prove  evil  and  bitter  to  the  soul  when  its  robes 
are  taken  off.  A  man  may  have  the  stone  who  feels  no  fit  of  it. 
Conscience  will  work  at  last,  though  for  the  present  one  may  feel  no 
fit  of  accusation.  Laban  shewed  himself  at  parting.  Sin  will  be 
bitterness  in  the  latter  end,  when  it  shall  appear  to  the  soul  in  its 
own  filthy  nature.  The  devil  deals  with  men  as  the  panther  doth 
with  beasts  ;  he  hides  his  deformed  head  till  his  sweet  scent  hath  drawn 
them  into  his  danger.  Till  we  have  sinned,  Satan  is  a  parasite  ;  when 
we  have  sinned,  he  is  a  tyrant.2  O  souls  !  the  day  is  at  hand  when 
the  devil  will  pull  off  the  paint  and  garnish  that  he  hath  put  upon 
sin,  and  present  that  monster,  sin,  in  such  a  monstrous  shape  to  your 
souls,  that  will  cause  your  thoughts  to  be  troubled,  your  countenance 
to  be  changed,  the  joints  of  your  loins  to  be  loosed,  and  your  knees 
to  be  dashed  one  against  another,  and  your  hearts  to  be  so  terrified, 
that  you  will  be  ready,  with  Ahithophel  and  Judas,3  to  strangle  and 
hang  your  bodies  on  earth,  and  your  souls  in  hell,  if  the  Lord  hath 
not  more  mercy  on  you  than  he  had  on  them.  Oh  !  therefore,  look 
upon  sin  now  as  you  must  look  upon  it  to  all  eternity,  and  as  God, 
conscience,  and  Satan  will  present  it  to  you  another  day  ! 

The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 

Remedy  (4.)  Seriously  to  consider,  That  even  those  very  sins  that 
Satan  paints,  and  puts  new  names  and  colours  upon,  cost  the  best 
blood,  the  noblest  blood,  the  life-blood,  the  heart-blood  of  the  Lord 
Jesus.*  That  Christ  should  come  from  the  eternal  bosom  of  his  Father 
to  a  region  of  sorrow  and  death  ;  that  God  should  be  manifested  in 
the  flesh,  the  Creator  made  a  creature  ;  that  he  that  was  clothed  witli 
glory  should  be  wrapped  with  rags  of  flesh  ;  he  that  filled  heaven 
and  earth  with  his  glory  should  be  cradled  in  a  manger  ;  that  the 
power  of  God  should  fly  from  weak  man,  the  God  of  Israel  into 
Egypt ;  that  the  God  of  the  law  should  be  subject  to  the  law,  the 
God  of  the  circumcision  circumcised,  the  God  that  made  the  heavens 

1  Tacitus  speaks  of  Tiberius,  that  when  his  sins  did  appear  in  their  own  colours,  they 
did  so  terrify  and  torment  him  that  he  protested  to  the  Senate  that  he  suffered  daily. 
[Ann.  vi.  51.— G.] 

8  Satan,  that  now  allures  thee  to  sin,  will  ere  long  make  thee  to  see  that  peccatum.  est 
deicidium,  sin  is  a  murdering  of  God  ;  and  this  will  make  thee  murder  two  at  once, 
thy  soul  and  thy  body,  unless  the  Lord  in  mercy  holds  thy  hands. 

a  2  Sam.  xvii.  23,  and  Mat.  xxvii.  5.— G. 

4  Una  guttula  plus  valet  quam  ccelum  et  terra. — Luther;  i.e.  one  little  drop  (speak- 
ing of  the  blood  of  Christ)  is  more  worth  than  heaven  and  earth. 

VOL.  I.  B 

18  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

■working  at  Joseph's  homely  trade ;  that  he  that  binds  the  devils  in 
chains  should  be  tempted  ;  that  he,  whose  is  the  world,  and  the  fulness 
thereof,  should  hunger  and  thirst;  that  the  God  of  strength  should 
be  weary,  the  Judge  of  all  flesh  condemned,  the  God  of  life  put  to 
death  ;  that  he  that  is  one  with  his  Father  should  cry  out  of  misery, 
'  My  God,  my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me?'  Mat.  xxvii.  46  ;  that 
he  that  had  the  keys  of  hell  and  death  at  his  girdle  should  lie  im- 
prisoned in  the  sepulchre  of  another,  having  in  his  lifetime  nowhere 
to  lay  his  head,  nor  after  death  to  lay  his  body  ;  that  that  head, 
before  which  the  angels  do  cast  down  their  crowns,  should  be  crowned 
with  thorns,  and  those  eyes,  purer  than  the  sun,  put  out  by  the  dark- 
ness of  death  ;  those  ears,  which  hear  nothing  but  hallelujahs  of  saints 
and  angels,  to  hear  the  blasphemies  of  the  multitude  ;  that  face,  that 
was  fairer  than  the  sons  of  men,  to  be  spit  on  by  those  beastly  wretched 
Jews;  that  mouth  and  tongue,  that  spake  as  ueverman  spake,  accused 
for  blasphemy  ;  those  hands,  that  freely  swayed  the  sceptre  of  heaven, 
nailed  to  the  cross  ;  those  feet,  '  like  unto  fine  brass,'  nailed  to  the 
cross  for  man's  sins  ;  each  sense  annoyed:  his  feeling  or  touching,  with 
a  spear  and  nails  ;  his  smell,  with  stinking  flavour,  being  crucified 
about  Golgotha,  the  place  of  skulls  ;  his  taste,  with  vinegar  and  gall ; 
his  hearing,  with  reproaches,  and  sight  of  his  mother  and  disciples 
bemoaning  him ;  his  soul,  comfortless  and  forsaken  ;  and  all  this  for 
those  very  sins  that  Satan  paints  and  puts  fine  colours  upon !  Oh  ! 
how  should  the  consideration  of  this  stir  up  the  soul  against  it,  and 
work  the  soul  to  fly  from  it,  and  to  use  all  holy  means  whereby  sin 
may  be  subdued  and  destroyed  I1 

After  Julius  Caesar  was  murdered,  Antonius  brought  forth  his 
coat,  all  bloody  and  cut,  and  laid  it  before  the  people,  saying,  '  Look, 
here  you  have  the  emperor's  coat  thus  bloody  and  torn :'  whereupon 
the  people  were  presently  in  an  uproar,  and  cried  out  to  slay  those 
murderers  ;  and  they  took  their  tables  and  stools  that  were  in  the 
place,  and  set  them  on  fire,  and  run  to  the  houses  of  them  that  had 
slain  Cassar,  and  burnt  them.  So  that  when  we  consider  that  sin 
hath  slain  our  Lord  Jesus,  ah,  how  should  it  provoke  our  hearts  to  be 
revenged  on  sin,  that  hath  murdered  the  Lord  of  glory,  and  hath  done 
that  mischief  that  all  the  devils  in  hell  could  never  have  done  ?2 

It  was  good  counsel  one  gave,  'Never  let  go  out  of  your  minds  the 
thoughts  of  a  crucified  Christ.'3  Let  these  be  meat  and  drink  unto 
you  ;  let  them  be  your  sweetness  and  consolation,  your  honey  and 
your  desire,  your  reading  and  your  meditation,  your  life,  death,  and 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 

1  One  of  the  Rabbins,  when  be  read  what  bitter  torments  the  Messias  should  suffer 
when  lie  came  into  the  world,  cried  out,  Yeniat  Messias  et  ego  non  videam,  i.e.  Let  the 
Messias  come,  but  let  not  me  see  him!  Dionysius  being  in  Egypt  at  the  time  of 
Christ's  suffering,  and  seeing  an  eclipse  of  the  sun,  and  knowing  it  to  be  contrary  to 
nature,  cried  out,  Aul  Deus  naturae  palitur,  ant  mundi  machina.  dissolvilur,  Either  the 
Cod  of  nature  suffers,  or  the  frame  of  the  world  will  be  dissolved. 

■  It  is  an  excellent  saying  of  Bernard,  Quanlo  pro  nobis  vilior,  tanto  nobis  charior. 
The  more  vile  Christ  made  himself  for  us,  the  more  dear  he  ought  to  be  to  us. 

3  Nolo  vivere  sine  vulnere  cum  te  video  vulneratum.  0  my  Cod !  as  long  as  I  see  thy 
wounds,  1  will  never  live  without  wounds,  said  L'onaventura. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  19 

Device  (3).  By  extenuating  and  lessening  of  sin.  Ah  !  saith  Satan, 
it  is  but  a  little  pride,  a  little  worldliness,  a  little  uncleanness,  a  little 
drunkenness,  &c.  As  Lot  said  of  Zoar,  '  It  is  but  a  little  one,  and  my 
soul  shall  live,'  Gen.  xix.  20.  Alas  I1  saith  Satan,  it  is  but  a  very  little 
sin  that  you  stick  so  at.  You  may  commit  it  without  any  danger  to 
your  soul.  It  is  but  a  little  one  ;  you  may  commit  it,  and  yet  your 
soul  shall  live. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  : 
Remedy  (1).  First,  Solemnly  consider,  That  those  sins  which  we 
are  apt  to  account  small,  have  brought  upon  men  the  greatest  wrath 
of  God,  as  the  eating  of  an  apple,  gathering  a  few  sticks  on  the 
Sabbath  day,  and  touching  of  the  ark.  Oh  !  the  dreadful  wrath  that 
these  sins  brought  down  upon  the  heads  and  hearts  of  men!2  The 
least  sin  is  contrary  to  the  law  of  God,  the  nature  of  God,  the  being  of 
God,  and  the  glory  of  God  ;  and  therefore  it  is  often  punished  severely 
by  God ;  and  do  not  we  see  daily  the  vengeance  of  the  Almighty 
falling  upon  the  bodies,  names,  states,  families,  and  souls  of  men, 
for  those  sins  that  are  but  little  ones  in  their  eyes  ?  Surely  if  we 
are  not  utterly  left  of  God,  and  blinded  by  Satan,  we  cannot  but  see  it. 
Oh  !  therefore,  when  Satan  says  it  is  but  a  little  one,  do  thou  say,  Oh  ! 
but  those  sins  that  thou  callest  little,  are  such  as  will  cause  God  to 
rain  hell  out  of  heaven  upon  sinners  as  he  did  upon  the  Sodomites. 
The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
Remedy  (2).  Seriously  to  consider,  That  the  giving  way  to  a  less 
sin  makes  way  for  the  committing  of  a  greater.  He  that,  to  avoid  a 
greater  sin,  will  yield  to  a  lesser,  ten  thousand  to  one  but  God  in  jus- 
tice will  leave  that  soul  to  fall  into  a  greater.  If  we  commit  one  sin  to 
avoid  another,  it  is  just  we  should  avoid  neither,  we  having  not  law 
nor  power  in  our  own  hands  to  keep  off  sin  as  we  please  ;  and  we,  by 
yielding  to  the  lesser,  do  tempt  the  tempter  to  tempt  us  to  the  greater. 
Sin  is  of  an  encroaching  nature  ;  it  creeps  on  the  soul  bj7  degrees, 
step  by  step,  till  it  hath  the  soul  to  the  very  height  of  sin.3  David 
gives  way  to  his  wandering  eye,  and  this  led  him  to  those  foul  sins  that 
caused  God  to  break  his  bones,  and  to  turn  his  day  into  night,  and  to 
leave  his  soul  in  great  darkness.  Jacob  and  Peter,  and  other  saints, 
have  found  this  true  by  woful  experience,  that  the  yielding  to  a  lesser 
sin  hath  been  the  ushering  in  of  a  greater.  The  little  thief  will  open 
the  door,  and  make  way  for  the  greater,  and  the  little  wedge  knocked 
in  will  make  way  for  the  greater.  Satan  will  first  draw  thee  to  sit 
with  the  drunkard,  and  then  to  sip  with  the  drunkard,  and  then  at  last 
to  be  drunk  with  the  drunkard.  He  will  first  draw  thee  to  be  unclean 
in  thy  thoughts,  and  then  to  be  unclean  in  thy  looks,  and  then  to 

1  Brooks  uses  '  alas'  much  as  Sibbes  does.     Cf.  glossary  to  each,  sub  voce. — G. 

2  Draco,  the  rigid  lawgiver,  being  asked  why,  when  sins  were  not  equal,  he  appointed 
death  to  all,  answered,  he  knew  that  all  sins  were  not  equal,  but  he  knew  the  least 
deserved  death.  So,  though  the  sins  of  men  be  not  all  equal,  yet  the  least  of  them 
deserves  eternal  death. 

3  Ps.  cxxxvii.  9,  'Happy  shall  be  be  that  taketh  and  dasheth  thy  little  ones  against 
the  stones.'  Hugo's  gloss  is  pious,  &c,  Sit  nihil  in  te  Babylonicum,  Let  there  be  nothing 
in  thee  of  Babylon  ;  not  only  the  grown  men,  but  the  little  ones  must  be  dashed 
against  the  stones  ;  not  only  great  sins,  but  little  sins  must  be  killed,  or  they  will  kill 
the  soul  for  ever. 

•20  precious  remedies  [2  Cor.  II.  11. 

be  andean  iu  thy  words,  and  at  last  to  be  unclean  in  thy  practices. 
He  will  first  draw  thee  to  look  upon  the  golden  wedge,  and  then  to 
like  the  golden  wedge,  and  then  to  handle  the  golden  wedge,  and 
then  at  last  by  wicked  ways  to  gain  the  golden  wedge,  though  thou 
runnest  the  hazard  of  losing  God  and  thy  soul  for  ever ;  as  you  may 
see  in  Gehazi,  Achan,  and  Judas,  and  many  in  these  our  days.  Sin 
is  never  at  a  stand:  Ps.  i.  1,  first  ungodly,  then  sinners,  then  scorners. 
Here  they  go  on  from  sin  to  sin,  till  they  come  to  the  top  of  sin,  viz. 
to  sit  in  the  seat  of  scorners,  or  as  it  is  in  the  Septuagint — r&v  aoi/aZ>v 
— to  affect  the  honour  of  the  chair  of  pestilence. 

Austin,  writing  upon  John,  tells  a  story  of  a  certain  man,  that  was 
of  an  opinion  that  the  devil  did  make  the  fly,  and  not  God.  Saitli 
one  to  him,  If  the  devil  made  flies,  then  the  devil  made  wrorms,  and  God 
did  not  make  them,  for  they  are  living  creatures  as  well  as  flies.  True, 
said  he,  the  devil  did  make  worms.  But,  said  the  other,  if  the  devil 
did  make  worms,  then  he  made  birds,  beasts,  and  man.  He  granted 
all.  Thus,  saitli  Austin,  by  denying  God  in  the  fly,  became  to  deny 
God  in  man,  and  to  deny  the  whole  creation.1 

By  all  this  we  see,  that  the  yielding  to  lesser  sins,  draws  the  soul  to 
the  committing  of  greater.2  Ah !  how  many  in  these  days  have 
fallen,  first  to  have  low  thoughts  of  Scripture  and  ordinances,  and 
then  to  slight  Scripture  and  ordinances,  and  then  to  make  a  nose  of  wax 
of  Scripture  and  ordinances,  and  then  to  cast  off  Scripture  and  ordi- 
nances, and  then  at  last  to  advance  and  lift  up  themselves,  and  their 
Christ-dishonouring  and  soul-damning  opinions,  above  Scripture  and 
ordinances.  Sin  gains  upon  man's  soul  by  insensible  degrees  :  Eccles. 
x.  13, '  The  beginning  of  the  words  of  his  mouth  is  foolishness,  and  the 
end  of  his  talking  is  mischievous  madness/  Corruption  in  the  heart, 
when  it  breaks  forth,  is  like  a  breach  in  the  sea,  which  begins  in  a  nar- 
row passage,  till  it  eat  through,  and  cast  down  all  before  it.  The 
debates  of  the  soul  are  quick,  and  soon  ended,  and  that  may  be  done  in 
a  moment  that  may  undo  a  man  for  ever.  When  "a  man  hath  begun  to 
sin,  he  knows  not  where,  or  when,  or  how  he  shall  make  a  stop  of  sin. 
Usually  the  soul  goes  on  from  evil  to  evil,  from  folly  to  folly,  till  it  be 
ripe  for  eternal  misery.  Men  usually  grow  from  being  naught  to  be 
very  naught,  and  from  very  naught  to  be  stark  naught,  and  then  God 
sets  them  at  nought  for  ever. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  third  device  that  Satan 
hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin,  is  solemnly  to  consider,  That  it  is  sad  to 
stand  with  God  j \>r  a  trifle.  Dives  would  not  give  a  crumb,  therefore  he 
.should  not  receive  a  drop,  Luke  xvi.  21.     It  is  the  greatest  folly  in  the 

1  An  Italian  having  found  his  enemy  at  advantage,  promised  him  if  he  would  deny 
his  faith,  he  would  save  his  life.  He,  to  save  his  life,  denied  his  faith,  which  having 
done,  he  stahhed  him,  rejoicing  that  by  this  he  had  at  one  time  taken  revenge  both  on 
body  and  soul.     [See  authorities,  Note  3,  page  14 G.] 

2  A  young  man  being  long  tempted  to  kill  his  father,  or  lie  with  his  mother,  or  be 
drunk,  he  thought  to  yield  to  the  lessor,  viz.  to  be  drunk,  that  he  might  be  rid  of  the 
greater;  but  when  he  was  drunk,  he  did  both  kill  his  father,  and  lie  with  his  mother. 
[Related,  with  authorities,  in  Wanley's  Wonders,  book  iv.  c  xviii. :  probably  a  refer- 
ence to  an  extraordinary  legend  of  Judas  Iscariot.  See  Mrs  Jameson's  Sacred  and 
Legendary  Art,  vol.  i.  p.  235  ;  but  cf.  the  old  Italian  legend  of  St  John  Chrysostom, 
ibid.,  p.  317.— G.] 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  2  J 

world  to  adventure  the  going  to  hell  for  a  small  matter.  '  I  tasted 
but  a  little  honey,'  said  Jonathan,  '  and  I  must  die,'  1  Sam.  xiv.  29. 
It  is  a  most  unkind  and  unfaithful  thing  to  break  with  God  for  a 
little.  Little  sins  carry  with  them  but  little  temptations  to  sin,  and 
then  a  man  shews  most  viciousness  and  unkindness,  when  he  sins  on 
a  little  temptation.  It  is  devilish  to  sin  without  a  temptation  ;  it  is 
little  less  than  devilish  to  sin  on  a  little  occasion.  The  less  the  temp- 
tation is  to  sin,  the  greater  is  that  sin.1  Saul's  sin  in  not  staying  for 
Samuel,  was  not  so  much  in  the  matter,  but  it  was  much  in  the  malice 
of  it ;  for  though  Samuel  had  not  come  at  all,  yet  Saul  should  not 
have  offered  sacrifice ;  but  this  cost  him  dear,  his  soul  and  kingdom. 

Tt  is  the  greatest  unkindness  that  can  be  shewed  to  a  friend,  to 
adventure  the  complaining,  bleeding,  and  grieving  of  his  soul  upon  a 
light  and  a  slight  occasion.  So  it  is  the  greatest  unkindness  that  can 
be  shewed  to  God,  Christ,  and  the  Spirit,  for  a  soul  to  put  God  upon 
complaining,  Christ  upon  bleediug,  and  the  Spirit  upon  grieving,  by 
yielding  to  little  sins.  Therefore,  when  Satan  says  it  is  but  a  little  one, 
do  thou  answer,  that  often  times  there  is  the  greatest  unkindness 
shewed  to  God's  glorious  majesty,  in  the  acting  of  the  least  folly,  and 
therefore  thou  wilt  not  displease  thy  best  and  greatest  friend,  by  yield- 
ing to  his  greatest  enemy. 

Remedy  (-i).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan,  is  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  there  is  great  danger,  yea,  many  times  most 
danger,  in  the  smallest  sins.  'A  little  leaven  leaveneth  the  whole  lump,' 
1  Cor.  v.  6.  If  the  serpent  wind  in  his  head,  he  will  draw  in  his  whole 
body  after.  Greater  sins  do  sooner  startle  the  soul,  and  awaken  and 
rouse  up  the  soul  to  repentance,  than  lesser  sins  do.  Little  sins  often 
slide  into  the  soul,  and  breed,  and  work  secretly  and  undiscernibly 
in  the  soul,  till  they  come  to  be  so  strong,  as  to  trample  upon  the  soul, 
and  to  cut  the  throat  of  the  soul.  There  is  oftentimes  greatest  danger 
to  our  bodies  in  the  least  diseases  that  hang  upon  us,  because  we  are 
apt  to  make  light  of  them,  and  to  neglect  the  timely  use  of  means 
for  removing  of  them,  till  they  are  grown  so  strong  that  they  prove 
mortal  to  us.  So  there  is  most  danger  often  in  the  least  sins.  We  are 
apt  to  take  no  notice  of  them,  and  to  neglect  those  heavenly  helps 
whereby  they  should  be  weakened  and  destroyed,  till  they  are  grown 
to  that  strength,  that  we  are  ready  to  cry  out,  the  medicine  is  too 
weak  for  the  disease  ;  I  would  pray,  and  I  would  hear,  but  I  am  afraid 
that  sin  is  grown  up  by  degrees  to  such  a  head,  that  I  shall  never  be 
able  to  prevail  over  it  ;  but  as  I  have  begun  to  fall,  so  I  shall  utterly 
fall  before  it,  and  at  last  perish  in  it,  unless  the  power  and  free  grace 
of  Christ  doth  act  gloriously,  beyond  my  present  apprehension  and 
expectation.  The  viper  is  killed  by  the  little  young  ones  that  are 
nourished  and  cherished  in  her  belly  :  so  are  many  men  eternally  killed 
and  betrayed  by  the  little  sins,  as  they  call  them,  that  are  nourished 
in  their  own  bosoms.2 

1  It  was  a  vexation  to  king  Lysimachus,  that  his  staying  to  drink  one  small  draught 
of  water  lost  him  his  kingdom  ;  and  so  it  will  eternally  vex  some  souls  at  last  that  for 
one  little  sin,  compared  with  great  transgressions,  they  have  lost  God,  heaven,  and 
their  souls  for  ever.     [Plutarch.    Cf.  Bp.  Jeremy  Taylor,  vol.  iv.  p.  457  (Eden).— G.] 

2  Caesar   was  stabbed   with   bodkins.     Pope  Adrian   was   choked   with  a  gnat.     A 

22  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.   11. 

I  know  not,  saith  one,  whether  the  maintenance  of  the  least  sin  be 
nol  worse  than  the  commission  of  the  greatest:  for  this  may  be  of 
frailty,  that  argues  obstinacy.  A  little  hole  in  the  ship  sinks  it;  a 
small  breach  in  a  sea-bank  carries  away  all  before  it;  a  little  stab  at 
the  heart  kills  a  man;  and  a  little  sin,  without  a  great  deal  of  mercy, 
will  damn  a  man.1 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan,  is  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  other  saints  have  chosen  to  suffer  the  worst  of  tor- 
ments, rather  than  they  would  commit  the  least  sin,  i.  e.  such  as  the 
world  accounts.*  So  as  you  may  see  in  Daniel  and  his  companions, 
that  would  rather  choose  to  burn,  and  be  cast  to  the  lions,  than  they 
would  bow  to  the  image  that  Nebuchadnezzar  had  set  up.  When  this 
pecchaddillo,*  in  the  world's  account,  and  a  hot  fiery  furnace  stood  in 
competition,  that  they  must  either  fall  into  sin,  or  be  cast  into  the 
fiery  furnace,  such  was  their  tenderness  of  the  honour  and  glory  of 
God,  and  their  hatred  and  indignation  against  sin,  that  they  would 
rather  burn  than  sin ;  they  knew  that  it  was  far  better  to  burn  for 
their  not  sinning,  than  that  God  and  conscience  should  raise  a  hell, 
a  fire  in  their  bosoms  for  sin.4 

I  have  read  of  that  noble  servant  of  God,  Marcus  Arethusius,  minis- 
ter of  a  church  in  the  time  of  Constantine,  who  in  Constantine's  time 
had  been  the  cause  of  overthrowing  an  idol's  temple  ;  afterwards,  when 
Julian  came  to  be  emperor,  he  would  force  the  people  of  that  place 
to  build  it  up  again.  They  were  ready  to  do  it,  but  he  refused ;  where- 
upon those  that  were  his  own  people,  to  whom  he  preached,  took  him, 
and  stripped  him  of  all  his  clothes,  and  abused  his  naked  body,  and 
gave  it  up  to  the  children,  to  lance  it  with  their  pen-knives,  and  then 
caused  him  to  be  put  in  a  basket,  and  anointed  his  naked  body  with 
honey,  and  set  him  in  the  sun,  to  be  stung  with  wasps.  And  all  this 
cruelty  they  shewed,  because  he  would  not  do  anything  towards  the 
building  up  of  this  idol  temple ;  nay,  they  came  to  this,  that  if  he  would 
do  but  the  least  towards  it,  if  he  would  give  but  a  halfpenny  to  it, 
they  would  save  him.  But  he  refused  all,  though  the  giving  of  a  half- 
penny might  have  saved  his  live  ;  and  in  doing  this,  he  did  but  live 
up  to  that  principle  that  most  Christians  talk  of,  and  all  profess,  but 
few  come  up  to,  viz.,  that  we  must  choose  rather  to  suffer  the  worst  of 
torments  that  men  and  devils  can  invent  and  inflict,  than  to  commit 
the  least  sin,  whereby  God  should  be  dishonoured,  our  consciences 
wounded,  religion  reproached,  and  our  own  souls  endangered. 

Bcorpion  is  little,  yet  able  to  sting  a  lion  to  death.  A  mouse  is  but  little,  yet  killeth  an 
elephant,  if  he  gets  up  into  his  trunk.  The  leopard  being  great,  is  poisoned  with  a 
head  of  garlic.  The  smallest  errors  prove  many  times  most  dangerous.  It  is  as  much 
treason  to  coin  pence  as  bigger  pieces. 

1  One  little  miscarriage  doth,  in  the  eyes  of  the  world,  overshadow  all  a  Christian's 
graces,  as  one  cloud  doth  sometimes  overshadow  the  whole  body  of  the  sun. 

*  Melius  mori  fame  quam  Idolothytis  vesci. — Augustine.  It  is  better  to  die  with 
hunger,  than  to  eat  that  which  is  offered  to  idols. 

3  The  early  form  of  this  at  the  time  scarcely  accepted  word  ;  but  the  context  indi- 
cates a  reminiscence  of  Boskierus  (Codrus  Evang.),  who  uses  the  term  and  preceding 
illustrations  of  little  sins. — G. 

*  Many  heathens  would  rather  die  than  cozen  or  cheat  one  another,  so  faithful  were 
they  one  to  another.  Will  not  these  rise  in  judgment  against  many  professors  in  theso 
days,  who  mako  nothing  of  over- reaching  one  another? 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  23 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  the  soul  is  never  able  to  stand  under  the 
guilt  and  weight  of  the  least  sin,  when  God  shall  set  it  home  upon 
the  soul.  The  least  sin  will  press  and  sink  the  stoutest  sinner  as  low 
as  hell,  when  God  shall  open  the  eyes  of  a  sinner,  and  make  him  see 
the  horrid  filthiness  and  abominable  vileness  that  is  in  sin.  What  so 
little,  base,  and  vile  creatures  as  lice  or  gnats,  and  yet  by  these  little 
poor  creatures,  God  so  plagued  stout-hearted  Pharaoh,  and  all  Egypt, 
that,  fainting  under  it,  they  were  forced  to  cry  out,  '  This  is  the  finger 
of  God,'  Exod.  viii.  16,  x.  19.  When  little  creatures,  yea,  the  least 
creatures,  shall  be  armed  with  a  power  from  God,  they  shall  press  and 
sink  down  the  greatest,  proudest,  and  stoutest  tyrants  that  breathe.1 
So  when  God  shall  cast  a  sword  into  the  hand  of  a  little  sin,  and  arm  it 
against  the  soul,  the  soul  will  faint  and  fall  under  it.  Some,  who  have 
but  projected  adultery,  without  any  actual  acting  it ;  and  others,  hav- 
ing found  a  trifle,  and  made  no  conscience  to  restore  it,  knowing,  by 
the  light  of  natural  conscience,  that  they  did  not  do  as  they  would 
be  done  by  ;  and  others,  that  have  had  some  unworthy  thought  of  God, 
have  been  so  frightened,  amazed,  and  terrified  for  those  sins,  which  are 
small  in  men's  account,  that  they  have  wished  they  had  never  been  ; 
that  they  could  take  no  delight  in  any  earthly  comfort,  that  they  have 
been  put  to  their  wits'  end,  ready  to  make  away  themselves,  wishing 
themselves  annihilated.2 

Mr  Perkins  mentions  a  good  man,  but  very  poor,  who,  being  ready 
to  starve,  stole  a  lamb,  and  being  about  to  eat  it  with  his  poor  chil- 
dren, and  as  his  manner  was  afore  meat,  to  crave  a  blessing,  durst  not 
do  it,  but  fell  into  a  great  perplexity  of  conscience,  and  acknow- 
ledged his  fault  to  the  owner,  promising  payment  if  ever  he  should  be 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  there  is  more  evil  in  the  least  sin  than  in  the 
greatest  affliction;  and  this  appears  as  clear  as  the  sun,  by  the  severe 
dealing  of  God  the  Father  with  his  beloved  Son,  who  let  all  the 
vials  of  his  fiercest  wrath  upon  him,  and  that  for  the  least  sin  as  well 
as  for  the  greatest. 

'  The  wages  of  sin  is  death,'  Rom.  vi.  23  ;  of  sin  indefinitely,  whether 
great  or  small.3  Oh  !  how  should  this  make  us  tremble,  as  much  at 
the  least  spark  of  lust  as  at  hell  itself;  considering  that  God  the 
Father  would  not  spare  his  bosom  Son,  no,  not  for  the  least  sin,  but 
would  make  him  drink  the  dregs  of  his  wrath  ! 

And  so  much  for  the  remedies  that  may  fence  and  preserve  our 
souls  from  being  drawn  to  sin  by  this  third  device  of  Satan. 

1  The  tyrant  Maximinus,  who  had  set  forth  his  proclamation  engraven  in  brass  for 
the  utter  abolishing  of  Christ  and  his  religion,  was  eaten  of  lice.  [Maximinus  II., 
Euseb.  H.  E.  viii.  14,  ix.  2,  &c— G.] 

2  Una  guttula  malce  conscientice  totum  mare  mundani  gaudii  absorbet ;  i.  e.  one  drop  of 
an  evil  conscience  swallows  up  the  whole  sea  of  worldly  joy.  How  great  a  pain,  not  to 
be  borne,  comes  from  the  prick  of  this  small  thorn,  said  one. 

3  Death  is  the  heir  of  the  least  sin  ;  the  best  wages  that  the  least  sin  gives  his 
soldiers  is,  death  of  all  sorts.  In  a  strict  sense,  there  is  no  sin  little,  because  no  little 
God  to  sin  against. 

24  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  1 1. 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (4).  By  presenting  to  the  soul  the  best  men's  sins,  and  by 
hiding  from  the  soul  their  virtues;  by  shewing  the  sold  their  sins, 
mil/  by  hiding  from  the  soul  their  sorrcnus  and  repentance  :  as  by 
setting  hefore  the  soul  the  adultery  of  David,  the  pride  of  Hezekiah, 
the  impatience  of  Job,  the  drunkenness  of  Noah,  the  blasphemy  of 
Peter,  &&,  and  by  hiding  from  the  soul  the  tears,  the  sighs,  the 
groans,  the  meltings,  the  humblings,  aud  repentings  of  these  precious 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  the  devil  are  these : 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  (Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  hath  been  as  careful  to 
note  the  saints'  rising  by  repentance  out  of  sin,  as  he  hath  to  note 
their  falling  into  sins.  David  falls  fearfully,  but  by  repentance  he 
rises  sweetly  :  '  Blot  out  my  transgressions,  wash  me  throughly  from 
my  iniquity,  cleanse  me  from  my  sin  ;  for  I  acknowledge  my  trans- 
gressions, and  my  sin  is  ever  before  me.  Purge  me  with  hyssop, 
and  I  shall  be  clean  ;  wash  me,  and  I  shall  be  whiter  than  snow; 
deliver  me  from  blood-guiltiness,  O  God,  thou  God  of  my  salvation.' 
It  is  true,  Hezekiah's  heart  was  lifted  up  under  the  abundance  of 
mercy  that  God  had  cast  in  upon  him;  and  it  is  as  true  that  Heze- 
kiah humbled  himself  for  the  pride  of  his  heart,  so  that  the  wrath 
of  the  Lord  came  not  upon  him,  nor  upon  Jerusalem,  in  the  days  of 
Hezekiah.  It  is  true,  Job  curses  the  day  of  his  birth,  and  it  is  as  true 
that  he  rises  by  repentance  :  '  Behold,  I  am  vile,'  saith  he  ;  '  what  shall 
I  answer  thee?  I  will  lay  my  hand  upon  my  mouth.  Once  have  I 
spoken,  but  I  will  not  answer;  yea  twice,  but  I  will  proceed  no  further. 
I  have  heard  of  thee  by  the  hearing  of  the  ear,  but  now  mine  eye 
seeth  thee  ;  wherefore,  I  abhor  myself,  and  repent  in  dust  and  ashes,' 
Job  xl.  4,  5";  xlii.  5,  6.1  Peter  falls  dreadfully,  but  rises  by  repent- 
ance sweetly  ;  a  look  of  love  from  Christ  melts  hirn  into  tears.  He 
knew  that  repentance  was  the  key  to  the  kingdom  of  grace.  As  once 
his  faith  was  so  great  that  he  leapt,  as  it  were,  into  a  sea  of  waters  to 
come  to  Christ;  so  now  his  repentance  was  so  great  that  he  leapt,  as 
it  were,  into  a  sea  of  tears,  for  that  he  had  gone  from  Christ.  Some 
say  that,  after  his  sad  fall,  he  was  ever  and  anon  weeping,  and  that 
his  face  was  even  furrowed  with  continual  tears.  He  had  no  sooner 
took  in  poison  but  he  vomited  it  up  again,  ere  it  got  to  the  vitals  ; 
he  had  no  sooner  handled  this  serpent  but  he  turned  it  into  a  rod  to 
scourge  his  soul  with  remorse  for  sinning  against  such  clear  light,  and 
strong  love,  and  sweet  discoveries  of  the  heart  of  Christ  to  him.2 

Clement  notes  that  Peter  so  repented,  that  all  his  life  after,  every 
night  when  he  heard  the  cock  crow,  he  would  fall  upon  his  knees, 
and,  weeping  bitterly,  would  beg  pardon  of  his  sin.3  Ah,  souls,  you 
can  easily  sin  as  the  saints,   but  can  }rou   repent  with  the  saints  ! 

1  Tertullian  saith  that  he  was  (nulli  rei  natus  nisi  pixnitenticc)  born  for  no  other  pur- 
pose but  to  repent. 

8  Luther  confesses  that,  before  his  conversion,  ho  met  not  with  a  more  displeasing 
word  in  all  his  study  of  divinity  than  repent,  but  afterward  he  took  delight  in  the  word. 
J'cenitens  de peccato  dolet  el  de  dolore  gaudet,  to  sorrow  for  his  Bin,  and  then  to  rejoice  in 
his  sorrow.  3  In  Hefele's  l'atrum  Apostolicarum  Opera.     1847.     8vo. — U. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  25 

Many  can  sin  with  David  and  Peter,  that  cannot  repent  with  David 
and  Peter,  and  so  must  perish  for  ever. 

Theodosius  the  emperor,  pressing  that  he  might  receive  the  Lord's 
supper,  excuses  his  own  foul  fact  by  David's  doing  the  like  ;  to  which 
Ambrose  replies,  Thou  hast  followed  David  transgressing,  follow  David 
repenting,  and  then  think  thou  of  the  table  of  the  Lord.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  these  saints  did  not  make  a  trade  of  sin. 
They  fell  once  or  twice,  and  rose  by  repentance,  that  they  might  keep 
the  closer  to  Christ  for  ever.  They  fell  accidentally,  occasionally,  and 
with  much  reluctancy  ;2  and  thou  sinnest  presumptuously,  obstinately, 
readily,  delightfully,  and  customarily.  Thou  hast,  by  thy  making  a 
trade  of  sin,  contracted  upon  thy  soul  a  kind  of  cursed  necessity  of  sin- 
ning, that  thou  canst  as  well  cease  to  be,  or  cease  to  live,  as  thou 
canst  cease  to  sin.  Sin  is,  by  custom,  become  as  another  nature  to 
thee,  which  thou  canst  not,  which  thou  wilt  not  lay  aside,  though  thou 
knowest  that  if  thou  dost  not  lay  sin  aside,  God  will  lay  thy  soul 
aside  for  ever  ;  though  thou  knowest  that  if  sin  and  thy  soul  do  not 
part,  Christ  and  thy  soul  can  never  meet.  If  thou  wilt  make  a  trade 
of  sin,  and  cry  out,  Did  not  David  sin  thus,  and  Noah  sin  thus,  and 
Peter  sin  thus  1  &c.  No  ;  their  hearts  turned  aside  to  folly  one  day, 
but  thy  heart  turns  aside  to  folly  every  day,  2  Peter  ii.  14,  Prov.  iv. 
16  ;  and  when  they  were  fallen,  they  rise  by  repentance,  and  by  the 
actings  of  faith  upon  a  crucified  Christ;3  but  thou  fallest,  and  hast  no 
strength  nor  will  to  rise,  but  wallowest  in  sin,  and  wilt  eternally  die  in 
thy  sins,  unless  the  Lord  be  the  more  merciful  to  thy  soul.  Dost  thou 
think,  0  soul  !  this  is  good  reasoning?  Such  a  one  tasted  poison  but 
once,   and  yet  narrowly  escaped  ;  but  I  do  daily  drink  poison,  yet 

1  shall  escape.  Yet  such  is  the  mad  reasoning  of  vain  souls.  David 
and  Peter,  &c,  sinned  once  foully  and  fearfully  ;  they  tasted  poison 
but  once,  and  were  sick  to  death  ;  but  I  taste  it  daily,  and  yet  shall 
not  taste  of  eternal  death.  Remember,  O  souls  !  that  the  day  is  at 
hand  when  self-flatterers  will  be  found  self-deceivers,  yea,  self-mur- 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  though  God  doth  not,  nor  never  will,  dis- 
inherit his  people  for  their  sins,  yet  he  hath  severely  punished  his 
people  for  their  sins.  David  sins,  and  God  breaks  his  bones  for  his 
sin  :  '  Make  me  to  hear  joy  and  gladness,  that  the  bones  which  thou 
hast  broken  may  rejoice,'  Ps.  Ii.  8.  '  And  because  thou  hast  done  this,, 
the  sword  shall  never  depart  from  thy  house,  to  the  day  of  thy  death,' 

2  Sam.  xii.  10.  Though  God  will  not  utterly  take  from  them  his 
loving-kindness,  nor  suffer  his  faithfulness  to  fail,  nor  break  his  cove- 
nant, nor  alter  the  thing  that  is  gone  out  of  his  mouth,  yet  will  he 
1  visit  their  transgression  with  a  rod,  and  their  iniquity  with  stripes/ 

1  Theodoret,  Hist.  1.  iv.  c.  xvii. 

2  The  saints  cannot  sin  (voluntate  plena  sed  semi-plena)  with  a  whole  will,  hut,  as  it 
were,  with  a  half  will,  an  unwilling  willingness  ;  not  with  a  full  consent,  but  with  a 
dissenting  consent. 

3  Though  sin  do  (habitare)  dwell  in  the  regenerate,  as  Austin  notes,  yet  it  doth  not 
(regnare)  reign  over  the  regenerate ;  they  rise  by  repentance. 

26  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

Ps.  lxxxix.  30,  35.  The  Scripture  abounds  with  instances  of  this 
kind.  This  is  so  known  a  truth  among  all  that  know  anything  of 
truth,  that  to  cite  more  scriptures  to  prove  it  would  be  to  light  a  candle 
to  see  the  sun  at  noon.1 

The  Jews  have  a  proverb,  '  That  there  is  no  punishment  comes 
upon  Israel  in  which  there  is  not  one  ounce  of  the  golden  calf;'  mean- 
ing that  that  was  so  great  a  sin,  as  that  in  every  plague  God  remem- 
bered it  ;  that  it  had  an  influence  into  every  trouble  that  befell  them. 
Every  man's  heart  may  say  to  him  in  his  sufferings,  as  the  heart  of 
Apollodorus  in  the  kettle,  '  I  have  been  the  cause  of  this.'2  God  is 
most  angry  when  he  shews  no  anger.  God  keep  me  from  this  mercy  ; 
this  kind  of  mercy  is  worse  than  all  other  kind  of  misery. 

One  writing  to  a  dead  friend  hath  this  expression  :  '  I  account  it 
a  part  of  unhappiness  not  to  know  adversity  ;  I  judge  you  to  be 
miserable,  because  you  have  not  been  miserable/3  It  is  mercy  that  our 
affliction  is  not  execution,  but  a  correction.4  He  that  hath  deserved 
hanging,  may  be  glad  if  he  scape  with  a  whipping.  God's  corrections 
are  our  instructions,  his  lashes  our  lessons,  his  scourges  our  school- 
masters, his  chastisements  our  advertisements  ;5  and  to  note  this,  both 
the  Hebrews  and  the  Greeks  express  chastening  and  teaching  by  one 
and  the  same  word  (Musar,  Paideia6),  because  the  latter  is  the  true 
end  of  the  former,  according  to  that  in  the  proverb,  '  Smart  makes 
wit,  and  vexation  gives  understanding.'  Whence  Luther  fitly  calls 
affliction  '  The  Christian  man's  divinity.'7  So  saith  Job  (chap,  xxxiii. 
14-19),  '  God  speaketh  once,  yea,  twice,  yet  man  perceiveth  it  not. 
In  a  dream,  in  a  vision  of  the  night,  when  deep  sleep  falleth  upon 
men,  in  slumberings  upon  the  bed  ;  then  he  openeth  the  ears  of  men, 
and  sealeth  their  instruction,  that  he  may  withdraw  man  from  his  pur- 
pose, and  hide  pride  from  man.  He  keepeth  back  his  soul  from  the 
pit,  and  his  life  from  perishing  by  the  sword.'  When  Satan  shall  tell 
thee  of  other  men's  sins  to  draw  thee  to  sin,  do  thou  then  think  of 
the  same  men's  sufferings  to  keep  thee  from  sin.  Lay  thy  hand  upon 
thy  heart,  and  say,  O  my  soul !  if  thou  sinnest  with  David,  thou 
must  suffer  with  David,  &c. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  there  are  but  two  main  ends  of  God's 
recording  of  the  falls  of  his  saints. 

And  the  one  is,  to  keep  those  from  fainting,  sinking,  and  despair, 
under  the  burden  of  their  sins,  who  fall  through  weakness  and  infirmity. 

And  the  other  is,  that  their  falls  may  be  as  landmarks  to  warn  others 
that  stand,  to  take  heed  lest  they  fall.     It  never  entered  into  the 

1  Josephu8  reports  that,  not  long  after  the  Jews  had  crucified  Christ  on  the  cross,  so 
many  of  them  wore  condemned  to  be  crucified,  that  there  were  not  places  enough  for 
crosses,  nor  crosses  enough  for  the  bodies  that  were  to  be  hung  thereon.  [The  Jewish 
War  and  Antiq. — G.]  ■  The  tyrant  of  Cassandreia. — Q. 

3  Qui  non  est  eruciatus  non  est  Chrislianus,  saith  Luther,  There  is  not  a  Christian 
that  carries  not  his  cross. 

4  Ps.  xciv.  12  ;  Frov.  iii.  12,  13,  16  ;  Obad.  6,  13  ;  Isa.  ix.  1,  el  scq. 

6  Admonitions. — G. 

c  That  is,  "ID-10,  Prov.  iii.  11  ;  and  *a,lu*,  Ileb.  xii.  6,  7,  8,  11— G. 

7  Theologium  Christinuorum Afrlictiones  Benedictiones,  Afflictions  are  bless- 
ings— Bernard- 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  27 

heart  of  God  to  record  his  children's  sins,  that  others  might  be 
encouraged  to  sin,  but  that  others  might  look  to  their  standings,  and 
to  hang  the  faster  upon  the  skirts  of  Christ,  and  avoid  all  occasions 
and  temptations  that  may  occasion  the  soul  to  fall,  as  others  have 
fallen,  when  they  have  been  left  by  Christ.  The  Lord  hath  made 
their  sins  as  landmarks,  to  warn  his  people  to  take  heed  how  they 
come  near  those  sands  and  rocks,  those  snares  and  baits,  that  have 
been  fatal  to  the  choicest  treasures,  to  wit,  the  joy,  peace,  comfort, 
and  glorious  enjoyments  of  the  bravest  spirits  and  noblest  souls  that 
ever  sailed  through  the  ocean  of  this  sinful  troublesome  world  ;  as 
you  may  see  in  David,  Job,  Peter,  &c.  There  is  nothing  in  the  world 
that  can  so  notoriously  cross  the  grand  end  of  God's  recording  of  the 
sins  of  his  saints,  than  for  any  from  thence  to  take  encouragement  to 
sin  ;  and  wherever  yon  find  such  a  soul,  you  may  write  him  Christless, 
graceless,  a  soul  cast  off  by  God,  a  soul  that  Satan  hath  by  the  hand, 
and  the  eternal  God  knows  whither  he  will  lead  him.1 

The  fifth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (5).  To  present  God  to  the  soul  as  one  made  up  all  of 
mercy.  Oh  !  saith  Satan,  you  need  not  make  such  a  matter  of  sin, 
you  need  not  be  so  fearful  of  sin,  not  so  unwilling  to  sin ;  for  God  is  a 
God  of  mercy,  a  God  full  of  mercy,  a  God  that  delights  in  mercy,  a 
God  that  is  ready  to  shew  mercy,  a  God  that  is  never  weary  of 
shewing  mercy,  a  God  more  prone  to  pardon  his  people  than  to  punish 
his  people  ;  and  therefore  he  will  not  take  advantage  against  the  soul  ; 
and  why  then,  saith  Satan,  should  you  make  such  a  matter  of  sin  ? 
Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  : 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  is,  seriously  to  consider,  That  it  is 
the  sorest  judgment  in  the  world  to  be  left  to  sin  upon  any  pretence 
whatsoever.  O  unhappy  man  !  when  God  leaveth  thee  to  thyself, 
and  doth  not  resist  thee  in  thy  sins.2  Woe,  woe  to  him  at  whose  sins 
God  doth  wink.  When  God  lets  the  way  to  hell  be  a  smooth  and 
pleasant  way,  that  is  hell  on  this  side  hell,  and  a  dreadful  sign  of  God's 
indignation  against  a  man  ;  a  token  of  his  rejection,  and  that  God 
doth  not  intend  good  unto  him.  That  is  a  sad  word,  '  Ephraim  is 
joined  to  idols  :  let  him  alone,'  Hosea  iv.  17  ;  he  will  be  uncounsel- 
lable  and  incorrigible  ;  he  hath  made  a  match  with  mischief,  he  shall 
have  his  bellyful  of  it  ;  he  falls  with  open  eyes,  let  him  fall  at  his 
own  peril.  And  that  is  a  terrible  saying.  '  So  I  gave  them  up  unto 
their  own  hearts'  lusts,  and  they  walked  in  their  own  counsels,'  Ps. 
lxxxi.  12.  A  soul  given  up  to  sin,  is  a  soul  ripe  for  hell,  a  soul 
posting  to  destruction.  Ah  Lord  !  this  mercy  I  humbly  beg,  that 
whatever  thou  givest  me  up  to,  thou  wilt  not  give  me  up  to  the  ways 
of  my  own  heart ;  if  thou  wilt  give  me  up  to  be  afflicted,  or  tempted, 
or  reproached,  &c,  I  will  patiently  sit  down,  and  say,  It  is  the  Lord  ; 
let  him  do  with  me  what  seems  good  in  his  own  eyes.     Do  anything 

1  I  have  known  a  good  man,  saith  Bernard,  who,  when  he  heard  of  any  that  .had 
committed  some  notorious  sin,  he  was  wont  to  say  with  himself,  '  IUe  hodie  et  ego  eras,' 
he  fell  to-day,  so  may  I  to-morrow. 

a  Humanum  est  peccare,  diabolicum  perseverare,  et  angelieum  resurgere. — Avg\i.istine\  ; 
i.e.  It  is  a  human  thing  to  fall  into  sin,  a  devilish  to  persevere  therein,  and  an  angeli- 
cal or  supernatural  to  rise  from  it. 

28  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

with  mc,  lay  what  burden  thou  wilt  upon  me,  so  thou  dost  not  give 
me  up  to  the  ways  of  my  own  heart.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  God  is  as  just  as  he  is  merciful.  As  the 
Scriptures  speak  him  out  to  be  a  very  merciful  God,  so  they  speak 
him  out  to  be  a  very  just  God.  Witness  his  casting  the  angels  out 
of  heaven,  2  Peter  ii.  4-6,  and  his  binding  them  in  chains  of  dark- 
ness2 till  the  judgment  of  the  great  day  ;  and  witness  his  turning 
Adam  out  of  paradise,  his  drowning  of  the  old  world,  and  his  raining 
hell  out  of  heaven  upon  Sodom  ;  and  witness  all  the  crosses,  losses, 
sicknesses,  and  diseases,  that  be  in  the  world  ;  and  witness  Tophet, 
that  was  prepared  of  old  ;  wituess  his  'treasuring  up  of  wrath  against 
the  day  of  wrath,  unto  the  revelation  of  the  just  judgments  of  God  ; 
but  above  all,  witness  the  pouring  forth  of  all  his  wrath  upon  his 
bosom  Son,  when  he  did  bear  the  sins  of  his  people,  and  cried  out, 
'  My  God,  my  God,  why  hast  thou  forsaken  me?'  Mat.  xxvii.  46. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  si7is  against  mercy  will  bring  the  greatest 
and  sorest  judgments  upon  mien's  heads  and  hearts.  Mercy  is 
Alpha,  Justice  is  Omega.  David,  speaking  of  these  attributes,  placeth 
mercy  in  the  foreward,  and  justice  in  the  rearward,  saying,  '  My  song 
shall  be  of  mercy  and  judgment/  Ps.  ci.  1.  When  mercy  is  despised, 
then  justice  takes  the  throne.4  God  is  like  a  prince,  that  sends  not 
his  army  against  rebels  before  he  hath  sent  his  pardon,  and  proclaimed 
it  by  a  herald  of  arms  :  he  first  hangs  out  the  white  flag  of  mercy  ; 
if  this  wins  men  in,  they  are  happy  for  ever  ;  but  if  they  stand  out, 
then  God  will  put  forth  his  red  flag  of  justice  and  judgment ;-  if  the 
one  is  despised,  the  other  shall  be  felt  with  a  witness.5 

See  this  in  the  Israelites.  He  loved  them  and  chose  them  when 
they  were  in  their  blood,  and  most  unlovely.  He  multiplied  them,  not 
by  means,  but  by  miracle  ;  from  seventy  souls  they  grew  in  few  years 
to  six  hundred  thousand  ;  the  more  they  were  oppressed,  the  more  they 
prospered.  Like  camomile,  the  more  you  tread  it,  the  more  you 
.spread  it ;  or  to  a  palm-tree,  the  more  it  is  pressed,  the  further  it 
spreadeth  ;  or  to  fire,  the  more  it  is  raked,  the  more  it  burnetii.  Their 
mercies  came  in  upon  them  like  Job's  messengers,  one  upon  the  neck 
of  the  other :  He  put  off  their  sackcloth,  and  girded  them  with  glad- 
ness, and  '  compassed  them  about  with  songs  of  deliverance ;'  he 
'  carried  them  on  the  wings  of  eagles  ;'  he  kept  them  'as  the  apple  of 
his  eye,'  &c.6  But  they,  abusing  his  mercy,  became  the  greatest 
objects  of  his  wrath.     As  I  know  not  the  man  that  can  reckon  up 

1  A  me,  me  salva  Domine ;  Deliver  me,  0  Lord,  from  that  evil  man  myself. — Aug- 

■  God  hanged  them  up  in  gihbets,  as  it  were,  that  others  might  hear  and  fear,  and 
do  no  more  so  wickedly.  8  Cf.  Rom.  ii.  5  ;  but  it  is  the  sinner,  not  God. — G. 

*  QuanCo  gradus  altior,  tanto  casus  gravior ;  the  higher  we  are  in  dignity,  the  more 
grievous  is  our  fall  and  misery. 

6  Dens  tardus  est  ad  iram,  sed  larditatem  gravitate  pcenai  compensat ;  God  is  slow  to 
anger,  but  he  recompenseth  his  slowness  with  grievousuess  of  punishment.  If  we 
nbuse  mercy  to  serve  our  lust,  then,  in  Salvian'a  phrase,  God  will  rain  hell  out  of 
Leaven,  rather  than  not  visit  fur  such  sins. 

6  Ps.  xxxii.  7  ;  Exod.  six,  4  ;  Deut.  zxzii.  10. — G. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  29 

their  mercies,  so  I  know  not  the  man  that  can  sum  up  the  miseries 
that  are  come  upon  them  for  their  sins.  For  as  our  Saviour  prophesied 
concerning  Jerusalem,  '  that  a  stone  should  not  be  left  upon  a  stone,' 
so  it  was  fulfilled  forty  years  after  his  ascension,  by  Vespasian  the 
emperor  and  his  son  Titus,  who,  having  besieged  Jerusalem,  the  Jews 
were  oppressed  with  a  grievous  famine,  in  which  their  food  was  old 
shoes,  old  leather,  old  hay,  and  the  dung  of  beasts.  There  died,  partly 
of^the  sword  and  partly  of  the  famine,  eleven  hundred  thousand  of  the 
poorer  sort ;  two  thousand  in  one  night  were  embowelled  ;  six  thou- 
sand were  burned  in  a  porch  of  the  temple  ;  the  whole  city  was  sacked 
and  burned,  and  laid  level  to  the  ground  ;  and  ninety-seven  thousand 
taken  captives,  and  applied  to  base  and  miserable  service,  as  Eusebius 
and  Josephus  saith.1  And  to  this  day,  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  are 
they  not  the  off-scouring  of  the  world  ?  None  less  beloved,  and  none 
more  abhorred,  than  they.2 

And  so  Capernaum,  that  was  lifted  up  to  heaven,  was  threatened  to 
be  thrown  down  to  hell.  No  souls  fall  so  low  into  hell,  if  they  fall, 
as  those  souls  that  by  a  hand  of  mercy  are  lifted  up  nearest  to  heaven. 
You  slight  souls  that  are  so  apt  to  abuse  mercy,  consider  this,  that  in 
the  gospel  days,  the  plagues  that  God  inflicts  upon  the  despisers  and 
abusers  of  mercy  are  usually  spiritual  plagues ;  as  blindness  of  mind, 
hardness  of  heart,  benumbedness  of  conscience,  which  are  ten  thousand 
times  worse  than  the  worst  of  outward  plagues  that  can  befall  you. 
And  therefore,  though  you  may  escape  temporal  judgments,  yet  you 
shall  not  escape  spiritual  judgments  :  '  How  shall  we  escape,  if  neglect 
so  great  salvation  V  Heb.  ii.  3,3  saith  the  apostle.  Oh  !  therefore,  when- 
ever Satan  shall  present  God  to  the  soul  as  one  made  up  all  of  mercy, 
that  he  may  draw  thee  to  do  wickedly,  say  unto  him,  that  sins  against 
mercy  will  bring  upon  the  soul  the  greatest  misery ;  and  therefore 
whatever  becomes  of  thee,  thou  wilt  not  sin  against  mercy,  &c. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan,  is  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  though  God's  general  mercy  be  over  all  his 
works,  yet  his  special  mercy  is  confined  to  those  that  are  divinely 
qualified*  So  in  Exodus  xxxiv.  6,  7,  ' And  the  Lord  passed  by 
before  me,  and  proclaimed,  The  Lord,  the  Lord  God,  merciful  and 
gracious,  longsuffering,  and  abundant  in  goodness  and  truth,  keep- 
ing mercy  for  thousands,  forgiving  iniquity,  transgression,  and  sin,  and 
that  will  by  no  means  clear  the  guilty.'  Exodus  xx.  6,  '  And  shewing 
mercy  unto  thousands  of  them  that  love  me,  and  keep  my  command- 

1  Vespasian  brake  into  their  city  at  Kedron,  where  they  took  Christ,  on  the  same 
feast  day  that  Christ  was  taken;  he  whipped  them  where  they  whipped  Christ;  he  sold 
twenty  Jews  for  a  penny,  as  they  sold  Christ  for  thirty  pence. — S.  Andr.  Cat.  [Sic  in 
all  editions;  but  qu.  St  Augustine,  De  Civitate  Dei? — G.] 

2  Men  are  therefore  worse,  because  they  ought  to  be  belter  ;  and  shall  be  deeper  in 
hell,  because  heaven  was  offered  unto  them  ;  but  they  would  not.  Ingmtia  beneficia, 
flagitia,  supplicia.  Good  turns  aggravate  unkindnesses,  and  men's  offences  are  increased 
by  their  obligations.  [Eusebius,  Eccl  Hist,  sub  Jerusal.  Josephus,  Jewish  War,  Book 
vi.  5,  et  alibi. — G.]  3  upiXvo-avTi;.     Shift  off,  disregard. 

4  Augustus,  in  his  solemn  feasts,  gave  trifles  to  some,  but  gold  to  others  that  his 
heart  was  most  set  upon.  So  God,  by  a  hand  of  general  mercy,  gives  these — poor  trifles 
— outward  blessings,  to  those  that  he  least  loves ;  but  his  gold,  his  special  mercy,  is 
only  towards  those  that  his  heart  is  most  set  upon. 


merits.'  Ps.  xxv.  10,  'All  the  paths  of  the  Lord  are  mercy  and  truth, 
unto  such  as  keep  his  covenant,  and  his  testimonies.'  Ps.  xxxii.  10, 
'  Many  sorrows  shall  be  to  the  wicked  ;  but  ho  that  trusteth  in  the 
Lord,  mercy  shall  compass  him  about.'  Ps.  xxxiii.  18,  'Behold,  the 
eye  of  the  Lord  is  upon  them  that  fear  him,  upon  them  that  hope  in 
his  mercy.'  Ps.  ciii.  11,  'For  as  the  heaven  is  high  above  the  earth, 
so  great  is  his  mercy  toward  them  that  fear  him.'  Ver.  17,  'But  the 
mercy  of  the  Lord  is  from  everlasting  to  everlasting  upon  them  that 
fear  him.'  When  Satan  attempts  to  draw  thee  to  sin  by  presenting 
God  as  a  God  all  made  up  of  mercy,  oh  then  reply,  that  though  God's 
general  mercy  extend  to  all  the  works  of  his  hand,  yet  his  special 
mercy  is  confined  to  them  that  are  divinely  qualified,  to  them  that  love 
him  and  keep  his  commandments,  to  them  that  trust  in  him,  that  by 
hope  hang  upon  him,  and  that  fear  him  ;  and  that  thou  must  be  such 
a  one  here,  or  else  thou  canst  never  be  happy  hereafter ;  thou  must 
partake  of  his  special  mercy,  or  else  eternally  perish  in  everlasting 
misery,  notwithstanding  God's  general  mercy. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  those  that  were  once  glorious  on  earth,  and 
((re  now  triumphing  in  heaven,  did  look  upon  the  mercy  of  God  as 
the  most  powerful  argument  to  preserve  them  from  sin,  and  to  fence 
their  souls  against  sin,  and  not  as  an  encouragement  to  sin.  Ps. 
xxvi.  3-6,  '  For  thy  loving-kindness  is  before  mine  eyes,  and  I  have 
walked  in  thy  truth  ;  I  have  not  sat  with  vain  persons,  neither  will 
I  go  in  with  dissemblers.  I  have  hated  the  congregation  of  evil- 
doers, and  will  not  sit  with  the  wicked.'  So  Joseph  strengthens  him- 
self against  sin  from  the  remembrance  of  mercy  :  '  How  then  can  I,' 
saith  he,  '  do  this  great  wickedness,  and  sin  against  God  V  Gen.  xxxix. 
9.  He  had  fixed  his  eye  upon  mercy,  and  therefore  sin  could  not  enter, 
though  the  irons  entered  into  his  soul ;  his  soul  being  taken  with 
mercy,  was  not  moved  with  his  mistress's  impudence.  Satan  knocked 
oft  at  the  door,  but  the  sight  of  mercy  would  not  suffer  him  to  answer 
or  open.  Joseph,  like  a  pearl  in  a  puddle,  keeps  his  virtue  still.1  So 
Paul,  '  Shall  we  continue  in  sin,  that  grace  may  abound  ?  Gud  forbid. 
How  shall  we  that  are  dead  to  sin,  live  any  longer  therein  V  Rom.  vi.  1,2. 
There  is  nothing  in  the  world  that  renders  a  man  more  unlike  to  a  saint, 
and  more  like  to  Satan,  than  to  argue  from  mercy  to  sinful  liberty  ; 
from  divine  goodness  to  licentiousness.  This  is  the  devil's  logic,  and 
in  whomsoever  you  find  it,  you  may  write,  '  This  soul  is  lost.'  A  man 
may  as  truly  say,  the  sea  burns,  or  fire  cools,  as  that  free  grace  and 
mercy  should  make  a  soul  truly  gracious  to  do  wickedly.  So  the 
same  apostle,  '  I  beseech  you  therefore,  brethren,  by  the  mercies  of 
God,  that  ye  present  your  bodies  a  living  sacrifice,  holy,  acceptable 
unto  God,  which  is  your  reasonable  service,'  Rom.  xii.  1.  So  John, 
'  These  things  I  write  unto  you,  that  ye  sin  not/  1  John  ii.  1,  2.  What 
was  it  that  he  wrote?  He  wrote,  'That  we  might  have  fellowship  with 
the  Father  and  his  Son  ;  and  that  the  blood  of  Christ  cleanseth  us 

1  The  stone  called  Ponlaurus,  is  of  that  virtue,  that  it  preserves  him  that  carries  it 
from  taking  any  hurt  by  poison.  The  mercy  of  God  in  Christ  to  our  souls  is  the  most 
precious  stone  or  pearl  in  the  world,  to  prevent  us  from  being  poisoned  with  sin. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  31 

from  all  sin,  and  that  if  we  confess  our  sin,  he  is  just  and  faithful  to 
forgive  us  our  sins  ;  and  that  if  we  do  sin,  we  have  an  advocate  with 
the  Father,  Jesus  Christ  the  righteous.'  These  choice  favours  and 
mercies  the  apostle  holds  forth  as  the  choicest  means  to  preserve  the 
soul  from  sin,  and  to  keep  at  the  greatest  distance  from  sin ;  and  if 
this  won't  do  it,  you  may  write  the  man  void  of  Christ  and  grace,  and 
undone  for  ever. 

The  sixth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 

Device  (6).  'By  persuading  the  soul  that  the  work  of  repentance  is 
an  easy  ivork,  and  that  therefore  the  soul  need  not  make  such  a  matter 
of  sin.  Why  !  Suppose  you  do  sin,  saith  Satan,  it  is  no  such  diffi- 
cult thing  to  return,  and  confess,  and  be  sorrowful,  and  beg  pardon,  and 
cry,  'Lord,  have  mercy  upon  me;'  and  if  you  do  but  this,  God  will 
cut  the  score,1  and  pardon  your  sins,  and  save  your  souls,  &c. 

By  this  device  Satan  draws  many  a  soul  to  sin,  and  makes  many 
millions  of  souls  servants  or  rather  slaves  to  sin,  &c. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  that 
follow  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  is,  seriously  to  consider,  That  re- 
pentance is  a  mighty  work,  a  difficult  work,  a  work  that  is  above  our 
power.  There  is  no  power  below  that  power  that  raised  Christ  from 
the  dead,  and  that  made  the  world,  that  can  break  the  heart  of  a  sin- 
ner or  turn  the  heart  of  a  sinner.  Thou  art  as  well  able  to  melt  ada- 
mant, as  to  melt  thine  own  heart ;  to  turn  a  flint  into  flesh,  as  to  turn 
thine  own  heart  to  the  Lord  ;  to  raise  the  dead  and  to  make  a  world, 
as  to  repent.  Repentance  is  a  flower  that  grows  not  in  nature's  garden. 
'  Can  the  Ethiopian  change  his  skin,  or  the  leopard  his  spots  ?  then 
may  ye  also  do  good,  that  are  accustomed  to  do  evil/  Jer.  xiii.  23. 
Repentance  is  a  gift  that  comes  down  from  above.2  Men  are  not  born 
with  repentance  in  their  hearts,  as  they  are  born  with  tongues  in 
their  mouths  :3  Acts  v.  31,  '  Him  hath  God  exalted  with  his  right 
hand  to  be  a  Prince  and  a  Saviour,  for  to  give  repentance  to  Israel, 
and  forgiveness  of  sins.'  So  in  2  Tim.  ii.  25,  '  In  meekness  instruct- 
ing them  that  oppose  themselves  ;  if  God  peradventure  will  give  them 
repentance  to  the  acknowledging  of  the  truth/  It  is  not  in  the  power 
of  any  mortal  to  repent  at  pleasure.4  Some  ignorant  deluded  souls 
vainly  conceit  that  these  five  words,  'Lord!  have  mercy  upon  me,' 
are  efficacious  to  send  them  to  heaven  ;  but  as  many  are  undone  by 
buying  a  counterfeit  jewel,  so  many  are  in  hell  by  mistake  of  their 
repentance.  Many  rest  in  their  repentance,  though  it  be  but  the 
shadow  of  repentance,  which  caused  one  to  say,  '  Repentance  damneth 
more  than  sin.' 

1  The  reference  is  to  the  '  scored '  or  notched  sticks  by  which  debt  accounts  were 
recorded  anciently. — G. 

2  Fallen  man  hath  lost  (imperium  suum  and  imperium  sui)  the  command  of  himself, 
and  the  command  of  the  creatures.  And  certainly  he  that  cannot  command  himself 
cannot  repent  of  himself. 

3  Da  pcenitentiam  et  postea  indulgentiam,  said  dying  Fulgentius. 

4  it  was  a  vain  brag  of  king  Cyrus,  that  caused  it  to  be  written  upon  his  tombstone, 
Tiivra.  vrotiTv,  1  could  do  all  things  ;  so  could  Paul  too,  but  it  was  '  through 
Christ,  which  strengthened  him.'     [Of.  Arrian  vi.  29  :  Plutarch,  Alexander,  69. — G.] 

32  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider  of  the  nature  of  true  repentance.  Repentance 
is  some  other  tiling  than  what  vain  men  conceive.1 

Repentance  is  sometimes  taken,  in  a  more  strict  and  narrow  sense, 
for  godly  sorrow  ;  sometimes  repentance  is  taken,  in  a  large  sense,  for 
amendment  of  life.     Repentance  hath  in  it  three  things,  viz. : 

The  act,  subject,  terms. 

(1.)  The  formal  act  of  repentance  is  a  changing  and  converting. 
It  is  often  set  forth  in  Scripture  by  turning.  '  Turn  thou  me,  and  I 
shall  be  turned,'  saith  Ephraim  ;  'after  that  1  was  turned,  I  repented,' 
saith  he,  Jer.  xxxi.  18.     It  is  a  turning  from  darkness  to  light. 

(2.)  The  subject  changed  and  converted,  is  the  whole  man  ;  it  is 
both  the  sinner's  heart  and  life :  first  his  heart,  then  his  life ;  first 
his  person,  then  his  practice  and  conversation.  '  Wash  ye,  make  you 
clean,'  there  is  the  change  of  their  persons ;  '  Put  away  the  evil  of 
your  doings  from  before  mine  eyes  ;  cease  to  do  evil,  learn  to  do  well,' 
Isa.  i.  16  ;  there  is  the  change  of  their  practices.  So  '  Cast  away,' 
saith  Ezekiel,  'all  your  trausgresssions  whereby  you  have  transgressed ;' 
there  is  the  change  of  the  life  ;  '  and  make  you  a  new  heart  and  a  new 
spirit,'  xviii.  30  ;  there  is  the  change  of  the  heart, 

(3.)  The  terms  of  this  change  and  conversion,  from,  which  and  to 
which  both  heart  and  life  must  be  changed  ;  from  sin  to  God.  The 
heart  must  be  changed  from  the  state  and  power  of  sin,  the  life  from 
the  acts  of  sin,  but  both  unto  God  ;  the  heart  to  be  under  his  power 
in  a  state  of  grace,  the  life  to  be  under  his  rule  in  all  new  obedience  ; 
as  the  apostle  speaks,  '  To  open  their  eyes,  and  to  turn  them  from 
darkness  to  light,  and  from  the  power  of  Satan  unto  God,'  Acts 
xxvi.  18.  So  the  prophet  Isaiah  saith,  '  Let  the  wicked  forsake  their 
ways,  and  the  unrighteous  man  his  thoughts,  and  let  him  return  unto 
the  Lord,'  lv.  7. 

Thus  much  of  the  nature  of  evangelical  repentance.  Now,  souls, 
tell  me  whether  it  be  such  an  easy  thing  to  repent,  as  Satan  doth 
suggest.  Besides  what  hath  been  spoken,  I  desire  that  you  will  take 
notice,  that  repentance  doth  include  turning  from  the  most  darling 
sin.  Ephraim  shall  say,  '  What  have  I  to  do  any  more  with  idols  V 
Hosea  xiv.  8.  Yea,  it  is  a  turning  from  all  sin  to  God :  Ezek.  xviii.  30, 
'  Therefore  I  will  judge  you,  O  house  of  Israel,  every  one  of  you  ac- 
cording to  his  ways,  saith  the  Lord  God.  Repent,  and  turn  your- 
selves from  37our  transgresssons  ;  so  iniquity  shall  not  be  your  ruin. 

1  The  Hebrew  word  for  repentance  is  rOlEM"!,  from  31C,  which  signifies  to  return, 
implying  a  going  back  from  what  a  man  had  done.  It  notes  a  turning  or  converting 
from  one  thing  to  another,  from  sin  to  God.  The  Greeks  have  two  words  by  which 
they  express  the  nature  of  repentance,  one  is  ptTttpikw,  which  signifies  to  be  careful, 
anxious,  solicitous,  after  a  thing  is  done  ;  the  other  word,  ftiravoiu,  is  resipiscentia,  after- 
wit,  or  after-wisdom,  the  mind's  recovering  of  wisdom,  or  growing  wiser  after  our  folly. 
Ab.  uvoict  dementia,  et  fara  post,  it  being  the  correction  of  men's  folly,  and  returning  ad 
sanam  mentem.  True  repentance  is  a  thorough  change  both  of  the  mind  and  manners  ; 
optima  et  opt issinn  I'tTnitentia  est  nova  vita,  saith  Luther,  which  saying  is  an  excellent 
saying.  Repentance  for  sin  is  nothing  worth  without  repentance  from  .sin.  If  thou 
repentest  with  a  contradiction,  saith  Tertullian,  God  will  pardon  thee  with  a  contra- 
diction ;  if  thou  repentest  and  yet  continuest  in  thy  sin,  God  will  pardon  thee,  and  yet 
send  thee  to  hell ;  there  is  a  pardon  with  a  contradiction.  Negative  goodness  serves  no 
man's  turn  to  save  him  from  the  axe. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  33 

Herod  turned  from  many,  but  turned  not  from  his  Herodias,  which 
was  his  ruin.  Judas  turned  from  all  visible  wickedness,  yet  he  would 
not  cast  out  that  golden  devil  covetousness,  and  therefore  was  cast 
into  the  hottest  place  in  hell.  He  that  turns  not  from  every  sin,  turns 
not  aright  from  any  one  sin.  Every  sin  strikes  at  the  honour  of  God, 
the  being  of  God,  the  glory  of  God,  the  heart  of  Christ,  the  joy  of  the 
Spirit,  and  the  peace  of  a  man's  conscience;  and  therefore  a  soul  truly 
penitent  strikes  at  all,  hates  all,  conflicts  with  all,  and  will  labour  to 
draw  strength  from  a  crucified  Christ  to  crucify  all.  A  true  penitent 
knows  neither  father  nor  mother,  neither  right  eye  nor  right  hand, 
but  will  pluck  out  the  one  and  cut  off  the  other.  Saul  spared  but 
one  Agag,  and  that  cost  him  his  soul  and  his  kingdom,  1  Sam.  xv.  9. 
Besides,  repentance  is  not  only  a  turning  from  all  sin,  but  also  a  turn- 
ing to  all  good  ;  to  a  love  of  all  good,  to  a  prizing  of  all  good,  and  to  a 
following  after  all  good  :  Ezek.  xviii.  21,  '  But  if  the  wicked  will  turn 
from  all  the  sins  that  he  hath  committed,  and  keep  all  my  statutes, 
and  do  that  which  is  lawful  and  right,  he  shall  surely  live,  he  shall 
not  die  ;'  that  is,  only  negative  righteousness  and  holiness  is  no  right- 
eousness nor  holiness.1  David  fulfilled  all  the  will  of  God,  and  had 
respect  unto  all  his  commandments,  and  so  had  Zacharias  and  Eliza- 
beth. It  is  not  enough  that  the  tree  bears  not  ill  fruit ;  but  it  must 
bring  forth  good  fruit,  else  it  must  be  '  cut  down  and  cast  into  the 
fire,'  Luke  xiii.  7.  So  it  is  not  enough  that  you  are  not  thus  and  thus 
wicked,  but  you  must  be  thus  and  thus  gracious  and  good,  else  divine 
justice  will  put  the  axe  of  divine  vengeance  to  the  root  of  your  souls, 
and  cut  you  off  for  ever.  '  Every  tree  that  bringeth  not  forth  good 
fruit  is  hewed  down  and  cast  into  the  fire/  Mat.  iii.  1 0.  Besides,  re- 
pentance doth  include  a  sensibleness  of  sin's  sinfulness,  how  opposite 
and  contrary  it  is  to  the  blessed  God.  God  is  light,  sin  is  darkness ; 
God  is  life,  sin  is  death ;  God  is  heaven,  sin  is  hell ;  God  is  beauty, 
sin  is  deformity. 

Also  true  repentance  includes  a  sensibleness  of  sin's  mischievous- 
ness  ;  how  it  cast  angels  out  of  heaven,  and  Adam  out  of  paradise  ; 
how  it  laid  the  first  corner  stone  in  hell,  and  brought  in  all  the 
curses,  crosses,  and  miseries,  that  be  in  the  world  ;  and  how  it  makes 
men  liable  to  all  temporal,  spiritual,  and  eternal  wrath  ;  how  it  hath 
made  men  Godless,  Christless,  hopeless,  and  heavenless. 

Further,  true  repentance  doth  include  sorrow  for  sin,  contrition  of 
heart.  It  breaks  the  heart  with  sighs,  and  sobs,  and  groans,  for  that 
a  loving  God  and  Father  is  by  sin  offended,  a  blessed  Saviour  afresh 
crucified,  and  the  sweet  comforter,  the  Spirit,  grieved  and  vexed. 

Again,  repentance  doth  include,  not  only  a  loathing  of  sin,  but  also 
a  loathing  of  ourselves  for  sin.  As  a  man  doth  not  only  loathe  poison, 
but  he  loathes  the  very  dish  or  vessel  that  hath  the  smell  of  the  poison ; 
so  a  true  penitent  doth  not  only  loathe  his  sin,  but  he  loathes  himself, 

1  It  is  said  of  Ithacus,  that  the  hatred  of  the  Priscilian  heresy  was  all  the  virtue  that 
he  had.  The  evil  servant  did  not  riot  out  his  talent,  Mat.  xxv.  18.  Those  reprobates, 
Mat.  xxiii.  2,  robbed  not  the  saints,  but  relieved  them  not ;  for  this  they  must  eternally 

VOL.  I.  C 

34  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

the  vessel  that  smells  of  it ;  so  Ezek.  xx.  43,  '  And  there  shall  ye  re- 
member your  ways  and  all  your  doings,  wherein  ye  have  been  defiled  ; 
and  ye  shall  loathe  yourselves  in  your  own  sight  for  all  your  evils  that 
ye  have  committed.'  True  repentance  will  work  your  hearts,  not  only 
to  loathe  your  sins,  but  also  to  loathe  yourselves.1 

Again,  true  repentance  doth  not  only  work  a  man  to  loathe  himself 
for  his  sins,  but  it  makes  him  ashamed  of  his  sin  also  :  '  What  fruit 
have  ye  of  those  things  whereof  ye  are  now  ashamed?'  saith  the 
apostle,  Rom.  vi.  21.  So  Ezekiel,  'And  thou  shalt  be  confounded, 
and  never  open  thy  mouth  any  more,  because  of  thy  shame,  when  I 
am  pacified  toward  thee  for  all  that  thou  hast  done,  saith  the  Lord 
God,'  xxxvi.  32.  When  a  penitential  soul  sees  his  sins  pardoned,  the 
anger  of  God  pacified,  the  divine  justice  satisfied,  then  he  sits  down 
and  blushes,  as  the  Hebrew  hath  it,  as  one  ashamed.  Yea,  true  re- 
pentance doth  work  a  man  to  cross  his  sinful  self,  and  to  walk  con- 
trary to  sinful  self,  to  take  a  holy  revenge  upon  sin,  as  you  may  see 
in  Paul,  the  jailor,  Mary  Magdalene,  and  Manasseh.  This  the  apostle 
shews  in  2  Cor.  vii.  10,  11:  'For  godly  sorrow  worketh  repentance 
never  to  be  repented  of ;  but  the  sorrow  of  the  world  worketh  death. 
For  behold  the  self-same  thing,  that  ye  sorrowed  after  a  godly  sort, 
what  carefulness  it  wrought  in  you,  yea,  what  clearing  of  yourselves, 
yea,  what  indignation,  yea,  what  fear,  yea,  what  vehement  desire,  yea, 
what  zeal,  yea,  what  revenge.'2  Now,  souls,  sum  up  all  these  things 
together,  and  tell  me  whether  it  be  such  an  easy  thing  to  repent  as 
Satan  would  make  the  soul  to  believe,  and  I  am  confident  your  heart 
will  answer  that  it  is  as  hard  a  thing  to  repent  as  it  is  to  make  a 
world,  or  raise  the  dead. 

I  shall  conclude  this  second  remedy  with  a  worthy  saying  of  a  pre- 
cious holy  man  :  '  Repentance,'  saith  he,  '  strips  us  stark  naked  of  all 
the  garments  of  the  old  Adam,  and  leaves  not  so  much  as  a  shirt  be- 
hind.'  In  this  rotten  building  it  leaves  not  a  stone  upon  a  stone.  As 
the  flood  drowned  Noah's  own  friends  and  servants,  so  must  the  flood 
of  repenting  tears  drown  our  sweetest  and  most  profitable  sins. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  repentance  is  a  continued  act.  The  word 
repent  implies  the  continuation  of  it.3  True  repentance  inclines  a 
man's  heart  to  perform  God's  statutes  always,  even  unto  the  end.  A 
true  penitent  must  go  on  from  faith  to  faith,  from  strength  to  strength  ; 
he  must  never  stand  still  nor  turn  back.  Repentance  is  a  grace,  and 
must  have  its  daily  operation  as  well  as  other  graces.  True  repent- 
ance is  a  continued  spring,  where  the  waters  of  godly  sorrow  are 

1  True  repentance  is  a  sorrowing  for  sin,  as  it  is  offensivum  Dei,  aversivum  a  Deo. 
This  both  comes  from  God,  and  drives  a  man  to  God,  as  it  did  the  church  in  the 
Canticles,  and  the  prodigal :  Ezek.  xiii.  22,  23. 

2  Quantum  displicet  Deo  immunditia  peccati,  in  tantum  placet  Deo  erubescentia 
pcenitentis. — Ber\nard~\:  i.  e.  So  much  the  more  God  hath  been  displeased  with  the 
blackness  of  sin,  the  more  will  he  bo  pleased  with  the  blushing  of  the  sinner.  They 
that  do  not  bum  now  in  zeal  against  sin,  must  ere  long  burn  in  hell  for  sin. 

s  Anselm  in  his  Meditations  confesseth,  that  all  his  life  was  either  damnable  for  sin 
committed,  or  unprofitable  for  good  omitted  ;  at  last  concludes,  Quid  restat,  0  peccalor, 
nisi  tit  in  tota  vita  tua  dqdores  totam  vitam  tuam,  Oh,  what  then  remains  but  in  our  whole 
life  to  lament  the  sins  of  our  whole  life. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  35 

always  flowing  :  '  My  sins  are  ever  before  me,'  Ps.  li.  3.  A  true  peni- 
tent is  often  casting  his  eyes  back  to  the  days  of  his  former  vanity, 
and  this  makes  him  morning  and  evening  to  '  water  his  coach  with 
his  tears.'  '  Remember  not  against  me  the  sins  of  my  youth,'  saith 
one  blessed  penitent ;  and  '  I  was  a  blasphemer,  and  a  persecutor, 
and  injurious,'  saith  another  penitent.1  Repentance  is  a  continued  act 
of  turning,  a  repentance  never  to  be  repented  of,  a  turning  never  to 
turn  again  to  folly.  A  true  penitent  hath  ever  something  within  him 
to  turn  from  ;  he  can  never  get  near  enough  to  God  ;  no,  not  so  near 
him  as  once  he  was  ;  and  therefore  he  is  still  turning  and  turning  that 
he  may  get  nearer  and  nearer  to  him,  that  is  his  chiefest  good  and  his 
only  happiness,  optimum  maximum,  the  best  and  the  greatest.2  They 
are  every  day  a-crying  out,  '  O  wretched  men  that  we  are,  who  shall 
deliver  us  from  this  body  of  death  !'  Rom.  vii.  24  They  are  still  sen- 
sible of  sin,  and  still  conflicting  with  sin,  and  still  sorrowing  for  sin, 
and  still  loathing  of  themselves  for  sin.  Repentance  is  no  transient 
act,  but  a  continued  act  of  the  soul.  And  tell  me,  O  tempted  soul, 
whether  it  be  such  an  easy  thing  as  Satan  would  make  thee  believe, 
to  be  every  day  a-turning  more  and  more  from  sin,  and  a-turning 
nearer  and  nearer  to  God,  thj  choicest  blessedness.  A  true  penitent 
can  as  easily  content  himself  with  one  act  of  faith,  or  one  act  of  love, 
as  he  can  content  himself  with  one  act  of  repentance. 

A  Jewish  Rabbi,  pressing  the  practice  of  repentance  upon  his  dis- 
ciples, exhorting  them  to  be  sure  to  repent  the  day  before  they  died, 
one  of  them  replied,  that  the  day  of  any  man's  death  was  very  uncer- 
tain. '  Repent,  therefore,  every  day,'  said  the  Rabbi,  '  and  then  you 
shall  be  sure  to  repent  the  day  before  you  die/  You  are  wise,  and 
know  how  to  apply  it  to  your  own  advantage. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  if  the  work  of  repentance  were  such  an 
easy  work  as  Satan  would  make  it  to  be,  then  certainly  so  many 
would  not  lie  roaring  and  crying  out  of  tvrath  and  eternal  ruin 
under  the  horrors  and  terrors  of  conscience,  for  not  repenting ; 
yea,  doubtless,  so  many  millions  would  not  go  to  hell  for  not  repent- 
ing, if  it  were  such  an  easy  thing  to  repent.3  Ah,  do  not  poor  souls 
under  horror  of  conscience  cry  out  and  say,  Were  all  this  world  a  lump 
of  gold,  and  in  our  hand  to  dispose  of,  we  would  give  it  for  the  least 
drachm  of  true  repentance  !  and  wilt  thou  say  it  is  an  easy  thing  to 
repent  ?  When  a  poor  sinner,  whose  conscience  is  awakened,  shall 
judge  the  exchange  of  all  the  world  for  the  least  drachm  of  repent- 
ance to  be  the  happiest  exchange  that  ever  sinner  made,  tell  me,  O 
soul,  is  it  good  going  to  hell  ?  Is  it  good  dwelling  with  the  devouring 
fire,  with  everlasting  burnings  ?     Is  it  good  to  be .  for  ever  separated 

1  Ps.  vi.  6,  xxv.  7,  1  Tim.  i.  13.— G. 

2  It  is  truly  said  of  God,  that  he  is  Omnia  super  omnia. 

3  If  thou  be  backward  in  the  thoughts  of  repentance,  be  forward  in  the  thoughts  of 
hell,  the  flames  whereof  only  the  streams  of  the  penintent  eye  can  extinguish. — Tertul- 
[lian\.  Oh,  how  shalt  thou  tear  and  rend  thyself!  how  shalt  thou  lament  fruitless 
repenting !  What  wilt  thou  say?  Woe  is  me,  that  I  have  not  cast  off  the  burden  of 
sin ;  woe  is  me,  that  I  have  not  washed  away  my  spots,  but  am  now  pierced  with 
mine  iniquities  ;  now  have  I  lost  the  surpassing  joy  of  angels  ! — Basil. 

:; ;  precious  remedies  [2  Cor.  II.  11. 

from  tin1  blessed  and  glorious  presence  of  God,  angels,  and  saints,  and. 
to  be  for  ever  shut  out  from  those  good  things  of  eternal  life,  which 
are  so  many,  that  they  exceed  number;  so  great,  that  they  exceed 
measure;  so  precious,  that  they  exceed  all  estimation  ?  We  know  it 
Lb  the  greatest  misery  that  can  befall  the  sons  of  men;  and  would  they 
not  prevent  this  by  repentance,  if  it  were  such  an  easy  thing  to  repent 
as  Satan  would  have  it?  Well,  then,  do  not  run  the  hazard  of  losing 
(iod,  Christ,  heaven,  and  thy  soul  for  ever,  by  hearkening  to  this  de- 
vice of  Satan,  viz.,  that  it  is  an  easy  thing  to  repent,  &c.  If  it  be  so 
easy,  why,  then,  do  wicked  men's  hearts  so  rise  against  them  that 
press  the  doctrine  of  repentance  in  the  sweetest  way,  and  by  the 
strongest  and  the  choicest  arguments  that  the  Scripture  doth  afford  ? 
And  why  do  they  kill  two  at  once  :  the  faithful  labourer's  name  and 
their  own  souls,  by  their  wicked  words  and  actings,  because  they  are 
put  upon  repenting,  which  Satan  tells  them  is  so  easy  a  thing  ?  Surely, 
were  repentance  so  easy,  wicked,  men  would  not  be  so  much  enraged 
when  that  doctrine  is,  by  evangelical  considerations,  pressed  upon 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  to  repent  of  sin  is  as  great  a  ivork  of  (/race 
as  not  to  sin.1  By  our  sinful  falls  the  powers  of  the  soul  are  weakened, 
the  strength  of  grace  is  decayed,  our  evidences  for  heaven  are  blotted, 
fears  and  doubts  in  the  soul  are  raised  (will  God  once  more  pardon 
this  scarlet  sin,  and  shew  mercy  to  this  wretched  soul  ?),  and  corrup- 
tions in  the  heart  are  more  advantaged  and  confirmed  ;  and  the  con- 
science of  a  man  after  falls  is  the  more  enraged  or  the  more  benumbed. 
Now  for  a  soul,  notwithstanding  all  this,  to  repent  of  his  falls,  this 
shews  that  it  is  as  great  a  work  of  grace  to  repent  of  sin  as  it  is  not 
to  sin.  Repentance  is  the  vomit  of  the  soul ;  and  of  all  physic,  none 
so  difficult  and  hard  as  it  is  to  vomit.  The  same  means  that  tends  to 
preserve  the  soul  from  sin,  the  same  means  works  the  soul  to  rise  by 
repentance  when  it  is  fallen  into  sin.  We  know  the  mercy  and  loving- 
kindness  of  God  is  one  special  means  to  keep  the  soul  from  sin ;  as 
David  spake,  '  Thy  loving-kindness  is  always  before  mine  eyes,  and  I 
have  walked  in  thy  truth,  and  I  have  not  sat  with  vain  persons,  nei- 
ther will  I  go  in  with  dissemblers.  I  have  hated  the  congregation  of 
evil  doers,  and  will  not  sit  with  the  wicked/  Ps.  xxvi.  3-5.  So  by  the 
same  means  the  soul  is  raised  by  repentance  out  of  sin,  as  you  may 
see  in  Mary  Magdalene,  who  loved  much,  and  wept  much,  because 
much  was  forgiven  her,  Luke  vii.  37-39,  &c.  So  those  in  Hosea, 
1  Come,  let  us  return  unto  the  Lord;  for  he  hath  torn,  and  he  will 
heal  ;  he  hath  smitten,  and  he  will  bind  us  up.  After  two  days  he 
will  revive  us,  in  the  third  day  he  will  raise  us  up,  and  we  shall  live 
in  his  sight,  or  before  his  face,'  Hos.  vi.  1,  2  ;  as  the  Hebrew  [v:a^] 
hath  it,  i.e.  in  his  favour.  Confidence  in  God's  mercy  and  love,  that 
he  would  heal  them,  and  laud  up  their  wounds,  and  revive  their  de- 
jected spirits,  and  cause  them  to  live  in  his  favour,  was  that  which 
did  work  their  hearts  to  repent  and  return  unto  him. 

1  Yet  it  is  Letter  to  be  kepi  from  sin  than  cured  of  sin  by  repentance,  as  it  is  Letter 
for  a  man  to  be  preserved  from  a  disease  to  be  cured  of  the  disease. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  37 

I  might  further  shew  you  this  truth  iu  many  other  particulars,  but 
this  may  suffice  :  only  remember  this  m  the  general,  that  there  is 
as  much  of  the  power  of  God,  and  love  of  God,  and  faith  in  God,  and 
fear  of  God,  and  care  to  please  God,  zeal  for  the  glory  of  God,  2  Cor. 
vii.  11,  requisite  to  work  a  man  to  repent  of  sin,  as  there  is  to  keep  a 
man  from  sin  ;  by  which  you  may  easily  judge,  that  to  repent  of  sin 
is  as  great  a  work  as  not  to  sin.  And  now  tell  me,  O  soul,  is  it  an 
easy  thing  not  to  sin  ?  We  know  then  certainly  it  is  not  an  easy 
thing  to  repent  of  sin. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider,  Tltat  he  that  now  tempts  thee  to  sin  'upon  this  ac- 
count, that  repentance  is  easy,  will,  ere  long,  to  ivork  thee  to  despair, 
and  for  ever  to  break  the  neck  of  thy  soul,  present  repentance  as  the 
diffcidtest  and  hardest  work  in  the  world  ;  and  to  this  purpose  he 
will  set  thy  sins  in  order  before  thee,  and  make  them  to  say,  '  We  are 
thine,  and  we  must  follow  thee.'1  Now,  Satan  will  help  to  work  the 
soul  to  look  up,  and  see  God  angry  ;  and  to  look  inward,  and  to  see 
conscience  accusing  and  condemning  ;  and  to  look  downwards,  and 
see  hell's  mouth  open  to  receive  the  impenitent  soul :  and  all  this  to 
render  the  work  of  repentance  impossible  to  the  soul.  What,  saith 
Satan,  dost  thou  think  that  that  is  easy  which  the-  whole  power  of 
grace  cannot  conquer  while  we  are  in  this  world  ?  Is  it  easy,  saith 
Satan,  to  turn  from  some  outward  act  of  sin  to  which  thou  hast  been 
addicted  ?  Dost  thou  not  remember  that  thou  hast  often  complained 
against  such  and  such  particular  sins,  and  resolved  to  leave  them  ? 
and  yet,  to  this  hour,  thou  hast  not,  thou  canst  not  ?  What  will  it 
then  be  to  turn  from  every  sin  ?  Yea,  to  mortify  and  cut  off  those 
sins,  those  darling  lusts,  that  are  as  joints  and  members,  that  be  as 
right  hands  and  right  eyes  ?  Hast  thou  not  loved  thy  sins  above  thy 
Saviour?  Hast  thou  not  preferred  earth  before  heaven?  Hast  thou 
not  all  along  neglected  the  means  of  grace  ?  and  despised  the  offers 
of  grace  ?  and  vexed  the  Spirit  of  grace  1  There  would  be  no  end,  it 
I  should  set  before  thee  the  infinite  evils  that  thou  hast  committed, 
and  the  innumerable  good  services  that  thou  hast  omitted,  and  the 
frequent  checks  of  thy  own  conscience  that  thou  hast  contemned ;  and 
therefore  thou  mayest  well  conclude  that  thou  canst  never  repent, 
that  thou  shalt  never  repent.  Now,  saith  Satan,  do  but  a  little  con- 
sider thy  numberless  sins,  and  the  greatness  of  thy  sins,  the  foulness  ot 
thy  sins,  the  heinousness  of  thy  sins,  the  circumstances  of  thy  sins,  and 
thou  shalt  easily  see  that  those  sins  that  thou  thoughtest  to  be  but 
motes,  are  indeed  mountains  ;  and  is  it  not  now  in  vain  to  repent  of 
them  ?     Surely,  saith  Satan,  if  thou  shouldest   seek  repentance  ami 

1  Beda  tells  of  a  certain  great  man  that  was  admonished  in  his  sickness  to  repent,  who 
answered  that  he  would  not  repent  yet ;  for  if  he  should  recover,  his  companions  would 
laugh  at  him  ;  hut,  growing  sicker  and  sicker,  his  friends  pressed  him  again  to  repent, 
hut  then  he  told  them  it  was  too  late.  Quia  jam  judicatus  sum  et  condemnatus :  For 
now,  said  he,  I  am  judged  and  condemned. 

As  one  Lamachus,  a  commander,  said  to  one  of  his  soldiers  that  was  brought  before 
him  for  a  misbehaviour,  who  pleaded  he  would  do  so  no  more,  saith  he,  Non  licet  in 
hello  bis  peccare,  no  man  must  offend  twice  in  war  ;  so  God  will  not  suffer  men  often  to 
neglect  the  day  of  grace. 

38  PRECIOUS  REMEDIKS  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

grace  with  tears,  as  Esau,  thou  shalt  not  find  it  ;  thy  glass  is  out,  thy 
sun  is  set,  the  door  of  mercy  is  shut,  the  golden  sceptre  is  taken  in, 
and  now  thou  that  hast  despised  mercy,  shalt  be  for  ever  destroyed 
by  justice.  For  such  a  wretch  as  thou  art  to  attempt  repentance,  is 
to  attempt  a  thing  impossible.  It  is  impossible  that  thou,  that  in  all 
thy  life  couldst  never  conquer  one  sin,  shouldst  master  such  a  number- 
less number  of  sins  ;  which  are  so  near,  so  dear,  so  necessary,  and  so 
profitable  to  thee,  that  have  so  long  bedded  and  boarded  with  thee, 
that  have  been  old  acquaintance  and  companions  with  thee.  Hast 
thou  not  often  purposed,  promised,  vowed,  and  resolved  to  enter  upon 
the  practice  of  repentance,  but  to  this  day  couldst  never  attain  it  ? 
Surely  it  is  in  vain  to  strive  against  the  stream,  where  it  is  so  impos- 
sible to  overcome  ;  thou  art  lost  and  cast  for  ever  ;  to  hell  thou  must, 
to  hell  thou  shalt.  Ah,  souls  !  he  that  now  tempts  you  to  sin,  by 
suggesting  to  you  the  easiness  of  repentance,  will  at  last  work  you  to 
despair,  and  present  repentance  as  the  hardest  work  in  all  the  world, 
and  a  work  as  far  above  man  as  heaven  is  above  hell,  as  light  is  above 
darkness.  Oh  that  you  were  wise,  to  break  off  your  sins  by  timely 
repentance.  ! 

Now  the  seventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (7).  By  making  the  soul  bold  to  venture  upon  the  occasions 
of  sin.  Saith  Satan,  You  may  walk  by  the  harlot's  door,  though  you 
won't  go  into  the  harlot's  bed  ;  you  may  sit  and  sup  with  the  drunkard, 
though  you  won't  be  drunk  with  the  drunkard  ;  you  may  look  upon 
Jezebel's  beauty,  and  you  may  play  and  toy  with  Delilah,  though  you 
do  not  commit  wickedness  with  the  one  or  the  other ;  you  may  with 
Achan  handle  the  golden  wedge,  though  you  do  not  steal  the  golden 
wedge,  &c. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  the  devil  are  these  : 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  is,  solemnly  to  dwell  upon  those 
scriptures  that  do  expressly  command  us  to  avoid  the  occasions  of 
sin,  and  the  least  appearance  of  evil :  1  Thes.  v.  22,  '  Abstain  from 
all  appearance  of  evil/  Whatsoever  is  heterodox,  unsound,  and  un- 
savoury, shun  it,  as  you  would  do  a  serpent  in  your  way,  or  poison  in 
your  meat.2 

Theodosius  tare  the  Arian's  arguments  presented  to  him  in  writing, 
because  he  found  them  repugnant  to  the  Scriptures  ;  and  Austin 
retracted  even  ironies  only,  because  they  had  the  appearance  of  lying. 
When  God  had  commanded  the  Jews  to  abstain  from  swine's  flesh, 
they  would  not  so  much  as  name  it,  but  in  their  common  talk  would 
call  a  sow  another  thing.  To  abstain  from  all  appearance  of  evil,  is  to 
do  nothing  wherein  sin  appears,  or  which  hath  a  shadow  of  sin.  Bernard 
glosseth  finely,  '  Whatever  is  of  evil  show,3  or  of  ill  report,  that  he  may 
neither  wound  conscience  nor  credit.'  We  must  shun  and  be  shy 
of  the  very  show  and  shadow  of  sin,  if  either  we  tender  our  credit 
abroad,  or  our  comfort  at  home. 

1  Repentance  is  a  work  that  must  be  timely  done,  or  utterly  undone  for  ever.  Aut 
pmnitendum  aut  pereundum. 

1  Epiphanius  saith  that  in  the  old  law,  when  any  dead  body  was  carried  by  any 
house,  they  were  enjoined  to  shut  their  doors  and  windows. 

J  Quicquid  est  male  coloratum. 

2  COR.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  39 

It  was  good  counsel  that  Livia  gave  her  husband  Augustus  :  '  It 
behoveth  thee  not  only  not  to  do  wrong,  but  not  to  seem  to  do  so,'  &c.  : 
so  Jude  23,  '  And  others  save  with  fear,  pulling  them  out  of  the  fire, 
hating  even  the  garment  spotted  by  the  flesh.'  It  is  a  phrase  taken 
from  legal  uncleanness,  which  was  contracted  by  touching  the  houses, 
the  vessels,  the  garments,  of  unclean  persons.1  Under  the  law,  men 
might  not  touch  a  menstruous  cloth,  nor  God  would  not  accept  of 
a  spotted  peace-offering.  So  we  must  not  only  hate  and  avoid  gross 
sins,  but  everything  that  may  carry  a  savour  or  suspicion  of  sin  ; 
we  must  abhor  the  very  signs  and  tokens  of  sin.  So  in  Prov.  v.  8, 
'Remove  thy  way  far  from  her,  and  come  not  nigh  the  door  of  her 
house.'  He  that  would  not  be  burnt,  must  dread  the  fire  ;  he  that 
would  not  hear  the  bell,  must  not  meddle  with  the  rope.2  To  ven- 
ture upon  the  occasion  of  sin,  and  then  to  pray,  *  Lead  us  not  into 
temptation,'  is  all  one  as  to  thrust  thy  finger  into  the  fire,  and  then 
to  pray  that  it  might  not  be  burnt  So,  in  Prov.  iv.  14,  15,  you  have 
another  command  :  '  Enter  not  into  the  path  of  the  wicked,  and  go 
not  in  the  way  of  evil  men  :  avoid  it,  and  pass  not  by  it,  turn  from  it, 
and  pass  away.'  This  triple  gradation  of  Solomon  sheweth  with  a 
great  emphasis,  how  necessary  it  is  for  men  to  flee  from  all  appear- 
ance of  sin,  as  the  seaman  shuns  sands  and  shelves,  and  as  men  shun 
those  that  have  the  plague-sores  running  upon  them.  As  weeds  do 
endanger  the  corn,  as  bad  humours  do  endanger  the  blood,  or  as  an 
infected  house  doth  endanger  the  neighbourhood  ;  so  doth  the  company 
of  the  bad  endanger  those  that  are  good.  Entireness3  with  wicked 
cousorts  is  one  of  the  strongest  chains  of  hell,  and  binds  us  to  a  par- 
ticipation of  both  sin  and  punishment. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  ordinarily  there  is  no  conquest  over  sin, 
without  the  soul  tvrns  from  the  occasion  of  sin.  It  is  impossible  for 
that  man  to  get  the  conquest  of  sin,  that  plays  and  sports  with  the 
occasions  of  sin.  God  will  not  remove  the  temptation,  except  you 
turn  from  the  occasion.  It  is  a  just  and  righteous  thing  with  God, 
that  he  should  fall  into  the  pit,  that  will  adventure  to  dance  upon 
the  brink  of  the  pit,  and  that  he  should  be  a  slave  to  sin,  that  will  not 
flee  from  the  occasions  of  sin.  As  long  as  there  is  fuel  in  our  hearts 
for  a  temptation,  we  cannot  be  secure.  He  that  hath  gunpowder 
about  him  had  need  keep  far  enough  off  from  sparkles.  To  rush  upon 
the  occasions  of  sin,  is  both  to  tempt  ourselves,  and  to  tempt  Satan  to 
tempt  our  souls.  It  is  very  rare  that  any  soul  plays  with  the  occasions 
of  sin,  but  that  soul  is  ensnared  by  sin.4  It  is  seldom  that  God  keeps 
that  soul  from  the  acts  of  sin,  that  will  not  keep  off  from  the  occasions 
of  sin.  He  that  adventures  upon  the  occasions  of  sin  is  as  he  that 
would  quench  the  fire  with  oil,  which  is   a  fuel  to  maintain  it,  and 

1  Socrates  speaks  of  two  young  men  that  flung  away  their  belts,  when,  being  in  an 
idol's  temple,  the  lustrating  water  fell  upon  them,  detesting,  saith  the  historian,  the 
garment  spotted  by  the  flesh.     [The  ecclesiastical  historian,  not  the  philosopher. — G.] 

2  One  said,  As  oft  as  I  have  been  among  vain  men,  I  returned  home  less  a  man  than 
I  was  before.  3  Friendship. — G. 

4  The  fable  saith,  that  the  butterfly  asked  the  owl  how  she  should  deal  with  the  fire 
which  had  singed  her  wings,  who  counsels  her  not  to  behold  so  much  as  its  smoke. 

40  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

increase  it.  Ah,  souls,  often  remember  Low  frequently  you  have  been 
overcome  by  sin,  when  you  have  boldly  gone  upon  the  occasions  of 
sin  ;  look  back,  souls,  to  the  day  of  your  vanity,  wherein  you  have 
been  as  easily  conquered  as  tempted,  vanquished  as  assaulted,  when 
you  have  played  with  the  occasions  of  sin.  As  you  would  lor  the 
future  bo  kept  from  the  acting  of  sin,  and  be  made  victorious  over  sin, 
oh  !  flee  from  the  occasions  of  sin. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  other  'precious  saints,  that  were  once  glorious 
on  earth,  and  arc  now  triumphing  in  heaven,  have  turned  from 
the  occasion  of  sin,  as  hell  itself;  as  you  may  see  in  Joseph,  Gen. 
xxxix.  10,  'And  it  came  to  pass,  as  she  spake  to  Joseph  day  by  day, 
that  he  hearkened  not  unto  her,  to  lie  by  her,  or  to  be  with  her.'1 
Joseph  was  famous  for  all  the  four  cardinal  virtues,  if  ever  any  wore. 
In  this  one  temptation  you  may  see  his  fortitude,  justice,  temperance, 
and  prudence,  in  that  he  shuns  the  occasion:  for  he  would  not  so 
much  as  be  with  her.  And  that  a  man  is  indeed,  that  he  is  in  a 
temptation,  which  is  but  a  tap  to  give  vent  to  corruption.  The 
Nazarite  might  not  only  not  drink  wine,  but  not  taste  a  grape,  or 
the  husk  of  a  grape.  The  leper  was  to  shave  his  hair,  and  pare  his 
nails.  The  devil  counts  a  fit  occasion  half  a  conquest,  for  he  knows 
that  corrupt  nature  hath  a  seed-plot  for  all  sin,  which  being  drawn 
forth  and  watered  by  some  sinful  occasion,  is  soon  set  a- work  to  the 
producing  of  death  and  destruction.  God  will  not  remove  the  tempta- 
tion, till  we  remove  the  occasion.  A  bird  whiles  aloft  is  safe,  but 
she  comes  not  near  the  snare  without  danger.  The  shunning  the 
occasions  of  sin  renders  a  man  most  like  the  best  of  men.  A  soul 
eminently  gracious,  dares  not  come  near  the  train,  though  he  be  far 
off  the  blow.  So  Job  xxxi.  1,  '  I  have  made  a  covenant  with  mine  eyes  ; 
Avhy  then  should  I  think  upon  a  maid  ?  '2  I  set  a  watch  at  the  entrance 
of  my  senses,  that  my  soul  might  not  by  them  be  infected  or  en- 
dangered. The  eye  is  the  window  of  the  soul,  and  if  that  should  be 
always  open,  the  soul  might  smart  for  it.  A  man  may  not  look 
intently  upon  that,  that  lie  may  not  love  entirely.  The  disciples  were 
set  a-gog,  by  beholding  the  beauty  of  the  temple.  It  is  best  and  safest 
to  have  the  eye  always  fixed  upon  the  highest  and  noblest  objects  :  as 
the  mariner's  eye  is  fixed  upon  the  star,  when  their  hand  is  on  the 
stern.  So  David,  when  he  was  himself,  he  shuns  the  occasion  of  sin : 
Ps.  xxvi.  4,  5,  '  I  have  not  sat  with  vain  persons,  neither  will  I  go  in 
with  dissemblers  ;  I  have  hated  the  congregation  of  evil  doers,  and 
will  not  sit  with  the  wicked.' 

Stories  speak  of  some  that  could  not  sleep  when  they  thought  of 
the  trophies  of  other  worthies,  that  went  before  them.  The  highest 
and  choicest  examples  are  to  some,  and  should  be  to  all,  very  quicken- 
ing and  provoking;  and  oh  that  the  examples  of  those  worthy  saints, 
David,  Joseph,  and  Job,  might  prevail  with  all  your  souls  to  shun  and 

1  There  are  stories  of  heathens  that  would  not  look  upon  beauties,  leal  they  should  be 
ensnared.     Democritus  plucked  out  his  own  eyes  to  avoid  the  danger  of  uncleanness. 

2  T\~\2  JVQ.  I  cut  a  covenant.  In  making  covenants,  it  was  a  custom  among  the 
Jews  to  cut  some  beast  or  other  in  pieces,  and  so  walk  between  the  pieces,  to  signify 
thai  thej  desired  God  to  destroy  them  that  should  break  the  covenant. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  41 

avoid  the  occasions  of  sin !  Every  one  should  strive  to  be  like  to  them 
in  grace,  that  they  desire  to  be  equal  with  in  glory.  He  that  shooteth 
at  the  sun,  though  he  be  far  short,  will  shoot  higher  than  he  that  aimeth 
at  a  shrub.  It  is  best,  and  it  speaks  out  much  of  Christ  within,  to  eye 
the  highest  and  the  worthiest  examples. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  avoiding  the  occasions  of  sin,  is  an 
evidence  of  grace,  and  tltat  tuhich  lifts  up  a  man  above  most  other 
men  in  the  world.1  That  a  man  is  indeed,  which  he  is  in  temptation  ; 
and  when  sinful  occasions  do  present  themselves  before  the  soul,  this 
speaks  out  both  the  truth  and  the  strength  of  grace  ;  when  with  Lot,  a 
man  can  be  chaste  in  Sodom,  and  with  Timothy  can  live  temperate  in 
Asia,  among  the  luxurious  Ephesians  ;  and  with  Job  can  walk  up- 
rightly in  the  land  of  Uz,  where  the  people  were  profane  in  their 
lives,  and  superstitious  in  their  worship ;  and  with  Daniel  be  holy 
in  Babylon;  and  with  Abraham  righteous  in  Chaldea;  and  with  Ne- 
hemiah,  zealous  in  Damasco,  &c.  Many  a  wicked  man  is  big  and  full 
of  corruption,  but  shews  it  not  for  want  of  occasion  ;  but  that  man  is 
surely  good,  who  in  his  course  will  not  be  bad,  though  tempted  by  occa- 
sions. A  Christless  soul  is  so  far  from  refusing  occasions  when  they 
come  in  his  way,  that  he  looks  and  longs  after  them,  and  rather  than 
he  will  go  without  them  he  will  buy  them,  not  only  with  love  or 
money,  but  also  with  the  loss  of  his  soul.  Nothing  but  grace  can 
fence  a  man  against  the  occasions  of  sin,  when  he  is  strongly  tempted 
thereunto.  Therefore,  as  you  would  cherish  a  precious  evidence  in 
your  own  bosoms  of  the  truth  and  strength  of  your  graces,  shun  all  sinful 

The  eighth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin,  is, 

Device  (8).  By  representing  to  the  soul  the  outivard  mercies  that 
vain  men  enjoy,  and  the  outward  miseries  that  they  are  freed  from, 
whilst  they  have  walked  in  the  ways  of  sin.  Saith  Satan,  Dost  thou 
see,  O  soul,  the  many  mercies  that  such  and  such  enjoy,  that  walk 
in  those  very  ways  that  thy  soul  startles  to  think  of,  and  the  many 
crosses  that  they  are  delivered  from,  even  such  as  makes  other  men, 
that  say  they  dare  not  walk  in  such  ways,  to  spend  their  days  in 
sighing,  weeping,  groaning,  and  mourning  1  and  therefore,  saith  Satan, 
if  ever  thou  wouldst  be  freed  from  the  dark  night  of  adversity,  and 
enjoy  the  sunshine  of  prosperity,  thou  must  walk  in  their  ways.2 

By  this  stratagem  the  devil  took  those  in  Jer.  xliv.  16-18,  '  As 
for  the  word  that  thou  hast  spoken  unto  us  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  we 
will  not  hearken  unto  thee  :  but  we  will  certainly  do  whatsoever  thing 
goeth  forth  of  our  mouth,  to  burn  incense  unto  the  queen  of  heaven, 
and  to  pour  out  drink-offerings  unto  her,  as  we  have  done,  we,  and 
our  fathers,  our  kings,  and   our  princes,  in  the  cities  of  Judah,  and 

1  Plutarch  saith  of  Demosthenes,  that  he  was  excellent  at  praising  the  worthy  acts 
of  his  ancestors,  but  not  so  at  imitating  them.  Oh  that  this  were  not  applicable  to  many 
professors  in  our  times  ! 

2  It  was  a  weighty  saying  of  Seneca,  Nihil  est  infelicius  eo,  cui  nil  unquam  contigit 
adversi,  there  is  nothing  more  unhappy  than  he  who  never  felt  adversity.  Some  of  the 
heathens  would  be  wicked  as  their  gods  were,  counting  it  a  dishonour  to  their  god  to  be 
unlike  him.—  Lactxntius. 

42  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

in  the  streets  of  Jerusalem  :  for  then  had  we  plenty  of  victuals,  and 
were  well,  and  saw  no  evil.  But  since  we  left  off  to  burn  incense  to 
the  queen  of  heaven,  and  to  pour  out  drink-offerings  unto  her,  Ave 
have  wanted  all  things,  and  have  been  consumed  by  the  sword  and  by 
the  famine/  This  is  just  the  language  of  a  world  of  ignorant,  pro- 
fane, and  superstitious  souls  in  London,  and  England,  that  would  have 
made  them  a  captain  to  return  to  bondage,  yea,  to  that  bondage  that 
was  Averse  than  that  the  Israelites  groaned  under.  Oh,  say  they,  since 
such  and  such  persons  have  been  put  down,  and  left  off,  we  have  had 
nothing  but  plundering  and  taxing,  and  butchering  of  men,  &c. ;  and 
therefore  we  Avill  do  as  Ave,  and  our  kings,  and  nobles,  and  fathers 
have  formerly  done,  for  then  had  we  plenty  at  home,  and  peace  abroad, 
&c,  and  there  was  none  to  make  us  afraid.1 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  that 
follow  : 

Remedy  (]).  The  first  remedy  is,  solemnly  to  consider,  That  no 
man  knoivs  how  the  heart  of  God  stands  by  his  hand.  His  band  of 
mercy  may  be  toAvards  a  man,  when  his  heart  may  be  against  that 
man,  as  you  may  see  in  Saul  and  others  ;  and  the  hand  of  God  may  be 
set  against  a  man,  Avhen  the  heart  of  God  is  dearly  set  upon  a  man,  as 
you  may  see  in  Job  and  Ephraim.2  The  hand  of  God  was  sorely 
set  against  them,  and  yet  the  heart  and  bowels  of  God  were  strongly 
working  toAvards  them.  No  man  knoweth  either  love  or  hatred  by  out- 
Avard  mercy  or  misery ;  for  all  things  come  alike  to  all,  to  the  right- 
eous and  to  the  unrighteous,  to  the  good  and  to  the  bad,  to  the  clean 
aud  to  the  unclean,  &c.  The  sun  of  prosperity  shines  as  well  upon 
brambles  of  the  Avilderness  as  fruit-trees  of  the  orchard  ;  the  snoAV  and 
hail  of  adversity  lights  upon  the  best  garden  as  well  as  the  stinking 
dunghill  or  the  wild  Avaste.  Abab's  and  Josiah's  ends  concur  in  the 
very  circumstances.  Saul  and  Jonathan,  though  different  in  their 
natures,  deserts,  and  deportments,  yet  in  their  deaths  they  were  not 
divided.  Health,  Avealth,  honours,  &c,  crosses,  sicknesses,  losses,  &c, 
are  cast  upon  good  men  and  bad  men  promiscuously.  '  The  Avhole 
Turkish  empire  is  nothing  else  but  a  crust,  cast  by  heaven's  great 
housekeeper  to  his  dogs/3  Moses  dies  in  the  Avilderness  as  well  as 
those  that  murmured.  Nabal  is  rich,  as  well  as  Abraham  ;  Ahithophel 
wise,  as  well  as  Solomon  ;  and  Doeg  honoured  by  Saul,  as  Avell  as 
Joseph  Avas  by  Pharaoh.  Usually  the  worst  of  men  have  most  of  these 
outward  things  ;  and  the  best  of  men  have  least  of  earth,  though  most 
of  heaven. 

Jiemcdy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  there  is  nothing  in  the  world  that  doth  so 

1  It  is  said  of  one  of  the  emperors,  that  Rome  had  no  war  in  his  days,  hecause  it  was 
plague  enough  to  have  such  an  emperor.  You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it.  [The 
allusion,  no  doubt,  is  to  Charles  I.,  and  the  agitation  for  the  Restoration  of  Charles  II 
Cromwell  died  Sept.  3.  1658.— G.] 

-  Tnll y  judged  the  Jews'  religion  to  be  naught,  because  they  were  so  often  overcome, 
and  impoverished,  and  afflicted ;  and  the  religion  of  Rome  to  be  right,  because  the  Romana 
prospered  ami  became  lords  of  the  world;  and  yet,  though  the  Romans  had  his  hand, 
yet  the  Jews  had  his  heart,  for  they  were  dearly  beloved  though  sorely  afflicted.  [Brooks's 
reference  is  found  in  Cicero,  in  Orat.  Pro  L.  Flacco  28. — G.] 

3  Nihil  est  nisi  mica  panis. — Luther. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  43 

provoke  God  to  be  wroth  and  angry,  as  men's  talcing  encouragement 
from  God's  goodness  and  mercy  to  do  wickedly.  This  you  may  see 
by  that  wrath  that  fell  upon  the  old  world,  and  by  God's  raining 
hell  out  of  heaven  upon  Sodom  and  Gomorrah.  This  is  clear  in  Jere- 
miah xliv.,  from  ver.  20  to  ver.  28.  The  words  are  worthy  of  your 
best  meditation.  Oh  that  they  were  engraven  in  all  your  hearts,  and 
constant  in  all  your  thoughts  !  Though  they  are  too  large  for  me  to 
transcribe  them,  yet  they  are  not  too  large  for  me  to  remember  them. 
To  argue  from  mercy  to  sinful  liberty,  is  the  devil's  logic,  and  such 
logicians  do  ever  walk  as  upon  a  mine  of  gunpowder  ready  to  be  blown 
up.  No  such  soul  can  ever  avert  or  avoid  the  wrath  of  God.  This  is 
wickedness  at  the  height,  for  a  man  to  be  very  bad,  because  God  is 
very  good.  A  worse  spirit  than  this  is  not  in  hell.  Ah,  Lord,  doth 
not  wrath,  yea,  the  greatest  wrath,  lie  at  this  man's  door  ?  Are  not  the 
strongest  chains  of  darkness  prepared  for  such  a  soul  ?  To  sin  against 
mercy  is  to  sin  against  humanity.  It  is  bestial;  nay,  it  is  worse. 
To  render  good  for  evil  is  divine,  to  render  good  for  good  is  human, 
to  render  evil  for  evil  is  brutish  ;  but  to  render  evil  for  good  is  devilish  ; 
and  from  this  evil  deliver  my  soul,  O  God.1 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  lhat  there  is  no  greater  misery  in  this  life, 
than  not  to  be  in  misery;  no  greater  affliction,  than  not  to  be 
afflicted.  Woe,  woe  to  that  soul  that  God  will  not  spend  a  rod  upon  ! 
This  is  the  saddest  stroke  of  all,  when  God  refuses  to  strike  at  all : 
Hos.  iv.  17,  'Ephraim  is  joined  to  idols;  let  him  alone.'  'Why 
should  you  be  smitten  any  more  ?  you  will  revolt  more  and  more,'  Isa. 
i.  5.  When  the  physician  gives  over  the  patient,  you  say,  '  Ring  out 
his  knell,  the  man  is  dead.'  So  when  God  gives  over  a  soul  to  sin 
without  control,  you  may  truly  say,  '  This  soul  is  lost/  you  may  ring 
out  his  knell,  for  he  is  twice  dead,  and  plucked  up  by  the  roots.  Free- 
dom from  punishment  is  the  mother  of  security,  the  step-mother  of 
virtue,  the  poison  of  religion,  the  moth  of  holiness,  and  the  introducer 
of  wickedness.  '  Nothing,'  said  one,  '  seems  more  unhappy  to  me,  than 
he  to  whom  no  adversity  hath  happened/  Outward  mercies  ofttimes 
prove  a  snare  to  our  souls.  '  I  will  lay  a  stumbling-block,'  Ezek.  iii. 
20.  Vatablus  his  note  there  is,  '  I  will  prosper  him  in  all  things, 
and  not  by  affliction  restrain  him  from  sin.'2  Prosperity  hath  been  a 
stumbling-block,  at  which  millions  have  stumbled  and  fallen,  and 
broke  the  neck  of  their  souls  for  ever.3 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  wants  of  wicked  men,  under  all  their 
outward  mercy  and  freedom  from  adversity,  is  far  greater  than  all 
their  outward  enjoyments.  They  have  many  mercies,  yet  they  want 
more  than  they  enjoy;  the  mercies  which  they  enjoy  are  nothing  to  the 

1  Such  souls  make  God  a  god  of  clouts,  one  that  will  not  do  as  he  saith  ;  hut  they  shall 
find  God  to  he  as  severe  in  punishing  as  he  is  to  others  gracious  in  pardoning.  Good 
turns  aggravate  unkindnesses,  and  our  guilt  is  increased  by  our  obligations. 

2  Faciam  ut  omnia  habeat  prospera;  calamitatibus  euru  a  peccato  non  revocabo. 
[Annot.  in  Lib.  Vet.  Test.     Paris,  1557.— G-] 

3  Religio  peperit  divitias,  et  filia  devoravit  malrem  ;  religion  brought  forth  riches,  and 
the  daughter  soon  devoured  the  mother,  saith  Augustine. 

44  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

mercies  they  want.  It  is  true,  they  have  honours  and  riches,  and  plea- 
sures and  friends,  and  are  mighty  in  power;  their  seed  is  established 
in  their  sight  with  them,  and  their  offspring  before  their  eyes  :  'Their 
houses  are  sate  from  fear,  neither  is  the  rod  of  God  upon  them;' 
•  They  send  forth  their  little  ones  like  a  flock,  and  their  children 
dance.  They  lake  the  timbrel  and  harp,  and  rejoice  at  the  sound  of 
the  organ;9  'They  spend  their  days  in  wealth,  their  eyes  stand  out 
with  fatness,  they  have  more  than  heart  can  wish  :  and  they  have  no 
bands  in  their  death,  but  their  strength  is  firm  ;  they  are  not  in  trouble 
as  other  men,'  as  David  and  Job  speak.1  Yet  all  this  is  nothing  to 
what  they  want.2  They  want  interest  in  God,  Christ,  the  Spirit,  the 
promises,  the  covenant  of  grace,  and  everlasting  glory  ;  they  want 
acceptation  and  reconciliation  with  God ;  they  want  righteousness, 
justification,  sanctification,  adoption,  and  redemption  ;  they  want  the 
pardon  of  sin,  and  power  against  sin,  and  freedom  from  the  dominion 
of  sin  ;  they  want  that  favour  that  is  better  than  life,  and  that  joy  that 
is  unspeakable  and  full  of  glory,  and  that  peace  that  passes  under- 
standing, and  that  grace,  the  least  spark  of  which  is  more  worth  than 
heaven  and  earth  ;  they  want  a  house  that  hath  foundations,  whose 
builder  and  maker  is  God  ;  they  want  those  riches  that  perish  not,  the 
glory  that  fades  not,  that  kingdom  that  shakes  not.  Wicked  men 
are  the  most  needy  men  in  the  world,  yea,  they  want  those  two  things 
that  should  render  their  mercies  sweet,  viz.,  the  blessing  of  God,  and 
content  with  their  condition,  and  without  which  their  heaven  is  but 
hell  on  this  side  hell.3  When  their  hearts  are  lifted  up  and  grown  big 
upon  the  thoughts  of  their  abundance,  if  conscience  does  but  put  in 
a  word  and  say,  It  is  true,  here  is  this  and  that  outward  mercy.  Oh, 
but  where  is  an  interest  in  Christ?  Where  is  the  favour  of  God? 
Where  are  the  comforts  of  the  Holy  Ghost?  Where  are  the  evidences 
for  heaven?  &c.  This  word  from  conscience  makes  the  man's  counte- 
nance to  change,  his  thoughts  to  be  troubled,  his  heart  to  be  amazed, 
and  all  his  mercies  on  the  right  hand  and  left  to  be  as  dead  and 
withered.  Ah,  were  but  the  eyes  of  wicked  men  open  to  see  their 
wants  under  their  abundance,  they  would  cry  out  and  say,  as  Absalom 
did,  '  What  are  all  these  tome  so  loner  as  I  cannot  see  the  king's  face?' 
2  Sam.  xiv.  24,  33.  What  is  honour,  and  riches,  and  the  favour  of 
creatures,  so  long  as  I  want  the  favour  of  God,  the  pardon  of  my  sins, 
an  interest  in  Christ,  and  the  hopes  of  glory!  O  Lord,  give  me  these, 
or  I  die;  give  me  these,  or  else  1  shall  eternally  die. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  outivard  things  are  not  as  they  seem,  and 
are  esteemed     They  have,  indeed,  a  glorious  outside,  but  if  you  view 

1  Cf.  Psalm  xlix.  11,  lxxiii.  7 ;  Job  xxi.  12,  &c,  &c— G. 

'-'  Men  thai  enjoy  all  worldly  comforts  may  truly  say,  Omncs  humancc  consolationes 
SUfU  dfsolationes. 

3  ATec  C/tristus  nee  caelum  patitur  hyperbolem,  neither  Christ  nor  heaven  can  he  hyper- 
ed.  A  crown  of  gold  cannot  cure  the  headache,  nor  a  velvet  slipper  cannot  ease 
the  goul  ;  DO  more  can  honour  or  riches  quiet  and  still  the  conscience.  The  heart  of  man 
is  a  three-square  triangle,  which  the  whole  round  circle  of  the  world  cannot  till,  as 
mathematicians  say,  but  all  the  corners  will  complain  of  emptiness,  and  hunger  for 
Bomethins  else. 

2  Cor.  II.  11  .J  against  satan's  devices.  45 

their  insides,  you  will  easily  find  that  they  fill  the  head  full  of  cares, 
and  the  heart  full  of  fears.  What  if  the  fire  should  consume  one 
part  of  my  estate,  and  the  sea  should  be  a  grave  to  swallow  up 
another  part  of  my  estate  !  what  if  my  servants  should  be  unfaithful 
abroad,  and  my  children  should  be  deceitful  at  home !  Ah,  the  secret 
fretting,  vexing,  and  gnawing  that  doth  daily,  yea  hourly,  attend 
those  men's  souls  whose  hands  are  full  of  worldly  goods  ! 

It  was  a  good  speech  of  an  emperor,  '  You,'  said  he,  '  gaze  on  my 
purple  robe  and  golden  crown,  but  did  you  know  what  cares  are 
under  it,  you  would  not  take  it  up  from  the  ground  to  have  it.'  It 
was  a  true  saying  of  Augustine  on  the  26th  Psalm,  '  Many  are  miser- 
able by  loving  hurtful  things,  but  they  are  more  miserable  by  having 
them.'1  It  is  not  what  men  enjoy,  but  the  principle  from  whence  it 
comes,  that  makes  men  happy.  Much  of  these  outward  things  do 
usually  cause  great  distraction,  great  vexation,  and  great  condemna- 
tion at  last,  to  the  possessors  of  them.  If  God  gives  them  in  his  wrath, 
and  do  not  sanctify  them  in  his  love,  they  will  at  last  be  witnesses 
against  a  man,  and  millstones  for  ever  to  sink  a  man  in  that  day 
when  God  shall  call  men  to  an  account,  not  for  the  use,  but  for  the 
abuse  of  mercy. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider  the  end  and  the  design  of  God  in  heaping  up 
mercy  upon  the  heads  of  the  wicked,  and  in  giving  them  a  quietus 
est,  rest  and  quiet  from  those  sorrows  and  sufferings  that  others  sigh 
under.  David,  in  Psalm  lxxiii.  17-20,  shews  the  end  and  design  of 
God  in  this.  Saith  he,  '  When  I  went  into  the  sanctuary  of  God, 
then  I  understood  their  end :  surely  thou  didst  set  them  in  slippery 
places,  thou  castedst  them  down  into  destruction.  How  are  they 
brought  into  desolation  as  in  a  moment :  they  are  utterly  consumed 
with  terrors.  As  a  dream,  when  ooe  awaketh,  so,  0  Lord,  when  thou 
awakest,  thou  shalt  despise  their  image.'2  So  in  Ps.  xcii.  7,  '  When 
the  wicked  spring  as  grass,  and  when  all  the  workers  of  iniquity  do 
flourish,  it  is  that  they  shall  be  destroyed  for  ever.'  God's  setting 
them  up,  is  but  in  order  to  his  casting  them  down  ;  his  raising  them 
high,  is  but  in  order  to  his  bringing  them  low:  Exod.  ix.  16,  'And 
in  very  deed,  for  this  cause  have  I  raised  thee  up,  for  to  shew  in  thee 
my  power,  and  that  my  name  may  be  declared  throughout  all  the 
earth.'  I  have  constituted  and  set  thee  up  as  a  butt-mark,3  that  I 
may  let  fly  at  thee,  and  follow  thee  close  with  plague  upon  plague,  till 
I  have  beaten  the  very  breath  out  of  thy  body,  and  got  myself  a  name, 
by  setting  my  feet  upon  the  neck  of  all  thy  pride,  power,  pomp,  and 
glory.  Ah,  souls,  what  man  in  his  wits  would  be  lifted  up  that  he 
might  be  cast  down ;  would  be  set  higher  than  others,  when  it  is  but 

1  Multi  amando  res  noxias  sunt  miseri,  habendo  miseriores.  —  Augustine  on  Psalm 
xx  vi. — G. 

2  Valens,  the  Eoman  emperor,  fell  from  being  an  emperor  to  be  a  footstool  to  Sapor, 
king  of  Persia.  Dionysius,  king  of  Sicily,  fell  from  his  kingly  glory  to  be  a  school- 
master. The  brave  Queen  Zenobia  was  brought  to  Rome  in  golden  chains.  Valens 
an  emperor,  Belisarius,  a  famous  general,  Henry  the  Fourth,  Bajazet,  Pythias,  «reat 
Pompey,  and  William  the  Conqueror,  these,  from  being  very  high,  were  brought  very 
low ;  they  all  fell  from  great  glory  and  majesty  to  great  poverty  and  misery. 

3  Arrow-mark  or  target. — G. 

46  TRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

in  order  to  his  being  brought  down  lower  than  others?  There  is  not 
a  wicked  man  in  the  world  that  is  set  up  with  Lucifer,  as  high  as 
heaven,  but  shall  with  Lucifer  be  brought  down  as  low  as  hell. 
Canst  thou  think  seriously  of  this,  O  soul,  and  not  say,  O  Lord,  I 
humbly  crave  that  thou  wilt  let  me  be  little  in  this  world,  that  I  may 
be  great  in  another  world  ;  and  low  here,  that  I  may  be  high  for  ever 
hereafter.1  Let  me  be  low,  and  feed  low,  and  live  low,  so  I  may  live 
with  thee  for  ever;  let  me  now  be  clothed  with  rags,  so  thou  wilt 
clothe  me  at  last  with  thy  robes  ;  let  me  now  be  set  upon  a  dunghill, 
so  I  may  at  last  be  advanced  to  sit  with  thee  upon  thy  throne.  Lord, 
make  me  rather  gracious  than  great,  inwardly  holy  than  outwardly 
happy,  and  rather  turn  me  into  my  first  nothing,  yea,  make  me  worse 
than  nothing,  rather  than  set  me  up  for  a  time,  that  thou  mayest  bring 
me  low  for  ever. 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  God  doth  often  most  plague  and  punish 
those  whom  others  think  he  doth  most  spare  and  love  ;  that  is,  God 
doth  plague  and  punish  them  most  with  spiritual  judgments — which 
are  the  greatest,  the  sorest,  and  the  heaviest — whom  he  least  punishes 
with  temporal  punishments.2  There  are  no  men  on  earth  so  internally 
plagued  as  those  that  meet  with  least  external  plagues.  Oh  the 
blindness  of  mind,  the  hardness  of  heart,  the  searedness  of  conscience, 
that  those  souls  are  given  up  to,  who,  in  the  eye  of  the  world,  are  re- 
puted the  most  happy  men,  because  they  are  not  outwardly  afflicted 
and  plagued  as  other  men.  Ah,  souls,  it  were  better  that  all  the 
temporal  plagues  that  ever  befell  the  children  of  men  since  the  fall 
of  Adam  should  at  once  meet  upon  your  souls,  than  that  you  should 
be  given  up  to  the  least  spiritual  plague,  to  the  least  measure  of 
spiritual  blindness  or  spiritual  hardness  of  heart,  &c.  Nothing  will 
better  that  man,  nor  move  that  man,  that  is  given  up  to  spiritual 
judgments.  Let  God  smile  or  frown,  stroke  or  strike,  cut  or  kill,  he 
minds  it  not,  he  regards  it  not ;  let  life  or  death,  heaven  or  hell,  be 
set  before  him,  it  stirs  him  not ;  he  is  mad  upon  his  sin,  and  God  is 
fully  set  to  do  justice  upon  his  soul.  This  man's  preservation  is  but 
a  reservation  unto  a  greater  condemnation  ;  this  man  can  set  no 
bounds  to  himself ;  he  is  become  a  brat  of  fathomless  perdition  ;  he 
hath  guilt  in  his  bosom  and  vengeance  at  his  back  wherever  he  goes. 
Neither  ministry  nor  misery,  neither  miracle  nor  mercy,  can  mollify 
his  heart,  and  if  this  soukbe  not  in  hell,  on  this  side  hell,  who  is  ? 3 

Remedy  (8).  The  eighth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  dwell  more  upon  that  strict  account  that  vain  men  must  make 
for  all  that  good  that  they  do  enjoy.4     Ah !    did  men  dwell   more 

1  Da  Domine,  ut  sic  possideamus  temporalia,  ut  non  perdamus  neterna.  Grant  us, 
Lord,  that  we  may  so  partake  of  temporal  felipity,  that  we  may  not  lose  eternal. — 

s  Psalm  lxxxi.  12,  lxxviii.  2C-31,  cvi.  15.  He  gave  thorn  their  requests,  but  sent 
leanness  into  their  soul.  It  is  a  heavy  plague  to  have  a  fat  body  and  a  lean  soul ;  a 
house  full  of  gold,  and  a  heart  full  of  sin. 

*  It  is  better  to  have  a  sore  than  a  seared  conscience.  It  is  better  to  have  no  heart 
than  a  hard  heart,  no  mind  than  a  blind  mind. 

*  In  this  day  men  shall  give  an  account  (De  bonis  commissis,  de  bonis  dimissis,  de  malis 
commissis,  de  malis  permissis)  of  good  things  committed  unto  them,  of  good  things 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  47 

upon  that  account  that  they  must  ere  long  give  for  all  the  mercies 
that  they  have  enjoyed,  and  for  all  the  favours  that  they  have 
abused,  and  for  all  the  sins  they  have  committed,  it  would  make 
their  hearts  to  tremble  and  their  lips  to  quiver,  and  rottenness  to 
enter  into  their  bones ;  it  would  cause  their  souls  to  cry  out,  and  say, 
Oh  that  our  mercies  had  been  fewer  and  lesser,  that  our  account 
might  have  been  easier,  and  our  torment  and  misery,  for  our  abuse  of 
so  great  mercy,  not  greater  than  we  are  able  to  bear.  Oh  cursed  be 
the  day  wherein  the  crown  of  honour  was  set  upon  our  heads,  and 
the  treasures  of  this  world  were  cast  into  our  laps  ;  oh  cursed  be  the 
day  wherein  the  sun  of  prosperity  shined  so  strong  upon  us,  and  this 
flattering  world  smiled  so  much  upon  us,  as  to  occasion  us  to  forget 
God,  to  slight  Jesus  Christ,  to  neglect  our  souls,  and  to  put  far  from 
us  the  day  of  our  account ! 

Philip  the  Third  of  Spain,  whose  life  was  free  from  gross  evils, 
professed,  '  That  he  would  rather  lose  his  kingdom  than  offend  God 
willingly  ;'  yet  being  in  the  agony  of  death,  and  considering  more 
thoroughly  of  his  account  he  was  to  give  to  God,  fear  struck  into  him, 
and  these  words  brake  from  him :  '  Oh  !  would  to  God  I  had  never 
reigned.  Oh  that  those  years  that  I  have  spent  in  my  kingdom,  I 
had  lived  a  solitary  life  in  the  wilderness  !  Oh  that  I  had  lived  a 
solitary  life  with  God  !  How  much  more  securely  should  I  now  have 
died  !  How  much  more  confidently  should  I  have  gone  to  the  throne 
of  God  !  What  doth  all  my  glory  profit  me,  but  that  I  have  so  much 
the  more  torment  in  my  death  ?'  God  keeps  an  exact  account  of 
every  penny  that  is  laid  out  upon  him  and  his,  and  that  is  laid  out 
against  him  and  his  ;  and  this  in  the  day  of  account  men  shall  know 
and  feel,  though  now  they  wink  and  will  not  understand.  The  sleep- 
ing of  vengeance  causeth  the  overflowing  of  sin,  and  the  overflowing 
of  sin  causeth  the  awakening  of  vengeance.  Abused  mercy  will  cer- 
tainly turn  into  fury.  God's  forbearance  is  no  quittance.  The  day 
is  at  hand  when  he  will  pay  wicked  men  for  the  abuse  of  old  and 
new  mercies.  If  he  seem  to  be  slow,  yet  he  is  sure.  He  hath  leaden 
heels,  but  iron  hands.  The  farther  he  stretcheth  his  bow,  or  draweth 
his  arrow,  the  deeper  he  will  wound  in  the  day  of  vengeance.  Men's 
actions  are  all  in  print  in  heaven,  and  God  will,  in  the  day  of  account, 
read  them  aloud  in  the  ears  of  all  the  world,  that  they  may  all  say 
Amen  to  that  righteous  sentence  that  he  shall  pass  upon  all  despisers 
and  abusers  of  mercy.1 

The  ninth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (9).  By  presenting  to  the  soul  the  crosses,  losses,  re- 
proaches, sorrows,  and  sufferings  that  do  daily  attend  those  tliat 
walk  in  the  ways  of  holiness.  Saith  Satan,  Do  not  you  see  that 
there  are  none  in  the  world  that  are  so  vexed,  afflicted,  and  tossed,  as 
those  that  walk  more  circumspectly  and  holily  than  their  neighbours  ? 

neglected  by  them,  of  evil  committed  by  them,  and  of  evils  suffered  [allowed]  by  them. 
In  die  judicii  plus  valebit  conscientia  pura,  quarn  marsupia  plena  ;  then  shall  a  good 
conscience  be  more  worth  than  all  the  world's  good. — Bernard. 

1  Hierom  [Jerome]  still  thought  that  voice  was  in  his  ears  (Surgite  mortui  et  venite 
ad  judicium),  Arise,  you  dead,  and  come  to  judgment.  As  oft  as  I  think  on  that  day, 
how  doth  my  whole  body  quake,  and  my  heart  within  me  tremble. 

48  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  C'OR.  II.  11. 

They  are  a  byword  at  home,  and  a  reproach  abroad ;  their  miseries 
come  in  upon  them  like  .bib's  messengers,  one  upon  the  neck  of 
another,  and  there  is  no  end  of  their  sorrows  and  troubles.  Therefore, 
saith  Satan,  you  were  better  walk  in  ways  that  are  less  troublesome, 
and  Less  afflicted,  though  they  be  more  sinful;  for  who  but  a  madman 
would  spend  his  days  in  sorrow,  vexation,  and  affliction,  when  it  may 
be  prevented  by  walking  in  the  ways  that  I  set  before  him? 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  Tltat  all  the  afflictions  U hat  do  attend  the  people 
of  God,  are  such  as  shall  turn  to  the  profit  and  glorious  advantage 
of '  tlte  people  of  God.  They  shall  discover  that  filthiness  and  vilenesa 
in  sin,  that  yet  the  soul  hath  never  seen. 

It  was  a  speech  of  a  German  divine1  in  his  sickness,  'In  this  disease 
I  have  learned  how  great  God  is,  and  what  the  evil  of  sin  is  ;  I  never 
knew  to  purpose  what  God  was  before,  nor  what  sin  meant,  till  now.' 
Afflictions  are  a  crystal  glass,  wherein  the  soul  hath  the  clearest  sight 
of  the  ugly  face  of  sin.  In  this  glass  the  soul  comes  to  see  sin  to  be 
but  a  bitter-sweet ;  yea,  in  this  glass  the  soul  comes  to  see  sin  not  only 
to  be  an  evil,  but  to  be  the  greatest  evil  in  the  world,  to  be  an  evil 
far  worse  than  hell  itself. 

Again,  They  shall  contribute  to  the  mortifying  and  purging  away 
of  their  sins,  Isa.  i.  15,  and  xxvii.  8,  9.  Afflictions  are  God's  fur- 
nace, by  which  he  cleanses  his  people  from  their  dross.  Affliction  is 
a  fire  to  purge  out  our  dross,  and  to  make  virtue  shine  ;  it  is  a  potion 
to  carry  away  ill  humours,  better  than  all  the  benedictum  rnedica- 
mentum,  as  physicians  call  them.2  Aloes  kill  worms  ;  colds  and  frosts  do 
destroy  vermin ;  so  do  afflictions  the  corruptions  that  are  in  our  hearts. 
The  Jews,  under  all  the  prophet's  thunderings,  retained  their  idols ; 
but  after  their  Babylonish  captivity7,  it  is  observed,  there  have  been  no 
idols  found  amongst  them. 

Again,  Afflictions  are  sweet  preservatives  to  keep  the  saints  from 
sin,  which  is  a  greater  evil  than  hell  itself.  As  Job  spake,  '  Surely  it 
is  meet  to  be  said  unto  God,  I  have  borne  chastisement,  I  will  not 
offend  any  more :  That  which  I  see  not,  teach  thou  me  ;  if  I  have 
done  iniquity,  I  will  do  no  more.  Once  have  I  spoken  foolishly,  yea. 
twice,  I  will  do  so  no  more/  Job  xxxiv.  31,  32.  The  burnt  child 
dreads  the  fire.  Ah  I  saith  the  soul  under  the  rod,  sin  is  but  a  bitter- 
sweet; and  for  the  future  I  intend,  by  the  strength  of  Christ,  that  I 
will  not  buy  repentance  at  so  dear  a  rate.3 

The  Rabbins,  to  scare  their  scholars  from  sin,  were  wont  to  tell 
them,  'That  sin  made  God's  head  ache;'  and  saints  under  the  red 
have  found  by  woful  experience,  that  sin  makes  not  only  their  heads. 
but  their  hearts  ache  also. 

Augustine,  by  wandering  out  of  his  way,  escaped  one  that  lay  in 

1  Gaspar  Olcvianus  (1586).— G. 

2  In  time  s  of  peace  our  armour  is  rusty,  in  time  of  war  it  is  bright 

8  Salt  brine  preserves  from  putrefaction,  and  salt  marshes  keep  the  sheep  rom  the 
rot:  so  do  afflictions  the  saints  from  sin.  The  ball  in  the  Emblem  saith,  Pcrcussa 
surgo,  the  border  you  beat  mo  down  in  affliction,  the  higher  I  shall  bound  in  affec- 
tion towards  heaven  and  heavenly  things. 

2  COK.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  49 

wait  to  mischief  him.1  If  afflictions  did  not  put  us  out  of  our  way, 
we  should  many  times  meet  with  some  sin  or  other  that  would  mis- 
chief our  precious  souls. 

Again,  They  will  work  the  saints  to  be  more  fruitful  in  holiness  : 
Heb.  xii.  10,  11,  '  But  he  afflicts  us  for  our  profit,  that  we  might  be  par- 
takers of  his  holiness.'  The  flowers  smell  sweetest  after  a  shower;  vines 
bear  the  better  for  bleeding ;  the  walnut-tree  is  most  fruitful  when 
most  beaten.  Saints  spring  and  thrive  most  internally  when  they  are 
most  externally  afflicted.  Afflictions  are  called  by  some  '  the  mother 
of  virtue.'  Manasseh  his  chain  was  more  profitable  to  him  than  his 
crown.  Luther  could  not  understand  some  Scriptures  till  he  was  in 
affliction.  The  Christ-cross  is  no  letter,  and  yet  that  taught  him  more 
than  all  the  letters  in  the  row.  God's  house  of  correction  is  his  school 
of  instruction.2  All  the  stones  that  came  about  Stephen's  ears  did 
but  knock  him  closer  to  Christ,  the  corner-stone.  The  waves  did  but 
lift  Noah's  ark  nearer  to  heaven  ;  and  the  higher  the  waters  grew,  the 
more  near  the  ark  was  lifted  up  to  heaven.  Afflictions  do  lift  up  the 
soul  to  more  rich,  clear,  and  full  enjoyments  of  God  :3  Hosea  ii.  14,  '  Be- 
hold, I  will  allure  her  into  the  wilderness,  and  speak  comfortably  to 
her'  ;  (or  rather,  as  the  Hebrew  hath  it)  ;  'I  will  earnestly  or  vehe- 
mently speak  to  her  heart.'4  God  makes  afflictions  to  be  but  inlets 
to  the  soul's  more  sweet  and  full  enjoyment  of  his  blessed  self.  When 
was  it  that  Stephen  saw  the  heavens  open,  and  Christ  standing  at  the 
right  hand  of  God,  but  when  the  stones  were  about  his  ears,  and  there 
was  but  a  short  step  betwixt  him  and  eternity  ?  And  when  did  God 
appear  in  his  glory  to  Jacob,  but  in  the  day  of  his  troubles,  when  the 
stones  were  his  pillows,  and  the  ground  his  bed,  and  the  hedges  his 
curtains,  and  the  heavens  his  canopy  ?  Then  he  saw  the  angels  of 
God  ascending  and  descending  in  their  glistering  robes.  The  plant  in 
Nazianzen  grows  with  cutting ;  being  cut,  it  flourisheth  ;  it  contends 
with  the  axe,  it  lives  by  dying,  and  by  cutting  it  grows.5  So  do  saints 
by  their  afflictions  that  do  befall  them  ;  they  gain  more  experience  of 
the  power  of  God  supporting  them,  of  the  wisdom  of  God  directing 
them,  of  the  grace  of  God  refreshing  and  cheering  them,  and  of  the 
goodness  of  God  quieting  and  quickening  of  them,  to  a  greater  love  to 
holiness,  and  to  a  greater  delight  in  holiness,  and  to  a  more  vehement 
pursuing  after  holiness. 

I  have  read  of  a  fountain,  that  at  noonday  is  cold,  and  at  midnight 
it  grows  warm  ;  so  many  a  precious  soul  is  cold  God-wards,  and  heaven- 
wards, and  holiness-wards,  in  the  day  of  prosperity  ;  that  grow  warm 
God -wards  and  heaven-wards,  and  holiness- wards,  in  the  midnight  of 

Again,  Afflictions  serve  to  keep  the  hearts  of  the  saints  humble  and 

1  Confessions.— G.  2  Schola  crucis,  schola  lucis. 

3  Cf.  '  Epistle'  prefixed  to  Durant's  Altum  Silentium,  by  Brooks. — G. 

4  n^1?  ^y.  •  •  •  TrOII   Vedibbartignal  libbab. 

8  It  is  reported  of  Tiberius  the  emperor,  that  passing  by  a  place  where  he  saw  a  cross 
lying  in  the  ground  upon  a  marble  stone,  and  causing  the  stone  to  be  digged  up,  he 
found  a  great  deal  of  treasure  under  the  cross.  So  many  a  precious  saint  hath  found 
much  spiritual  and  heavenly  treasure  under  the  crosses  they  have  met  withal. 

VOL.  I.  D 

50  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

tender  :  Lam.  iii.  19,  20,  '  Kemcmbcring  my  affliction  and  my  misery, 
i  he  wormwood  and  the  gall.  My  soul  hath  them  still  in  remembrance, 
and  is  humbled  in  me,'  or  bowed  down  in  me,  as  the  original  hath  it.1 
So  David,  when  he  was  under  the  rod,  could  say,  '  I  was  dumb,  I  opened 
not  my  mouth  ;  because  thou  didst  it/  Ps.  xxxix.  4. 

1  have  read  of  one  [Gregory  Nazianzen],  who,  when  anything  fell  out 
prosperously,  would  read  over  the  Lamentation  of  Jeremiah,  and  that 
kept  his  heart  tender,  humbled,  and  low.  Prosperity  doth  not  contri- 
bute more  to  the  puffing  up  the  soul,  than  adversity  doth  to  the  bowing 
down  of  the  soul.  This  the  saints  by  experience  find  ;  and  therefore 
they  can  kiss  and  embrace  the  cross,  as  others  do  the  world's  crown.2 

Again,  They  serve  to  bring  the  saints  nearer  to  God,  and  to  make 
them  more  importunate  and  earnest  in  prayer  with  God.  '  Before  I  was 
afflicted,  I  went  astray  ;  but  now  have  I  kept  thy  word.'  '  It  is  good 
for  me  that  I  have  been  afflicted,  that  I  might  learn  thy  statutes.' 
'  I  will  be  to  Ephraim  as  a  lion,  and  as  a  young  lion  to  the  house  of 
Judah.  I,  even  I,  will  tear  and  go  away  :  I  will  take  away,  and  none 
shall  rescue  him/  '  I  will  go  and  return  to  my  place,  till  they  acknow- 
ledge their  offence,  and  seek  my  face  :  in  their  affliction  they  will 
seek  me  early.'  And  so  they  did.  '  Come,'  say  they,  '  and  let  us  return 
unto  the  Lord  :  for  he  hath  torn,  and  he  will  heal  us;  he  hath  smit- 
ten, and  he  will  bind  us  up.  After  two  days  he  will  revive  us  :  in 
the  third  day  he  will  raise  us  up,  and  we  shall  live  in  his  sight.'3  So 
when  God  had  hedged  up  their  way  with  thorns,  then  they  say,  '  I  will 
go  and  return  to  my  first  husband  ;  for  then  was  it  with  me  better 
than  now,'  Hosea  ii.  6,  7.  Ah  the  joy,  the  peace,  the  comfort,  the 
delight,  and  content  that  did  attend  us,  when  we  kept  close  communion 
with  God,  doth  bespeak  our  return  to  God.  '  We  will  return  to  our 
first  husband  ;  for  then  was  it  with  us  better  than  now.' 

When  Tiribazus,  a  noble  Persian,  was  arrested,  he  drew  out  his 
sword,  and  defended  himself;  but  when  they  told  him  that  they  came 
to  carry  him  to  the  king,  he  willingly  yielded.4  So,  though  a  saint 
may  at  first  stand  a  little  out,  yet  when  he  remembers  that  afflictions 
are  to  carry  nearer  to  God,  he  yields,  and  kisses  the  rod.  Afflictions 
are  like  the  prick  at  the  nightingale's  breast,  that  awakes  her,  and  puts 
her  upon  her  sweet  and  delightful  singing. 

Again,  Afflictions  they  serve  to  revive  and  recover  decayed  graces ; 
they  inflame  that  love  that  is  cold,  and  they  quicken  that  faith  that  is 
decaying,  and  they  put  life  into  those  hopes  that  are  withering,  and 
spirits  into  those  joys  and  comforts  that  are  languishing.5  Musk, 
saith  one,  when  it  hath  lost  its  sweetness,  if  it  be  put  into  the  sink 
amongst  filth  it  recovers  it.     So  do  afflictions  recover  and  revive  de- 

1  m^n"1  from  nra>. 

-  The  more  precious  odours  and  the  purest  spices,  are  beaten  and  bruised,  the 
sweeter  scent  and  savour  they  send  abroad.     So  do  saints  when  they  are  afllicted. 

3  Ps.  cxix.  67,  71.     Hosea  v.  14,  15  ;  vi.  1,  2. 

*  C{.  Diodorus  xv.  8-11  :  Plutarch,  Artaxerxes,  24,  27,  29.— G. 

5  M  >8t  men  are  like  a  top,  that  will  not  go  unless  you  whip  it,  and  the  more  you  whip 
it  the  better  it  goes.  You  know  how  to  apply  it.  They  that  are  in  adversity,  saith 
Luther,  do  better  understand  Scriptures  ;  but  those  that  are  in  prosperity,  read  them  as 
a  verse  in  Ovid.  Bees  are  killed  with  honey,  but  quickened  with  vinegar.  The  honey 
of  prosperity  kills  our  graces,  but  the  vinegar  of  adversity  quickens  our  graces. 

2  COR.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  51 

cayed  graces.  The  more  saints  are  beaten  with  the  hammer  of  afflic- 
tions, the  more  they  are  made  the  trumpets  of  God's  praises,  and  the 
more  are  their  graces  revived  and  quickened.  Adversity  abases  the 
loveliness  of  the  world  that  might  entice  us  ;  it  abates  the  lustiness 
of  the  flesh  within,  that  might  incite  us  to  folly  and  vanity  ;  and  it 
abets  the  spirit  in  his  quarrel  to  the  two  former,  which  tends  much 
to  the  reviving  and  recovering  of  decayed  graces.  Now,  suppose 
afflictions  and  troubles  attend  the  ways  of  holiness,  yet  seeing  that 
they  all  work  for  the  great  profit  and  singular  advantage  of  the  saints, 
let  no  soul  be  so  mad  as  to  leave  an  afflicted  way  of  holiness,  to  walk 
in  a  smooth  path  of  wickedness. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  that  all  the  afflictions  that  do  befall  the  saints, 
do  only  reach  their  worser  part ;  they  reach  not,  they  hurt  not,  their 
noble  part,  their  best  part.  All  the  arrows  stick  in  the  target,  they 
reach  not  the  conscience  :  1  Peter  iii.  13,  '  And  who  shall  harm  you, 
if  ye  be  followers  of  that  which  is  good,'  saith  the  apostle.  That  is, 
none  shall  harm  you.  They  may  thus  and  thus  afflict  you,  but  they 
shall  never  harm  you.1 

It  was  the  speech  of  an  heathen,  whenas  by  the  tyrant  he  was  com- 
manded to  be  put  into  a  mortar,  and  to  be  beaten  to  pieces  with  an 
iron  pestle,  he  cries  out  to  his  persecutors,  '  You  do  but  beat  the 
vessel,  the  case,  the  husk  of  Anaxarchus,  you  do  not  beat  me/  His 
body  was  to  him  but  as  a  case,  a  husk  ;  he  counted  his  soul  himself, 
which  they  could  not  reach.    You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it. 

Socrates  said  of  his  enemies,  '  They  may  kill  me,  but  they  cannot 
hurt  me.'  So  afflictions  may  kill  us,  but  they  cannot  hurt  us  ;  they 
may  take  away  my  life,  but  they  cannot  take  away  my  God,  my  Christ, 
my  crown. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  afflictions  that  do  attend  the  saints  in 
the  ways  of  holiness,  are  but  short  and  momentary.  '  Sorrow  may 
abide  for  a  night,  but  joy  comes  in  the  morning,'  Ps.  xxx.  5.  This 
short  storm  will  end  in  an  everlasting  calm,  this  short  night  will  end 
in  a  glorious  day,  that  shall  never  have  end.2  It  is  but  a  very  short 
time  between  grace  and  glory,  between  our  title  to  the  crown  and 
our  wearing  the  crown,  between  our  right  to  the  heavenly  inheritance 
and  our  possession  of  the  heavenly  inheritance.  Fourteen  thou- 
sand years  to  the  Lord  is  but  as  one  day.  What  is  our  life  but  a 
shadow,  a  bubble,  a  flo  wer,  a  post,  a  span,  a  dream  ?  &c.  Yea,  so 
small  a  while  doth  the  hand  of  the  Lord  rest  upon  us,  that  Luther  can- 
not get  diminutives  enough  to  extenuate  it,  for  he  calls  it  a  very  little 
cross  that  we  bear,  to  The  prophet  in  Isaiah  xxvi.  20, 
saith  the  indignation  doth  not  (transire)  pass,  but  (pertransire)  over- 
pass.    The  sharpness,  shortness,  and  suddenness  of  it  is  set  forth  b}^ 

1  The  Christian  soldier  shall  ever  be  master  of  the  day.  Mori  fiosse,  vinci  non  pos^c, 
said  Cyprian  to  Cornelius ;  he  may  suffer  death,  but  never  conquest. 

2  There  are  none  of  God's  afflicted  ones  that  have  not  their  lucida  intervalla,  intermis- 
sions, respites,  and  breathing  whiles,  under  their  short  and  momentary  afflictions. 
When  God's  hand  is  on  thy  back,  let  thy  hand  be  on  thy  mouth,  for  though  the  afflic- 
tion be  sharp,  it  shall  be  but  short. 

52  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

the  travail  of  a  woman,  John  xvi.  21.  And  that  is  a  sweet  scripture, 
'  For  ye  have  need  of  patience,  that  after  ye  have  done  the  will  of  God, 
ye  might  receive  the  promise.'  '  For  yet  a  little  while,  he  that  shall 
come  will  come,  and  will  not  tarry,'  Heb.  x.  36,  37.  Tantillum  tan- 
t  ilium  adhuc  inisillum.     A  little,  little,  little  while.1 

When  Athanasius's  friends  came  to  bewail  him,  because  of  his 
misery  and  banishment,  he  said,  '  It  is  but  a  little  cloud,  and  will 
quickly  be  gone.'2  It  will  be  but  as  a  day  before  God  will  give  his 
attficted  ones  beauty  for  ashes,  the  oil  of  gladness  for  the  spirit  of 
heaviness  ;  before  he  will  turn  all  your  sighing  into  singing,  all  your 
lamentations  into  consolations,  your  sackcloth  into  silks,  ashes  into 
ointments,  and  your  fasts  into  everlasting  feasts,  &c. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan,  is 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  afflictions  that  do  befall  the  saints  are 
such  as  proceed  from  God's  dearest  love*  '  As  many  as  I  love, 
I  rebuke  and  chasten,'  Rev.  iii.  19.  Saints,  saith  God,  think  not 
that  I  hate  you,  because  I  thus  chide  you.  He  that  escapes  re- 
prehension may  suspect  his  adoption.  God  had  one  Son  without 
corruption,  but  no  son  without  correction.  A  gracious  soul  may  look 
through  the  darkest  cloud,  and  see  a  God  smiling  on  him.  We 
must  look  through  the  anger  of  his  correction  to  the  sweetness  of  his 
couutenance ;  and  as  by  the  rainbow  we  see  the  beautiful  image  of 
the  sun's  light  in  the  midst  of  a  dark  and  waterish  cloud. 

When  Munster  lay  sick,  and  his  friends  asked  him  how  he  did  and 
how  he  felt  himself,  he  pointed  to  his  sores  and  ulcers,  whereof  he  was 
full,  and  said,  '  These  are  God's  gems  and  jewels,  wherewith  he  decketh 
his  best  friends,  and  to  me  they  are  more  precious  than  all  the  gold 
and  silver  in  the  world.'  A  soul  at  first  conversion  is  but  rough  cast ; 
but  God  by  afflictions  doth  square  and  fit,  and  fashion  it  for  that 
glory  above,  which  doth  speak  them  out  to  flow  from  precious  love  ; 
therefore  the  afflictions  that  do  attend  the  people  of  God  should  be  no 
bar  to  holiness,  nor  no  motive  to  draw  the  soul  to  ways  of  wickedness. 
Remedy  (.5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  it  is  our  duty  and  glory  not  to  measure 
afflictions  by  the  smart  but  by  the  end.  When  Israel  was  dismissed  out 
of  Egypt,  it  was  with  gold  and  ear-rings,  Exod.  xi.  3  ;  so  the  Jews 
were  dismissed  out  of  Babylon  with  gifts,  jewels,  and  all  necessary 
utensils,  Ezrai.  7-11.  Look  more  at  the  latter  end  of  a  Christian  than 
the  beginning  of  his  affliction.  Consider  the  patience  of  Job,  and  what 
end  the  Lord  made  with  him.  Look  not  upon  Lazarus  lying  at 
Dives's  door,  but  lying  in  Abraham's  bosom.  Look  not  to  the  beginning 
of  Joseph,  who  was  so  far  from  his  dream,  that  the  sun  and  moon 
should  reverence  him,  that  for  two  years  he  was  cast  Avhere  he  could 
see  neither  sun,  moon,  nor  stars  ;  but  behold  him  at  last  made  ruler 
over  Egypt.  Look  not  upon  David,  as  there  was  but  a  step  between 
him  and  death,  nor  as  he  was  envied  by  some,  and  slighted  and 
1  'En  yao  fLiKpov  oto»  eVov.  '  Nubecula  est,  cito  transibit.  —  Athanasii/s. 

;i  Austin  asketli,  Si  amatur  quo  modo  infirmatur,  If  lie  were  beloved,  how  came  be  to 
be  sick?  So  are  wicked  men  apt  to  say,  because  they  know  not  that  corrections  aro 
pledges  of  our  adoption,  and  badges  of  our  Sonship.  God  had  one  Sou  without  sin,  but 
none  without  sorrow. — [Augustine  on  Rev.  iii.  19. — G  ] 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  53 

despised  by  others  ;  but  behold  him  seated  in  his  royal  throne,  and 
dying  in  his  bed  of  honour,  and  his  son  Solomon  and  all  his  glister- 
ing nobles  about  him.  Afflictions,  they  are  but  as  a  dark  entry  into 
your  Father's  house  ;  they  are  but  as  a  dirty  lane  to  a  royal  palace. 
Now  tell  me,  souls,  whether  it  be  not  very  great  madness  to  shun  the 
ways  of  holiness,  and  to  walk  in  the  ways  of  wickedness,  because  of 
those  afflictions  that  do  attend  the  ways  of  holiness.1 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  design  of  God  in  all  the  afflictions 
that  do  befall  them,  is  only  to  try  them  ;  it  is  not  to  wrong  them,  nor 
to  ruin  them,  as  ignorant  souls  are  apt  to  think.  '  He  knoweth 
the  way  that  I  take :  and  when  he  hath  tried  me,  I  shall  come  forth 
as  gold,'  saith  patient  Job,  xxiii.  10.  So  in  Deut.  viii.  2,  '  And 
thou  shalt  remember  all  the  way  which  the  Lord  thy  God  led  thee 
these  forty  years  in  the  wildernesss,  to  humble  thee,  and  to  prove 
thee,  to  know  what  was  in  thy  heart,  whether  thou  wouldst  keep  his 
commandments  or  no/  God  afflicted  them  thus,  that  he  might  make 
known  to  themselves  and  others  what  was  in  their  hearts.  When 
fire  is  put  to  green  wood,  there  comes  out  abundance  of  watery 
stuff  that  before  appeared  not ;  when  the  pond  is  empty,  the  mud, 
filth,  and  toads  come  to  light.2  The  snow  covers  many  a  dunghill,  so 
doth  prosperity  many  a  rotten  heart.  It  is  easy  to  wade  in  a  warm  bath, 
and  every  bird  can  sing  in  a  sunshine  day,  &c.  Hard  weather  tries  what 
health  we  have  ;  afflictions  try  what  sap  we  have,  what  grace  we  have. 
Withered  leaves  soon  fall  off  in  windy  weather,  rotten  boughs  quickly 
break  with  heavy  weights,  &c.    You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it. 

Afflictions  are  like  pinching  frosts,  that  will  search  us  ;  where  we 
are  most  unsound,  we  shall  soonest  complain,  and  where  most  corrup- 
tions lie,  we  shall  most  shrink.  We  try  metal  by  knocking  ;  if  it  sound 
well,  then  we  like  it.  So  God  tries  his  by  knocking,  and  if  under  knocks 
they  yield  a  pleasant  sound,  God  will  turn  their  night  into  day,  and  their 
bitter  into  sweet,  and  their  cross  into  a  crown  ;  and  they  shall  hear  that 
voice,  '  Arise,  and  shine  \  for  the  glory  of  the  Lord  is  risen  upon 
thee,  and  the  favours  of  the  Lord  are  flowing  in  on  thee/  Isa.  lx.  l.a 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan 
is,  solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  afflictions,  wrath,  and  misery  that 
do  attend  the  ways  of  wickedness,  are  far  greater  and  heavier  than 
those  are  that  do  attend  the  ways  of  holiness.4'  Oh,  the  galling, 
girding,  lashing,  and  gnawing   of  conscience,  that  do  attend  souls 

1  Afflictions,  they  are  but  our  Father's  goldsmiths,  who  are  •working  to  add  pearls  to 
our  crowns.  Tiberius  saw  paradise  when  he  walked  upon  hot  burning  coals.  Hero- 
dotus said  of  the  Assyrians,  Let  them  drink  nothing  but  wormwood  all  their  life  long  ; 
when  they  die,  they  shall  swim  in  honey.     You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it. 

2  The  king  of  Aracam,  in  Scaliger,  tries  her  whom  he  means  to  marry  by  sweating. 
If  they  be  sweet,  he  marries  them  ;  if  not,  then  he  rejects  them.  You  may  easily 
make  the  application. 

3  Dunghills  raked  send  out  a  filthy  steam,  ointments  a  sweet  perfume.  This  is 
applicable  to  sinners  and  saints  under  the  rod. 

4  Sin  oftentimes  makes  men  insensible  of  the  wrath  of  the  Almighty.  Sin  transforms 
many  a  man,  as  it  were,  into  those  bears  in  Pliny,  that  could  not  be  stirred  with  the 
sharpest  prickles  ;  or  those  fishes  in  Aristotle,  that  though  they  have  spears  thrust  into 
their  sides,  yet  they  awake  not.     [Bears  :  Pliny,  lib.  viii.  c.  54. — G.] 

5-t  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

in  a  way  of  wickedness  !  '  The  wicked,'  saith  Isaiah,  '  are  like  the 
troubled  sea,  when  it  cannot  rest,  whose  waters  cast  up  mire  and 
dirt/  '  There  is  no  peace  to  the  wicked,  saith  my  God.'1  There  are 
snares  in  all  their  mercies,  and  curses  and  crosses  do  attend  all  their 
comforts,  both  at  home  and  abroad.  What  is  a  fine  suit  of  clothes 
with  the  plague  in  it  I  and  what  is  a  golden  cup  when  there  is  poison 
at  the  bottom  \  or  what  is  a  silken  stocking  with  a  broken  leg  in  it  ? 
The  curse  of  God,  the  wrath  of  God,  the  hatred  of  God,  and  the  tierce 
indignation  of  God,  do  always  attend  sinners  walking  in  a  way  of 
wickedness.  Turn  to  Deut.  xxviii.,  and  read  from  ver.  15  to  the  end 
of  the  chapter,  and  turn  to  Levit.  xxvi.,  and  read  from  ver.  14  to 
the  end  of  that  chapter,  and  then  you  shall  see  how  the  curse  of  God 
haunts  the  wicked,  as  it  were  a  fury,  in  all  his  ways.  In  the  city  it 
attends  him,  in  the  country  hovers  over  him ;  coming  in,  it  accom- 
panies him  ;  going  forth,  it  follows  him,,  and  in  travel  it  is  his  comrade. 
It  fills  his  store  with  strife,  and  mingles  the  wrath  of  God  with  his 
sweetest  morsels.  It  is  a  moth  in  his  wardrobe,  murrain  among  his 
cattle,  mildew  in  the  field,  rot  among  sheep,  and  ofttimes  makes  the 
fruit  of  his  loins  his  greatest  vexation  and  confusion.  There  is  no 
solid  joy,  nor  lasting  peace,  nor  pure  comfort,  that  attends  sinners 
in  their  sinful  ways.2  There  is  a  sword  of  vengeance  that  doth  every 
moment  hang  over  their  heads  by  a  small  thread  ;3  and  what  joy 
and  content  can  attend  such  souls,  if  the  eye  of  conscience  be  but  so 
far  open  as  to  see  the  sword  ?  Ah  !  the  horrors  and  terrors,  the  trem- 
blings and  shakings,  that  attend  their  souls  ! 

The  tenth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (10).  By  working  them  to  be  frequent  in  comparing  them- 
selves and  their  ivays  ivith  those  that  are  reputed  or  reported  to  b<" 
vjorse  than,  themselves.  By  this  device  the  devil  drew  the  proud 
pharisee  to  bless  himself  in  a  cursed  coudition,  '  God,  I  thank  thee  that 
I  am  not  as  other  men  are,  extortioners,  unjust,  adulterers,  or  even  as 
this  publican,  &c,  Luke  xviii.  11.  Why,  saith  Satan,  you  swear  but 
pretty  oaths,  as  '  by  your  faith  and  troth,'  &c,  but  such  and  such  swear 
by  wounds  and  blood  ;  you  are  now  and  then  a  little  wanton,  but  such 
and  such  do  daily  defile  and  pollute  themselves  by  actual  uncleanness 
and  filthiness  ;  you  deceive  and  overreach  your  neighbours  in  things 
that  are  but  as  toys  and  trifles,  but  such  and  such  deceive  and  over- 
reach others  in  things  of  greatest  concernment,  even  to  their  ruin 
and  undoings  ;  you  do  but  sit,  and  chat,  and  sip  with  the  drunkard, 
but  such  and  such  sit  and  drink  and  are  drunk  with  the  drunkard  ; 
you  are  only  a  little  proud  in  heart  and  habit,  in  looks  and  words,  &c. 
Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  the  devil  are  these  : 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider  this,  Thai  there  is  not  a  greater  nor  a  clear-  r 
argument  to  prove  a  man  a  hypocrite,  than  to  be  quick-sighted 
abroad  and  blind  at  home,  than  to  see  '  a  mote  in  another  man's  eye, 

1  Isa.  lvii.  20,  and  xlviii.  22. 

*  Sin  brings  in  sorrow  and  sickness,  &c.  The  Rabbins  say,  that  when  Adam  tasted 
the  forbidden  fruit,  hi.s  head  ached.  Sirens  arc  said  to  sing  curiously  while  they  live, 
but  to  roar  horribly  when  they  die.     So  do  the  wicked. 

3  Allusion  is  to  Damocles. — G. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  55 

and  not  a  beam  in  his  own  eye,'  Mat.  vii.  3,  4  ;  than  to  use  spec- 
tacles to  behold  other  men's  sins  rather  than  looking-glasses  to  behold 
his  own ;  rather  to  be  always  holding  his  finger  upon  other  men's  sores, 
and  to  be  amplifying  and  aggravating  other  men's  sins  than  miti- 
gating of  his  own,  &C.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  spend  more  time  in  comparing  of  your  internal  and,  external 
actions  with  the  Rule,  with  the  Word,,  by  which  you  must  be  judged 
at  last,  than  in  comparing  of  yourselves  with  those  that  are  worse 
than  yourselves.2  That  man  that,  comparing  his  self  with  others 
that  are  worse  than  himself,  may  seem,  to  himself  and  others,  to  be  an 
angel  ;  yet,  comparing  himself  With  the  word,  may  see  himself  to  be 
like  the  devil,  yea,  a  very  devil.  '  Have  not  I  chosen  twelve,  and  one 
of  you  is  a  devil  X  John  vi.  70.  Such  men  are  like  him,  as  if  they 
were  spit  out  of  his  mouth. 

Satan  is  called  '  the  god  of  this  world,'  2  Cor.  iv.  4,  because,  as  God 
at  first  did  but  speak  the  word,  and  it' was  done,  so,  if  the  devil  doth 
but  hold  up  his  finger,  give  the  least  hint,  they  will  do  his  will,  though 
they  undo  their  souls  for  ever.  Ah,  what  monsters  would  these  men 
appear  to  be,  did  they  but  compare  themselves  with  a  righteous  rule, 
and  not  with  the  most  unrighteous  men  ;  they  would  appear  to  be  as 
black  as  hell  itself. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  though  thy  sins  be  not  as  great  as  others, 
yet  without  sound  repentance  on  thy  side  and  pardoning  mercy  on 
God's,  thou  wilt  be  as  certainly  damned  as  others,  though  not  equally 
tormented  with  others.3  What  though  hell  shall  not  be  so  hot  to  thee 
as  others,  yet  thou  must  as  certainly  to  hell  as  others,  unless  the 
glorious  grace  of  God  shines  forth  upon  thee  in  the  face  of  Christ. 
God  will  suit  men's  punishments  to  their  sins  ;  the  greatest  sins  shall 
be  attended  with  the  greatest  punishments,  and  lesser  sins  with  lesser 
punishments.  Alas,  what  a  poor  comfort  will  this  be  to  thee  when 
thou  comest  to  die,  to  consider  that  thou  shaft  not  be  equally  tormented 
with  others,  yet  must  be  for  ever  shut  out  from  the  glorious  presence 
of  God,  Christ,  angels,  and  saints,  and  from  those  good  things  of  eternal 
life,  that  are  so  many  that  they  exceed  number,  so  great  that  they 
exceed  measure,  so  precious  that  they  exceed  estimation  !  Sure  it  is, 
that  the  tears  of  heaven4  are  not  sufficient  to  bewail  the  loss  of  heaven ; 
the  worm  of  grief  gnaws  as  painful  as  the  fire  burns.  If  those  souls, 
Acts  xx.  37,  wept  because  they  should  see  Paul's  face  no  more,  how 
deplorable  is  the  eternal  deprivation  of  the  beatifical  vision  !5 

1  History  speaks  of  a  kind  of  witches  that,  stirring  ahroad,  would  put  on  their  eyes, 
but  returning  home  they  boxed  them  up  again.     So  do  hypocrites. 

2  The  nearer  we  draw  to  God  and  his  word,  the  more  rottenness  we  shall  find  in  our 
bones.  The  more  any  man  looks  into  the  body  of  the  sun,  the  less  he  seeth  when 
he  looks  down  again.  It  is  said  of  the  basilisk,  that  if  he  look  into  a  glass  he  presently 
dieth  ;  so  will  sin,  and  a  sinner  (in  a  spiritual  sense),  when  the  soul  looks  into  the  word, 
which  is  God's  glass,  &c. 

3  As  in  heaven  one  is  more  glorious  than  another,  so  in  hell  one  shall  be  more 
miserable  than  another. — August[ine~\.  *  Qu,  '  hell '  ? — G. 

5  The  gate  of  indulgence,  the  gate  of  hope,  the  gate  of  mercy,  the  gate  of  glory,  the  gate 
of  consolation,  and  the  gate  of  salvation,  will  be  for  ever  shut  against  them,  Mat.  xxv.  10. 

56  PEECIOTTS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

But  this  is  not  all :  thou  shalt  not  be  only  shut  out  of  heaven,  but 
shut  up  in  hell  for  ever  ;  not  only  shut  out  from  the  presence  of  God 
and  angels,  &c.,  but  shut  up  with  devils  and  damned  spirits  for  ever; 
not  only  shut  out  from  those  sweet,  surpassing,  unexpressible,  and 
everlasting  pleasures  that  be  at  God's  right  hand,  but  shut  up  for  ever 
under  those  torments  that  are  ceaseless,  remediless,  and  endless.1  Ah, 
souls,  were  it  not  ten  thousand  times  better  for  you  to  break  off  your 
sins  by  repentance,  than  to  go  on  in  your  sins  till  you  feel  the  truth 
of  what  now  you  hear  ? 

The  God  of  Israel  is  very  merciful.  Ah,  that  you  would  repent  and 
return,  that  your  souls  might  live  for  ever  !  Remember  this,  grievous 
is  the  torment  of  the  damned,  for  the  bitterness  of  the  punishments, 
but  most  grievous  for  the  eternity  of  the  punishments.  For  to  be 
tormented  without  end,  this  is  that  which  goes  beyond  the  bounds  of 
all  desperation.  Ah,  how  do  the  thoughts  of  this  make  the  damned 
to  roar  and  cry  out  for  unquietness  of  heart,  and  tear  their  hair,  and 
gnash  their  teeth,  and  rage  for  madness,  that  they  must  dwell  in 
'  everlasting  burnings'  for  ever  ! 2 

The  eleventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (11).  By  polluting  and  defiling  the  souls  and  judgments 
of  men  with  such  dangerous  errors,  that  do  in  their  proper  tendency 
tend  to  carry  the  souls  of  men  to  all  looseness  and  ivickedness,  as 
woful  experience  doth  abundantly  evidence.  Ah,  how  many  are 
there  filled  with  these  and  such  like  Christ-dishonouring  and  soul- 
undoing  opinions,  viz.,  that  ordinances  are  poor,  low,  carnal  things, 
and  not  only  to  be  lived  above,  but  without  also  ;  that  the  Scriptures 
are  full  of  fallacies  and  uncertainties,  and  no  further  to  be  heeded  than 
they  agree  with  that  spirit  that  is  in  them  ;  that  it  is  a  poor,  low 
thing,  if  not  idolatry  too,  to  worship  God  in  a  Mediator  ;  that  the  re- 
surrection is  already  past ;  that  there  was  never  any  such  man  or  per- 
son as  Jesus  Christ,  but  that  all  is  an  allegory,  and  it  signifies  nothing 
but  light  and  love,  and  such  good  frames  born  in  men ;  that  there  is 
no  God  nor  devil,  heaven  nor  hell,  but  what  is  within  us  ;  that  there 
is  no  sin  in  the  saints,  they  are  under  do  law  but  that  of  the  Spirit, 
which  is  all  freedom  ;  that  sin  and  grace  are  equally  good,  and  agree th 
to  his  will, — with  a  hundred  other  horrid  opinions,  which  hath  caused 
wickedness  to  break  in  as  a  flood  among  us,  &c. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  those  that  follow  : 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  an  erroneous,  vain  mind  is  as  odious 
to  God  as  a  vicious  life?  He  that  had  the  leprosy  in  his  head  was 
to  be  pronounced  utterly  unclean,  Levit.  xiii.  44.  Gross  errors  make 
the  heart  foolish,  and  render  the  life  loose,  and  the  soul  light  in  the 
eye  of  God.  Error  spreads  and  frets  like  a  gangrene,  and  renders  the 
soul  a  leper  in  the  sight  of  God.4 

1  It  was  a  good  saying  of  Chrysostom,  speaking  of  hell :  Ne  quceramus  ubi  sit,  sed 
quomodo  illamfugiamus,  let  us  not  seek  where  it  is,  but  how  we  shall  escape  it. 

2  Surely  one  good  means  to  escape  hell  is  to  take  a  turn  or  two  in  hell  by  our  dail 
meditations.  8  A  blind  eye  is  worse  than  a  lame  foot. 

4  The  breath  of  the  erroneous  is  infectious,  and,  like  the  dogs  of  Congo,  they  bite 
thougli  they  bark  not. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  57 

It  was  God's  heavy  and  dreadful  plague  upon  the  Gentiles,  to  be 
given  up  to  a  mind  void  of  judgment,  or  an  injudicious  mind,  or  a 
mind  rejected,  disallowed,  abhorred  of  God,  or  a  mind  that  none  have 
cause  to  glory  in,  but  rather  to  be  ashamed  of,  Rom.  i.  28.  I  think 
that  in  these  days  God  punisheth  many  men's  former  wickednesses  by 
giving  them  up  to  soul-ruining  errors.  Ah,  Lord,  this  mercy  I  humbly 
beg,  that  thou  wouldst  rather  take  me  into  thine  own  hand,  and  do 
anything  with  me,  than  give  me  up  to  those  sad  errors  to  which  thou- 
sands have  married  their  souls,  and  are  in  a  way  of  perishing  for  ever.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  receive  the  truth  affectionately,  and  let  it  dwell  in  your  souls 
'plenteously.2  When  men  stand  out  against  the  truth,  when  truth 
would  enter,  and  men  bar  the  door  of  their  souls  against  the  truth, 
God  in  justice  gives  up  such  souls  to  be  deluded  and  deceived  by  error, 
to  their  eternal  undoing:  2  Thes.  ii.  10-12,  'Because  they  received 
not  the  love  of  the  truth,  that  they  might  be  saved,  God  shall  send 
them  strong  delusions  (or,  as  the  Greek  hath  it,  "the  efficacy  of  error," 
evegytiav  crXai-Jjs),  that  they  should  believe  a  lie  ;  that  they  all  might  be 
damned  who  believed  not  the  truth,  but  had  pleasure  in  unrighteousness.'' 
Ah,  sirs,  as  you  love  your  souls,  do  not  tempt  God,  do  not  provoke 
God,  by  your  withstanding  truth  and  out-facing  truth,  to  give  you  up 
to  believe  a  lie,  that  you  may  be  damned.  There  are  no  men  on  earth 
so  fenced  against  error  as  those  are  that  receive  the  truth  in  the  love 
of  it.  Such  souls  are  not  'easily  tossed  to  and  fro,  and  carried  about 
with  every  wind  of  doctrine  by  the  sleight  of  men  and  cunning  crafti- 
ness, wherein  they  lie  in  wait  to  deceive,'  Eph.  iv.  14.3  It  is  not  he 
that  receives  most  of  the  truth  into  his  head,  but  he  that  receives  most 
of  the  truth  affectionately  into  his  heart,  that  shall  enjoy  the  happiness 
of  having  his  judgment  sound  and  clear,  when  others  shall  be  deluded 
and  deceived  by  them,  who  make  it  their  business  to  infect  the 
judgments  and  to  undo  the  souls  of  men. 

Ah,  souls,  as  you  would  not  have  your  judgments  polluted  and  de- 
filed with  error,  'Let  the  word  of  the  Lord,'  that  is  more  precious  than 
gold,  yea  than  fine  gold,  'dwell  plenteously  in  you,'  Col.  iii.  16.4  It 
is  not  the  hearing  of  truth,  nor  the  knowing  of  truth,  nor  the  com- 
mending of  truth,  nor  the  talking  of  truth,  but  the  indwelling  of  truth 
in  your  souls,  that  will  keep  your  judgments  chaste  and  sound,  in  the 
midst  of  all  those  glittering  errors  -that  betray  many  souls  into  his 
hands,  that  can  easily  'transform  himself  into  an  angel  of  light,'  2  Cor. 
xi.  14,  that  he  may  draw  others  to,  lie  in  chains  of  darkness  with  him 
for  ever.5  Oh,  let  not  the  word  be  a  stranger,  but  make  it  your 
choicest  familiar  !     Then  will  you  be  able  to  stand  in  the  day  wherein 

1  Through  animosity  to  persist  in  error  is  diabolical ;  it  were  best  that  we  never 
erred ;  next  to  that,  that  we  amended  our  error. 

2  The  greatest  sinners  are  sure  to  be  the  greatest  sufferers. 

3  b  T>i  xvS'.'ia,  Gr.,  signifies  cogging  with  a  die  ;  such  sleights  as  cheaters  and  false 
gamesters  use  at  dice. 

«  ivoixiru,  i.  e.  indwell  in  you  as  an  ingrafted  word  incorporated  into  your  souls,  so 
concocted  and  digested  by  you,  as  that  you  turn  it  into  a  part  of  yourselves. 

5  They  must  needs  err  that  know  not  God's  ways,  yet  can  they  not  wander  so  wide 
as  to  miss  of  hell. 


many  shall  fall  on  your  right  hand,  and  on  your  left,  by  the  subtlety 
of  those  that  shall  say,  'Lo,  here  is  Christ,  or  lo,  there  is  Christ.' 

There  was  more  wit  than  grace  in  his  speech  that  counselled  his 
friends,  '  Not  to  come  too  nigh  unto  truth,  lust  his  teeth  should  be 
beaten  out  with  its  heels.'  Ah,  souls,  if  truth  dwell  plenteously  in 
you,  you  are  happy  ;  if  not,  you  are  unhappy  under  all  your  greatest 

'It  is  with  truth,'  saith  Melancthon,  'as  it  is  with  holy  water,  every- 
one praised  it,  and  thought  it  had  some  rare  virtue  in  it ;  but  offer  to 
sprinkle  them  with  it,  and  they  will  shut  their  eyes,  and  turn  away 
their  faces  from  it,' 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
Bolemnly  to  consider,  That  error  makes  the  owner  to  suffer  loss.  All 
the  pains  and  labour  that  men  take  to  defend  and  maintain  their 
errors,  to  spread  abroad  and  infect  the  world  with  their  errors,  shall 
bring  no  profit,  nor  no  comfort  to  them  in  that  day,  wherein  '  every 
man's  work  shall  be  made  manifest,  and  the  fire  shall  try  it  of  what 
sort  it  is,'  as  the  apostle  shews  in  that  remarkable  scripture,  1  Cor. 
iii.  11-15.  Ah,  that  all  those  that  rise  early  and  go  to  bed  late,  that 
spend  their  time,  their  strength,  their  spirits,  their  all,  to  advance  and 
spread  abroad  God-dishonouring  and  soul-undoing  opinions,  would 
seriously  consider  of  this,  that  they  shall  lose  all  the  pains,  cost,  and 
charge  that  they  have  been,  or  shall  be  at,  for  the  propagating  of 
error ;  and  if  they  are  ever  saved,  it  shall  be  by  fire,  as  the  apostle 
there  shews.  Ah,  sirs,  Is  it  nothing  to  lay  out  your  money  for  that 
which  is  not  bread?  and  your  strength  for  that  which  will  not,  which 
cannot,  profit  you  in  the  day  that  you  must  make  up  your  account,  and 
all  3^our  works  must  be  tried  by  fire  ?2  Ah,  that  such  souls  would  now 
at  last  'buy  the  truth,  and  sell  it  not,'  Pro  v.  xxiii.  23.  Remember  you 
can  never  over-buy  it,  whatsoever  you  give  for  it ;  you  can  never  suffi- 
ciently sell  it,  if  you  should  have  all  the  world  in  exchange  for  it. 

It  is  said  of  Cgesar,  that  '  he  had  greater  care  of  his  books  than  of 
his  royal  robes,'  for,  swimming  through  the  waters  to  escape  his 
enemies,  he  carried  his  books  in  his  hand  above  the  waters,  but  lost 
Ins  robes.3  Ah,  what  are  Cassar's  books  to  God's  books?  Well,  re- 
member this,  that  one  day,  yea,  one  hour  spent  in  the  study  of  truth, 
or  spreading  abroad  of  truth,  will  yield  the  soul  more  comfort  and  pro- 
fit, than  many  thousand  years  spent  in  the  study  and  spreading  abroad 
of  corrupt  and  vain  opinions,  that  have  their  rise  from  hell,  and  not 
from  heaven,  from  the  god  of  this  world  and  not  from  that  God  that 
shall  at  last  judge  this  world,  and  all  the  corrupt  opinions  of  men. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
//<ife,  reject,  and,  abominate  all  those  doctrines  and  opi/rdons  that  a/re 
contrary  to  godliness,  and  that  open  a  door  to  profaneness,*  and  all 

1  Veritas  vincit,  Truth  at  last  triumphs.  Veritas  stat  in  aperto  campo,  Truth  stands 
in  the  open  fields;  ay,  and  it  makes  those  souls  stand  in  whom  it  dwells,  when  others 
fall  as  stars  from  heaven. 

*  Error  as  a  glass  is  bright,  but  brittle,  and  cannot  endure  the  hammer,  or  fire,  as 
gold  can,  which,  though  rubbed  or  melted,  remains  firm  and  orient. 

3  Major  fait  cura  Crcsari  libellorora  quam  purpuras. 

4  One  old  piece  of  gold  is  worth  a  thousand  new  counters,  and  one  old  truth  of  God 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  59 

such  doctrines  and  opinions  that  require  men  to  hold  forth  a  strict- 
ness above  what  the  Scripture  requireth ;  and  all  such  doctrines  and 
opinions  that  do  advance  anid  lift  up  corrupted  nature  to  the  doing 
of  supernatural  things,  ivhich  none  can  do  but  by  that  supernatural 
power  that  raised  Christ  from  the  grave  ;  and  such  opinions  that 
do  lift  our  own  righteousness  in  the  room  of  Christ's  righteousness, 
that  place  good  works  in  the  throne  of  Christ,  and  makes  them  co- 
partners with  Christ,  &c.  And  all  those  opinions  and  doctrines  that 
do  so  set  up  and  cry  up  Christ  and  his  righteousness,  as  to  cry  down 
all  duties  of  holiness  and  righteousness,  and  all  those  doctrines  and 
opinions  that  do  make  the  glorious  and  blessed  privileges  of  believers 
in  the  days  of  the  gospel  to  be  lesser,  fewer,  and  weaker,  than  they 
were  in  the  time  of  the  law.  Ah,  did  your  souls  arise  with  a  holy 
hatred,  and  a  strong  indignation  against  such  doctrines  and  opinions, 
you  would  stand  when  others  fall,  and  you  would  shine  as  the  sun  in 
his  glory,  when  many  that  were  once  as  shining  stars  may  go  forth  as 
stinking  snuffs.1 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
hold  fast  the  truth.  As  men  take  no  hold  on  the  arm  of  flesh  till  they 
let  go  the  arm  of  God,  Jer.  xvii.  5,  so  men  take  no  hold  on  error  till 
they  have  let  go  their  hold  of  truth  ;  therefore  hold  fast  the  truth, 
2  Tim.  i.  13,  and  Titus  i.  9.  Truth  is  thy  crown,  hold  fast  thy  crown, 
and  let  no  man  take  thy  crown  from  thee.  Hath  not  God  made  truth 
sweet  to  thy  soul,  yea,  sweeter  than  honey,  or  the  honeycomb  ?  and 
wilt  not  thou  go  on  to  heaven,  feeding  upon  truth,  that  heavenly 
honeycomb,  as  Samson  did  of  his  honeycomb.2  Ah,  souls,  have  you 
not  found  truth  sweetening  your  spirits,  and  cheering  your  spirits, 
and  warming  your  spirits,  and  raising  your  spirits,  and  corroborating 
your  spirits  ?  Have  not  you  found  truth  a  guide  to  lead  you,  a  staff 
to  uphold  you,  a  cordial  to  strengthen  you,  and  a  plaster  to  heal  you? 
And  will  not  you  hold  fast  the  truth  ?  Hath  not  truth  been  your  best 
friend  in  your  worst  days  ?  Hath  not  truth  stood  by  you  when  friends 
have  forsaken  you  ?  Hath  not  truth  done  more  for  you  than  all  the 
world  could  do  against  you,  and  will  you  not  hold  fast  the  truth  f  Is 
not  truth  your  right  eye,  without  which  you  cannot  see  for  Christ  ?  And 
your  right  hand,  without  which  you  cannot  do  for  Christ  ?  And  your 
right  foot,  without  which  you  cannot  walk  with  Christ?  And  will  you 
not  hold  fast  truth  ?  Oh  !  hold  fast  the  truth  in  your  judgments  and 
understandings,  in  your  wills  and  affections,  in  your  profession  and 

Truth  is  more  precious  than  gold  or  rubies,  '  and  all  the  things 
thou  canst  desire  are  not  to  be  compared  to  her/  Prov.  iii.  15.4 
Truth  is  that  heavenly  glass  wherein  we  may  see  the  lustre  and 

is  more  than  a  thousand  new  errors.  True  hatred  is  tU  ro  <ysvee,  to  the  whole  kind ;  it 
is  sad  to  frown  upon  one  error  and  smile  upon  another. 

1  Gideon  had  seventy  sons,  and  but  one  bastard,  and  yet  that  bastard  destroyed  all 
the  rest  (Judges  viii.  ]  3,  et  seq.).    One  turn  may  bring  a  man  quite  out  of  the  way. 

2  The  priests  of  Mercury,  when  they  ate  their  figs  and  honey,  cried  out  (yA.B*S  n 
aX^ua),  Sweet  is  truth. 

3  It  is  with  truth  as  with  some  plants,  which  live  and  thrive  but  in  warm  climates. 

4  Said  of  '  wisdom.' — G. 


glory  of  divine  wisdom,  power,  greatness,  love,  and  mercifulness. 
In  this  glass  you  may  see  the  face  of  Christ,  the  favour  of  Christ, 
the  riches  of  Christ,  and  the  heart  of  Christ,  beating  and  working 
sweetly  towards  your  souls.  Oh  !  let  your  souls  cleave  to  truth,  as 
llutli  did  to  Naomi,  Ruth  i.  15,  1G,  and  say,  '  I  will  not  leave  truth, 
nor  return  from  following  after  truth  ;  but  where  truth  goes  I  will 
go,  and  where  truth  lodgeth  I  will  lodge  ;  and  nothing  but  death 
shall  part  truth  and  my  soul.'1  What  John  said  to  the  church  of 
Philadelphia  I  may  say  to  you,  'Hold  fast  that  which  thou  hast, 
that  no  man  take  thy  crown,'  Rev.  iii.  11.  The  crown  is  the  top  of 
royalties  :  such  a  thing  is  truth  :  '  Let  no  man  take  thy  crown.'  '  Hold 
fast  the  faithful  word,'  as  Titus  speaks,  chap.  i.  9.2  You  were  better 
let  go  anything  than  truth  ;  you  were  better  let  go  your  honours  and 
riches,  your  friends  and  pleasures,  and  the  world's  favours  ;  yea,  your 
nearest  and  dearest  relations,  ay,  your  very  lives,  than  to  let  go  truth. 
Oh,  keep  the  truth,  and  truth  will  make  you  safe  and  happy  for  ever. 
Blessed  are  those  souls  that  are  kept  by  truth. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
keep  humble.  Humility  will  keep  the  soul  free  from  many  darts  of 
Satan's  casting,  and  erroneous  snares  of  his  spreading.  As  low  trees 
and  shrubs  are  free  from  many  violent  gusts  and  blasts  of  wind  which 
shake  and  rend  the  taller  trees,  so  humble  souls  are  free  from  those 
gusts  and  blasts  of  error  that  rend  and  tear  proud,  lofty  souls.  Satan 
and  the  world  have  least  power  to  fasten  errors  upon  humble  souls. 
The  God  of  light  and  truth  delights  to  dwell  with  the  humble ;  and  the 
more  light  and  truth  dwells  in  the  soul,  the  further  off  darkness  and 
error  will  stand  from  the  soul.  The  God  of  grace  pours  in  grace  into 
humble  souls,  as  men  pour  liquor  into  empty  vessels  ;  and  the  more 
grace  is  poured  into  the  soul,  the  less  error  shall  be  able  to  overpower 
the  soul,  or  to  infect  the  soul.3 

That  is  a  sweet  word  in  Psalm  xxv.  9t,  'The  meek'  (or  the  humble) 
'  will  he  guide  in  judgment,  and  the  meek  will  he  teach  his  way.'* 
And  certainly  souls  guided  by  God,  and  taught  by  God,  are  not  easily 
drawn  aside  into  ways  of  error.  Oh,  take  heed  of  spiritual  pride ! 
Pride  fills  our  fancies,  and  weakens  our  graces,  and  makes  room  in  our 
hearts  for  error.  There  are  no  men  on  earth  so  soon  entangled,  and  so 
easily  conquered  by  error,  as  proud  souls.  Oh,  it  is  dangerous  to  love 
to  be  wise  above  what  is  written,  to  be  curious  and  unsober  in  your 
desire  of  knowledge,  and  to  trust  to  your  own  capacities  and  abilities 
to  undertake  to  pry  into  all  secrets,  and  to  be  puffed  up  with  a  carnal 
mind.     Souls  that  are  thus  a-soaring  up  above  the  bounds  and  limits 

1  Though  I  cannot  dispute  for  the  truth,  yet  I  can  die  for  the  truth,  said  that  blessed 

3  'Avrt%iftivoi,  Hold  fast  as  with  tooth  and  nail,  against  these  that  would  snatch  it 
from  us. 

8  I  have  read  of  one  who,  seeing  in  a  vision  so  many  snares  of  the  devil  spread  upon 
the  earth,  he  sat  down  mourning,  and  said  within  himself,  Quis  pertransiet  ista,  who 
shall  pass  through  these?  whereunto  he  heard  a  voice  answering,  llumilitas  pertransiet, 
humility  shall  pass  through  them. 

4  Ps.  xxv.  9,  D*13y,  Gnanavim,  from  iliJJ,  Gnanah,  which  signifies  the  humble  or 
afflicted.  The  high  tide  quickly  ebbs,  and  the  highest  sun  is  presently  declining.  You 
know  how  to  apply  it. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  61 

of  humility,  usually  fall  into  the  very  worst  of  errors,  as  experience 
doth  daily  evidence.1 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  The  great  evils  that  errors  have  produced.  Error 
is  a  fruitful  mother,  and  hath  brought  forth  such  monstrous  children  as 
hath  set  towns,  cities, and  nations  on  fire.2  Error  is  that  whorish  woman 
that  hath  cast  down  many,  wounded  many,  yea,  slain  many  strong  men, 
many  great  men,  and  many  learned  men,  and  many  professing  men 
in  former  times  and  in  our  time,  as  is  too  evident  to  all  that  are  not 
much  left  of  God,  destitute  of  the  truth,  and  bliuded  by  Satan.  Oh, 
the  graces  that  error  hath  weakened,  and  the  sweet  joys  and  comforts 
that  error  hath  clouded,  if  not  buried  !  Oh,  the  hands  that  error  hath 
weakened,  the  eyes  that  error  hath  blinded,  the  judgments  of  men 
that  error  hath  perverted,  the  minds  that  error  hath  darkened,  the 
hearts  that  error  hath  hardened,  the  affections  that  error  hath  cooled, 
the  consciences  that  error  hath  seared,  and  the  lives  of  men  that  error 
hath  polluted  !  Ah,  souls'!  can  you  solemnly  consider  of  this,  and  not 
tremble  more  at  error  than  at  hell  itself?  &c. 

The  twelfth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul  to  sin  is, 
Device  (12).  To  affect'6  wicked  company,  to  keep  wicked  society.  And 
oh !  the  horrid  impieties  and  wickedness  that  Satan  hath  drawn  men  to 
sin,  by  working  them  to  sit  and  associate  themselves  with  vain  persons. 
Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  the  devil  are  these : 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell,  till  your  hearts  be  affected,  upon  those  commands  of  God  that 
do  expressly  require  us  to  shun  the  society  of  the  wicked  :  Eph.  v.  11, 
'  And  have  no  fellowship  with  the  unfruitful  works  of  darkness,  but 
rather  reprove  them  ;'  Prov.  iv.  14-16,  '  Enter  not  into  the  path  of  the 
wicked,  and  go  not  in  the  way  of  evil  men.  Avoid  it,  pass  not  by  it, 
turn  from  it,  and  pass  away.'  1  Cor.  v.  9-11,  2  Thes.  iii.  6,  Prov.  i. 
10-15.  Turn  to  these  Scriptures,  and  let  your  souls  dwell  upon  them, 
till  a  holy  indignation  be  raised  in  your  souls  against  fellowship  with 
vain  men.  '  God  will  not  take  the  wicked  by  the  hand/  as  Job  speaks, 
xxxiv.  20,  xxx.  24.  Why  then  should  you  ?  God's  commands  are  not 
like  those  that  are  easily  reversed,  but  they  are  like  those  of  the  Medes, 
that  cannot  be  changed.  If  these  commands  be  not  now  observed  by 
thee,  they  will  at  last  be  witnesses  against  thee,  and  millstones  to  sink 
thee,  in  that  day  that  Christ  shall  judge  thee.4 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  their  company  is  very  infectious  and  dan- 
gerous, as  is  clear  from  the  scripture  above  mentioned.  Ah,  how 
many  have  lost  their  names,  and  lost  their  estates,  and  strength,  and 
God,  and  heaven,  and  souls,  by  society  with  wicked  men  !  As  ye  shun 
a  stinking  carcase,  as  the  seaman  shuns  sands  and  rocks,  and  shelves,5 
as  ye  shun  those  that  have  the  plague-sores  running  upon  them,  so 

1  The  proud  soul  is  like  him  that  gazed  upon  the  moon,  but  fell  into  the  pit. 
•  Errors  in  conscience  produce  many  great  evils,  not  only  ad  intra,  in  men's  own  souls, 
but  also  ad  extra,  in  human  affairs.  3  '  Choose.' — G. 

4  Non  parentum  aut  majorum  authoritas,  sed  Dei  docebit  imperium. — Jerome.  The 
commands  of  God  must  outweigh  all  authority  and  example  of  men. 

5  '  Shoals,'— G. 

<;2  TRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

should  yini  shun  the  society  of  wicked  men.  As  weeds  endanger  the 
corn,  ;is  had  humours  endanger  the  blood,  or  as  an  infected  house  the 
neighbourhood,  so  doth  wicked  company  the  soul,1  Prov.  xiii.  20. 

Bias,  a  heathen  man,  being  at  sea  in  a  great  storm,  and  perceiving 
many  wicked  men  in  the  ship,  called  upon  the  gods:  'Oh,  saith  he, 
toil  tear  prayer,  hold  your  tongues  ;  I  would  not  have  the  gods  take 
notice  that  you  are  here  ;  they  sure  will  drown  us  all  if  they  should.' 
Ah,  sirs,  could  a  heathen  see  so  much  danger  in  the  society  of  wicked 
mi  id,  and  can  you  see  none  ? 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
look  alt  rays  upon  wicked  men,  under  those  names  and  notions  that 
the  Scripture  doth  set  them  out  under.  The  Scripture  calls  them 
lions  for  their  fierceness,  and  bears  for  their  cruelty,  and  dragons  for 
their  hideousness,  and  dogs  for  their  filthiness,  and  wolves  for  their 
subtleness.  The  Scripture  styles  them  scorpions,  vipers,  thorns,  briers, 
thistles,  brambles,  stubble,  dirt,  chaff,  dust,  dross,  smoke,  scum,  as  you 
may  see  in  the  margin.2  It  is  not  safe  to  look  upon  wicked  men  under 
those  names  and  notions  that  they  set  out  themselves  by,  or  that  flat- 
terers set  them  out  by;  this  may  delude  the  soul,  but  the  looking  upon 
them  under  those  names  and  notions  that  the  Scripture  sets  them  out 
by,  may  preserve  the  soul  from  frequenting  their  company  and  delight- 
ing in  their  society.  Do  not  tell  me  what  this  man  calls  them,  or 
how  such  and  such  count  them  ;  but  tell  me  how  doth  the  Scripture 
call  them,  how  doth  the  Scripture  count  them  ?  As  Nabal's  name  was, 
so  was  his  nature,  1  Sam.  xxv.  25,  and  as  wicked  men's  names  are, 
so  are  their  natures.  You  may  know  well  enough  what  is  within  them, 
by  the  apt  names  that  the  Holy  Ghost  hath  given  them.3 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan,  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  society  and  company  of  wicked  men 
have  been  a  great  grief  and  burden  to  those  precious  souls  that  were 
once  glorious  on  earth,  and  are  noiv  triumphing  in  heaven  :  Ps.  cxx. 
5,  6,  '  Woe  is  me,  that  I  dwell  in  Meshech,  that  I  sojourn  in  the  tents 
of  Kedar  !  My  soul  hath  long  dwelt  with  him  that  hateth  peace/  So 
Jeremiah,  '  Oh  that  I  had  in  the  wilderness  a  lodging-place  of  way- 
faring men,  that  I  might  leave  my  people,  and  go  from  them  !  for  they 
be  all  adulterers,  an  assembly  of  treacherous  men,'  Jer.  ix.  2.  So  they 
'  vexed  Lot's  righteous  soul  by  their  filthy  conversation/  2  Pet.  ii.  7  ;4 
they  made  his  life  a  burden,  they  made  death  more  desirable  to  him 
than  life,  yea,  they  made  his  life  a  lingering  death.  Guilt  or  grief  is 
all  the  good  gracious  souls  get  by  conversing  with  wicked  men.5 

1  Eusobius  reports  of  John  the  Evangelist,  that  he  would  not  suffer  Cerinthus,  the 
heretic,  in  the  sanio  bath  with  him,  lest  some  judgment  should  abide  them  both. — 
Euseb.  1.  iii.  cap.  25.  [Cf.  Note  in  Sibbes,  vol.  vii.  G03. — G.]  A  man  that  keepeth  ill 
company  is  like  him  that  walketh  in  the  sun,  tanned  insensibly. 

2  2  Tim.  iv.  17,  Isa.  xi.  7,  Ezek.  iii.  10,  Mat.  vii.  6,  Rev.  xxii.  15,  Luke  xiii.  32,  Isa. 
x.  17,  Ezek.  ii.  G,  Judges  ix.  14,  Job  xxi.  18,  Ps.  lxxxiii.  13,  Ps.  xviii.  42,  Ezek.  xxii. 
IS.  19,  Isa.  lxv.  5,  Ezek.  xxiv.  6. 

3  Lactantius  says  of  Lucian  [nee  diis,  nee  hominibvs  jiqiereil).  he  spared  neither  God 
nor  man  ;  such  monsters  are  wicked  men.  which  should  render  their  company  to  all 
that  have  tasted  of  the  sweetness  of  divine  love,  a  burden  and  not  a  delight. 

4  Vide  Bezam,  i.  c.  the  Annott.  of  Beza,  in  loc. — G. 

B  0  Lord,  let  me  not  go  to  hell,  where  the  wicked  are  ;  for  Lord,  thou  knowest  I  never 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  G3 

The  second  thing  to  be  shewed  is, 

The  several  devices  that  Satan  hath,  as  to  draw  souls  to  sin,  so  to 
keep  souls  from  holy  duties,  to  hinder  souls  in  holy  services,  and  to 
keep  them  off  from  religious  performances. 

'  And  he  shewed  me  Joshua  the  high  priest  standing  before  the 
angel  of  the  Lord,  and  Satan  standing  at  his  right  hand  to  resist  him,' 
Zech.  iii.  1. 

The  truth  of  this  I  shall  shew  you  in  the  following  particulars  : 

The  first  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  souls  from  holy  duties,  and 
to  keep  them  off  from  religious  services,  is, 

Device  (1).  By  presenting  the  world  in  such  a  dress,  and  in  such 
a  garb  to  the  soul,  as  to  ensnare  the  soul,  and  to  win  upon  the  affec- 
tions of  the  soul.  He  represents  the  world  to  them  in  its  beauty  and 
bravery,1  which  proves  a  bewitching  sight  to  a  world  of  men.2  (It  is 
true,  this  took  not  Christ,  because  Satan  could  find  no  matter  in  him 
for  his  temptation  to  work  upon.)  So  that  he  can  no  sooner  cast  out  his 
golden  bait,  but  we  are  ready  to  play  with  it,  and  to  nibble  at  it ;  he  can 
no  sooner  throw  out  his  golden  ball,  but  men  are  apt  to  run  after  it, 
though  they  lose  God  and  their  souls  in  the  pursuit.  Ah!  how  many 
professors  in  these  days  have  for  a  time  followed  hard  after  God,  Christ, 
and  ordinances,  till  the  devil  hath  set  before  them  the  world  in  all  its 
beauty  and  bravery,  which  hath  so  bewitched  their  souls  that  they 
have  grown  to  have  low  thoughts  of  holy  things,  and  then  to  be  cold 
in  their  affections  to  holy  things,  and  then  to  slight  them,  and  at  last, 
with  the  young  man  in  the  Gospel,  to  turn  their  backs  upon  them. 
Ah !  the  time,  the  thoughts,  the  spirits,  the  hearts,  the  souls,  the  duties, 
the  services,  that  the  inordinate  love  of  this  wicked  world  doth  eat  up 
and  destroy,  and  hath  ate  up  and  destroyed.  Where  one  thousand 
are  destroyed  by  the  world's  frowns,  ten  thousand  are  destroyed  by  the 
world's  smiles.  The  world,  siren-like,  it  sings  us  and  sinks  us  ;  it  kisses 
us,  and  betrays  us,  like  Judas  ;  it  kisses  us  and  smites  us  under  the 
fifth  rib,  like  Joab.  The  honours,  splendour,  and  all  the  glory  of  this 
world,  are  but  sweet  poisons,  that  will  much  endanger  us,  if  they  do 
not  eternally  destroy  us.3  Ah !  the  multitude  of  souls  that  have  sur- 
feited of  these  sweet  baits  and  died  for  ever. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these, 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To  dtvett 
upon  the  impotency  and  weakness  of  all  these  things  here  below.  They 
are  not  able  to  secure  you  from  the  least  evil,  they  are  not  able  to  pro- 
cure you  the  least  desirable  good.  The  crown  of  gold  cannot  cure  the 
headache,  nor  the  velvet  slipper  ease  the  gout,  nor  the  jewel  about  the 

loved  their  company  here,  said  a  gracious  gentlewoman,  when  she  was  to  die,  heing  in 
much  trouble  of  conscience.  1  '  Finery.' — G. 

2  The  beauty  of  the  world  foils  a  Christian  more  than  the  strength ;  the  flattering 
sunshine  more  than  the  blustering  storm.  In  storms  we  keep  our  garments  close  about 
us  [as  in  the  fable  of  the  sun  and  wind. — G]. 

3  The  inhabitants  of  Nilus  are  deaf  by  the  noise  of  the  waters ;  so  the  world  makes 
such  a  noise  in  men's  ears,  that  they  cannot  hear  the  things  of  heaven.  The  world  is 
like  the  swallows'  dung,  that  put  out  Tobias  his  eyes.  The  champions  could  not  wring 
an  apple  oat  of  Milo's  hand  by  a  strong  hand,  but  a  fair  maid,  by  fair  means,  got  it 

G-t  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

neck  cannot  take  away  the  pain  of  the  teeth.  The  frogs  of  Egypt 
entered  into  the  rich  men's  houses  of  Egypt,  as  well  as  the  poor.  Our 
daily  experience  doth  evidence  this,  that  all  the  honours,  riches,  &c, 
that  men  enjoy,  cannot  free  them  from  the  cholic,  the  fever,  or  lesser 
diseases.1  Nay,  that  which  may  seem  most  strange  is,  that  a  great  deal 
of  wealth  cannot  keep  men  from  falling  into  extreme  poverty  :  Judges 
i.  G,  you  shall  find  seventy  kings,  with  their  fingers  and  toes  cut  off, 
glad,  like  whelps,  to  lick  up  crumbs  under  another  king's  table ;  and 
shortly  after,  the  same  king  that  brought  them  to  this  penury,  is 
reduced  to  the  same  poverty  and  misery.  Why  then  should  that  be  a 
bar  to  keep  thee  out  of  heaven,  that  cannot  give  thee  the  least  ease 
on  earth  ? 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
divell  upon  the  vanity  of  them  as  well  as  upon  the  impotency  of  all 
worldly  good.  This  is  the  sum  of  Solomon's  sermon,  'Vanity  of  vanities, 
and  all  is  vanity.'  This  our  first  parents  found,  and  therefore  named 
their  second  son  Abel,  or  vanity.  Solomon,  that  had  tried  these  things, 
and  could  best  tell  the  vanity  of  them,  he  preacheth  this  sermon  over 
again  and  again, '  Vanity  of  vanities,  and  all  is  vanity/  It  is  sad  to  think 
how  many  thousands  there  be  that  can  say  with  the  preacher,  '  Vanity 
of  vanities,  all  is  vanity/  nay,  swear  it,  and  yet  follow  after  these  things 
as  if  there  were  no  other  glory,  nor  felicity,  but  what  is  to  be  found  in 
these  things  they  call  vanity.2  Such  men  will  sell  Christ,  heaven,  and 
their  souls  for  a  trifle,  that  call  these  things  vanity,  but  do  not  cor- 
dially believe  them  to  be  vanity,  but  set  their  hearts  upon  them  as  if 
they  were  their  crown,  the  top  of  all  their  royalty  and  glory.  Oh  let 
your  souls  dwell  upon  the  vanity  of  all  things  here  below,  till  your 
hearts  be  so  throughly  convinced  and  persuaded  of  the  vanity  of  them, 
as  to  trample  upon  them,  and  make  them  a  footstool  for  Christ  to  get 
up,  and  ride  in  a  holy  triumph  in  your  hearts  3 

Chrysostom  said  once,  '  That  if  he  were  the  fittest  in  the  world  to 
preach  a  sermon  to  the  whole  world,  gathered  together  in  one  congre- 
gation, and  had  some  high  mountain  for  his  pulpit,  from  whence  he 
might  have  a  prospect  of  all  the  world  in  his  view,  and  were  furnished 
with  a  voice  of  brass,  a  voice  as  loud  as  the  trumpets  of  the  arch- 
angel, that  all  the  world  might  hear  him,  he  would  choose  to  preach 
upon  no  other  text  than  that  in  the  Psalms,'  O  mortal  men,  how  long 
will  ye  love  vanity,  and  follow  after  leasing  ?  Ps.  iv.  2. 

1  The  prior  in  Melancthon  rolled  his  hand  up  and  down  in  a  basinful  of  angels, 
thinking  thereby  to  have  charmed  his  gout,  but  it  would  not  do.  Nugas  the  Scythian, 
despising  the  rich  presents  and  ornaments  that  were  sent  unto  him  by  the  emperor  of 
Constantinople,  asked  whether  those  things  could  drive  away  calamities,  diseases,  or 

-  Gilemex,  king  of  Vandals,  led  in  triumph  by  Belisarius,  cried  out,  '  Vanity  of 
vanity,  all  is  vanity.'  The  fancy  of  Lucian,  who  placeth  Charon  on  the  top  of  an  high 
hill,  viewing  all  the  aft'airs  of  men  living,  and  looking  on  their  greatest  cities  as  little 
birds'  nests,  is  very  pleasant. 

*  Oh  the  imperfection,  the  ingratitude,  the  levity,  the  inconstancy,  the  perfidiousness 
of  those  creatures  we  most  servilely  affect.  Ah,  did  we  but  weigh  man's  pain  with  his 
payment,  his  crosses  with  his  mercies,  his  miseries  with  his  pleasures,  wo  should  (lien 
see  that  there  is  nothing  got  by  the  bargain,  and  conclude,  '  Vanity  of  vanities,  all  is 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  65 

Tell  me,  you  that  say  all  things  under  the  sun  are  vanity,  if  you  do 
really  believe  what  you  say,  why  do  you  spend  more  thoughts  and 
time  on  the  world,  than  you  do  on  Christ,  heaven,  and  your  immortal 
souls  ?  Why  do  you  then  neglect  your  duty  towards  God,  to  get  the 
world  ?  Why  do  you  then  so  eagerly  pursue  after  the  world,  and  are 
so  cold  in  your  pursuing  after  God,  Christ,  and  holiness  ?  Why  then 
are  your  hearts  so  exceedingly  raised,  when  the  world  comes  in,  and 
smiles  upon  you ;  and  so  much  dejected,  and  cast  down,  when  the 
world  frowns  upon  you,  and  with  Jonah's  gourd  withers  before  you  ? 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  the  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
divell  much  upon  the  uncertainty,  the  mutability,  and  inconstancy 
of  all  things  under  the  sun.  Man  himself  is  but  the  dream  of  a 
dream,  but  the  generation  of  a  fancy,  but  an  empty  vanity,  but  the 
curious  picture  of  nothing,  a  poor,  feeble,  dying  flash.  All  temporals 
are  as  transitory  as  a  hasty  headlong  current,  a  shadow,  a  ship,  a  bird, 
an  arrow,  a  post  that  passeth  by.  '  Why  shouldst  thou  set  thine  eyes 
upon  that  which  is  not  ?'  saith  Solomon,  Prov.  xxiii.  5.  And  saith  the 
apostle,  'The  fashion  of  this  world  passeth  away,'1  1  Cor.  vii.  31.  Heaven 
only  hath  a  foundation,  earth  hath  none,  '  but  is  hanged  upon  nothing,' 
as  Job  speaks,  xxvi.  7.  The  apostle  willed  Timothy  to  'charge  rich  men 
that  they  be  not  high-minded,  nor  put  their  trust  in  uncertain  riches,' 
1  Tim.  vi.  17.2  They  are  like  bad  servants,  whose  shoes  are  made  of 
running  leather,  and  will  never  tarry  long  with  one  master.3  As  a 
bird  hoppeth  from  tree  to  tree,  so  do  the  honours  and  riches  of  this 
world  from  man  to  man,  Let  Job  and  Nebuchadnezzar  testify  this 
truth,  who  fell  from  great  wealth  to  great  want.  No  man  can  promise 
himself  to  be  wealthy  till  night  ;  one  storm  at  sea,  one  coal  of  fire, 
one  false  friend,  one  unadvised  word,  one  false  witness,  may  make  thee 
a  beggar  and  a  prisoner  all  at  once.  All  the  riches  and  glory  of  this 
world  is  but  as  smoke  and  chaff  that  vanisheth  ;  'Asa  dream  and 
vision  in  the  night,  that  tarrieth  not/  Job  xx.  8.  '  As  if  a  hungry  man 
dreameth,  and  thinketh  that  he  eateth,  and  when  he  awaketh  his  soul 
is  empty  ;  and  like  a  thirsty  man  which  thinketh  he  drinketh,  and 
behold  when  he  is  awaked,  his  soul  is  faint,'  as  the  prophet  Isaiah  saith, 
chap.  xxix.  8.  Where  is  the  glory  of  Solomon  ?  the  sumptuous  build- 
ings of  Nebuchadnezzar  ?  the  nine  hundred  chariots  of  Sisera  ?  the 
power  of  Alexander  ?  the  authority  of  Augustus,  that  commanded  the 
whole  world  to  be  taxed  ?  Those  that  have  been  the  most  glorious, 
in  what  men  generally  account  glorious  and  excellent,  have  had  in- 
glorious ends  ;  as  Samson  for  strength,  Absalom  for  favour,  Ahithophel 
for  policy,  Haman  for  favour,  Asahel  for  swiftness,  Alexander  for  great 
conquest,  and  yet  after  twelve  years  poisoned.  The  same  you  may 
see  in  the  four  mighty  kingdoms,  the  Chaldean,  Persian,  Grecian,  and 

1  1  Cor.  vii.  31  intimateth,  that  there  is  nothing  of  any  firmness,  or  solid  consistence, 
in  the  creature. 

2  Riches  were  never  true  to  any  that  trusted  to  them  ;  they  have  deceived  men,  as 
Job's  brook  did  the  poor  travellers  in  the  summer  season. 

3  A  phrase  meaning,  he  is  given  to  rambling  about.  See  Halliwell  and  Wright  sub 
voce. — (jr. 

VOL.  I.  E 


Roman  :  how  soon  were  they  gone  and  forgotten  I1  Now  rich,  now 
poor,  now  full,  now  empty,  now  in  favour,  anon  out  of  favour,  now 
honourable,  now  despised,  now  health,  now  sickness,  now  strength, 
now  weakness.  Oh,  let  not  these  uncertain  things  keep  thee  from 
those  holy  services  and  heavenly  employments,  that  may  make  thee 
happy  for  ever,  and  render  thy  soul  eternally  blessed  and  at  ease, 
when  all  these  transitory  things  shall  bid  thy  soul  an  everlasting  fare- 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  great  things  of  this  world  are  very 
hurtful  and  dangerous  to  the  outward  and  inward  man,  through 
the  corruptions  that  be  in  the  hearts  of  men.  Oh,  the  rest,  the  peace, 
the  comfort,  the  content  that  the  things  of  this  world  do  strip  many 
men  of!  Oh,  the  fears,  the  cares,  the  envy,  the  malice,  the  dangers, 
the  mischiefs,  that  they  subject  men  to  ! 3  They  oftentimes  make  men 
carnally  confident.4  The  rich  man's  riches  are  a  strong  tower  in  his 
imagination.  '  I  said  in  my  prosperity  I  should  never  be  moved/  Ps. 
xxx.  6.  They  often  swell  the  heart  with  pride,  and  make  men  forget 
God,  and  neglect  God,  and  despise  the  rock  of  their  salvation.  When 
Jeshurun  'waxed  fat,  and  was  grown  thick,  and  covered  with  fatness, 
then  he  forgot  God,  and  forsook  God  that  made  him,  and  lightly 
esteemed  the  rock  of  his  salvation/  as  Moses  spake,  Deut.  xxxii.  15. 
Ah,  the  time,  the  thoughts,  the  spirits,  that  the  things  of  the  world 
consume  and  spend  !  Oh,  how  do  they  hinder  the  actings  of  faith 
upon  God  !  how  do  they  interrupt  our  sweet  communion  with  God  ! 
how  do  they  abate  our  love  to  the  people  of  God  !  and  cool  our  love  to 
the  things  of  God  !  and  work  us  to  act  like  those  that  are  most  unlike 
to  God  !  Oh,  the  deadness,  the  barrenness  that  doth  attend  men 
under  great  outward  mercies  ! 5  Oh,  the  riches  of  the  world  chokes  the 
word  ;  that  men  live  under  the  most  soul-searching,  and  soul-enriching 
means  with  lean  souls.  Though  they  have  full  purses,  though  their 
chests  are  full  of  silver,  yet  their  hearts  are  empty  of  grace.  In 
Genesis  xiii.  2,  it  is  said,  that  '  Abraham  was  very  rich  in  cattle,  in 
silver,  and  in  gold.'  According  to  the  Hebrew  (Chabbedgh)  it  is 
'  Abraham  was  very  weary  ;'  to  shew  that  riches  are  a  heavy  burden, 
and  a  hindrance  many  times  to  heaven,  and  happiness.6 

1  The  most  renowned  Frederick  lost  all,  and  sued  to  be  made  but  sexton  of  the 
church  that  himself  had  built.  I  have  read  of  a  poor  fisherman,  who.  while  his  nets 
were  a-drying,  slept  upon  the  rock,  and  dreamed  that  he  was  made  a  king,  on  a  sudden 
starts  up,  and  leaping  for  joy,  fell  down  from  the  rock,  and  in  the  place  of  his  imaginary 
felicities  loses  his  little  portion  of  pleasures. 

2  The  pomp  of  this  world  John  com  pare  th  to  the  moon,  which  crescit  et  decrescit,  in- 
creaseth  and  decreaseth,  Apoc.  xii.  1. 

3  Henry  the  Second  hearing  Mentz  his  chief  city  to  be  taken,  used  this  blasphemous 
speech  :  I  shall  never,  saith  he,  love  God  any  more,  that  suffered  a  city  so  dear  to  me 
to  be  taken  from  me. 

4  When  one  presented  Antipater,  king  of  Macedonia,  with  a  book  treating  on  happi- 
ness, his  answer  was  (««  <r^oXa^s/),  I  have  no  leisure. 

•'  That  four  good  mothers  beget  four  bad  daughters :  great  familiarity  begets  con- 
tempt, truth  hatrod,  virtue  envy,  riches  ignorance  ;  a  French  proverb. 

6  Ponacrites  bestowed  five  talents  for  a  gift  upon  one  Anacreon,  who  for  two  nights 
after  was  so  troubled  with  care  how  to  keep  them,  and  how  to  bestow  them,  as  he 
carried  them  back  again  to  Ponacrites,  saying,  they  were  not  worth  the  pains  which  he 
hud  already  taken  for  them.     [_QUC17  Folycrutes  '? — G.] 

2  COE.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  67 

King  Henry  the  Fourth  asked  the  Duke  of  Alva  if  he  had  observed 
the  great  eclipse  of  the  sun,  which  had  lately  happened  ;  No,  said  the 
duke,  I  have  so  much  to  do  on  earth,  that  I  have  no  leisure  to  look 
up  to  heaven.  Ah,  that  this  were  not  true  of  most  professors  in  these 
days.  It  is  very  sad  to  think,  how  their  hearts  and  time  is  so  much 
taken  up  with  earthly  things,  that  they  have  scarce  any  leisure  to  look 
up  to  heaven,  or  to  look  after  Christ,  and  the  things  that  belong  to 
their  everlasting  peace. 

Riches,  though  well  got,  yet  are  but  like  to  manna ;  those  that 
gathered  less  had  no  want,  and  those  that  gathered  more,  it  was  but 
a  trouble  and  annoyance  to  them.  The  world  is  troublesome,  and  yet 
it  is  loved ;  what  would  it  be  if  it  were  peaceable  ?  You  embrace  it, 
though  it  be  filthy ;  what  would  you  do  if  it  were  beautiful  ?  You 
cannot  keep  your  hands  from  the  thorns  ;  how  earnest  would  you  be 
then  in  gathering  the  flowers  i1  The  world,  may  be  fitly  likened  to 
the  serpent  Scytale,  whereof  it  is  reported,  that  when  she  cannot  over- 
take the  flying  passengers,  she  doth  with  her  beautiful  colours  so 
astonish  and  amaze  them,  that  they  have  no  power  to  pass  away,  till 
she  hath  stung  them.2  Ah.  how  many  thousands  are  there  now  on 
earth,  that  have  found  this  true  by  experience,  that  have  spun  a  fair 
thread  to  strangle  themselves,  both  temporally  and  eternally,  by  being 
bewitched  by  the  beaut}''  and  bravery  of  this  world.3 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  all  the  felicity  of  this  world  is  mixed.  Our  light  is 
mixed  with  darkness,  our  joy  with  sorrow,  our  pleasures  with  pain, 
our  honour  with  dishonour,  our  riches  with  wants.  If  our  lights  be 
spiritual,  clear,  and  quick,  we  may  see  in  the  felicity  of  this  world  our 
wine  mixed  with  water,  our  honey  with  gall,  our  sugar  with  worm- 
wood, and  our  roses  with  prickles.4  Sorrow  attends  worldly  joy, 
danger  attends  worldly  safety,  loss  attends  worldly  labours,  tears 
attend  worldly  purposes.  As  to  these  things,  men's  hopes  are  vain, 
their  sorrow  certain  and  joy  feigned.  The  apostle  calls  this  world  'a 
sea  of  glass/  a  sea  for  the  trouble  of  it,  and  glass  for  the  brittleness 
and  bitterness  of  it.5  The  honours,  profits,  pleasures,  and  delights  of 
the  world  are  true  gardens  of  Adonis,  where  we  can  gather  nothing 
but  trivial  flowers,  surrounded  with  many  briers. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
get  better  acquaintance  and  better  assurance  of  more  blessed  and 
glorious  things.6  That  which  raised  up  their  spirits,  Heb.  x.  and  xi., 
to  trample  upon  all  the  beauty,  bravery,  and  glory  of  the  world,  was 
the  acquaintance  with,  'and  assurance  of  better  and  more  durable 

1  A  recollection  of  Augustine. — G. 

*  Sicily  is  so  full  of  sweet  flowers  that  dogs  cannot  hunt  there.  And  what  do  all  the 
sweet  contents  of  this  world,  but  make  us  lose  the  scent  of  heaven  ! 

3  Scytale:  Solinus  cxxvii.,  xl. — G. 

4  Hark,  scholar,  said  the  harlot  to  Apuleius,  it  is  but  a  bitter  sweet  you  are  so  fond 
of.     Surely  all  the  things  of  this  world  are  but  bitter  sweets. 

5  Qu.  not  this  world?     Of.  Rev.  iv.  6,  xv.  2,  xxi.  18. — G. 

6  Let  heaven  be  a  man's  object,  and  earth  will  soon  be  his  abject.  Luther  being  at 
one  time  in  some  wants,  it  happened  that  a  good  sum  of  money  was  unexpectedly  sent 
him  by  a  nobleman  of  Germany,  at  which,  being  something  amazed,  he' said,  I  fear  that 
God  will  give  me  my  reward  here,  but  I  protest  I  will  not  be  so  satisfied. 

liS  PBECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

things.'  '  They  took  joyfully  the  spoiling  of  their  goods,  knowing  in 
themselves  that  they  bad  in  heaven  a  better  and  a  more  durable  sub- 
stance.' 'They  looked  for  a  house  that  had  foundations,  whoso  builder 
and  maker  was  God.'  'And  they  looked  for  another  country,  even  an 
heavenly/  'They  saw  him  that  was  invisible,  and  had  an  eye  to  the 
recompence  of  reward.'  And  this  made  them  count  all  the  glory  and 
bravery  of  this  world  to  be  too  poor  and  contemptible  for  them  to  set 
their  hearts  upon.  The  main  reason  why  men  doat  upon  the  world, 
and  damn  their  souls  to  get  the  world,  is,  because  they  are  not 
acquainted  with  a  greater  glory.  Men  ate  acorns,  till  they  were 
acquainted  with  the  use  of  wheat.  Ah,  were  men  more  acquainted 
with  what  union  and  communion  with  God  means,  what  it  is  to  have 
'a  new  name,  and  a  new  stone,  that  none  knows  but  he  that  hath  it,' 
Rev.  ii.  17;  did  they  but  taste  more  of  heaven,  and  live  more  in 
heaven,  and  had  more  glorious  hopes  of  going  to  heaven,  ah,  how 
easily  would  they  have  the  moon  under  their  feet. 

It  was  an  excellent  saying  of  Lewis  of  Bavyer,  emperor  of  Genrianv, 
Such  goods  are  worth  getting  and  owning,  as  will  not  sink  or  wash 
away  if  a  shipwreck  happen,  but  will  wade  and  swim  out  with  us.'1 
It  is  recorded  of  Lazarus,  that  after  his  resurrection  from  the  dead,  he 
was  never  seen  to  laugh,  his  thoughts  and  affections  were  so  fixed  in 
heaven,  though  his  body  was  on  earth,  and  therefore  he  could  not  but 
slight  temporal  things,  his  heart  being  so  bent  and  set  upon  eternals. 
There  are  goods  for  the  throne  of  grace,  as  God,  Christ,  the  Spirit, 
adoption,  justification,  remission  of  sin,  peace  with  God,  and  peace 
with  conscience  ;  and  there  are  goods  of  the  footstool,  as  honours, 
riches,  the  favour  of  creatures,  and  other  comforts  and  accommoda- 
tions of  this  life.  Now  he  that  hath  acquaintance  with,  and  assurance 
of  the  goods  of  the  throne,  will  easily  trample  upon  the  goods  of  the 
footstool  Ah  that  you  would  make  it  your  business,  your  work,  to 
mind  more,  and  make  sure  more  to  your  own  souls,  the  great  things 
of  eternity,  that  will  yield  you  joy  in  life  and  peace  in  death,  and  a 
crown  of  righteousness  in  the  day  of  Christ's  appearing,  and  that  will 
lift  up  your  souls  above  all  the  beauty  and  bravery  of  this  bewitching 
world,  that  will  raise  your  feet  above  other  men's  heads.  When  a 
man  comes  to  be  assured  of  a  crown,  a  sceptre,  the  royal  robes,  &c, 
he  then  begins  to  have  low,  mean,  and  contemptible  thoughts  of  those 
things  that  before  he  highly  prized.  So  will  assurance  of  more  great 
.oid  glorious  things  breed  in  the  soul  a  holy  scorn  and  contempt  of  all 
these  poor,  mean  things,  which  the  soul  before  did  value  above  God, 
Christ,  ami  heaven,  &c. 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  tins  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  true  ha pmness  and  satisfaction  is  not  to 
be  had  in  the  enjoyment  of  worldly  </ood.  True  happiness  is  too  big 
and  too  glorious  a  thing  to  be  found  in  anything  below  that  God  that 

1  fli'j'iisinodi  comparandce  sunt  opes  qnce  cum  naufrago  simul  enutent.  There  is,  saith 
Augustine,  bona  throni,  goods  of  the  throne  ;  and  there  are  bona  scabclli,  goods  of  the 
footstool.  When  Basil  was  tempted  with  money  and  preferment,  saith  ho,  Give  roe 
money  that  may  last  for  ever,  and  glory  that  may  eternally  flourish  ;  for  the  fashion  of 
this  world  paaaeth  away,  as  the  waters  of  a  river  that  runs  by  a  city. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  Of) 

is  a  Christian's  summum  bonurri;  chiefest  good.1  The  blessed  angels, 
those  glistering  courtiers,  have  all  felicities  and  blessedness,  and  yet 
have  they  neither  gold,  nor  silver,  nor  jewels,  nor  none  of  the  beauty 
and  bravery  of  this  world.  Certainly  if  happiness  was  to  be  found  in 
these  things,  the  Lord  Jesus,  who  is  the  right  and  royal  heir  of  all 
things,  would  have  exchanged  his  cradle  for  a  crown ;  his  birth  cham- 
ber, a  stable,  for  a  royal  palace  ;  his  poverty  for  plenty  ;  his  despised 
followers  for  shining  courtiers ;  and  his  mean  provisions  for  the  choicest 
delicates,  &c.  Certainly  happiness  lies  not  in  those  things  that  a  man 
may  enjoy,  and  yet  be  miserable  for  ever.  Now  a  man  may  be  great 
and  graceless  with  Pharaoh,  honourable  and  damnable  with  Saul,  rich 
and  miserable  with  Dives,  &c. :  therefore  happiness  lies  not  in  these 
things.  Certainly  happiness  lies  not  in  those  things  that  cannot 
comfort  a  man  upon  a  dying  bed.  Is  it  honours,  riches,  or  friends, 
&c,  that  can  comfort  thee  when  thou  comest  to  die  ?  Or  is  it  not 
rather  faith  in  the  blood  of  Christ,  the  witness  of  the  Spirit  of 
Christ,  the  sense  and  feeling  of  the  love  and  favour  of  Christ,  and  the 
hopes  of  eternally  reigning  with  Christ  ?  Can  happiness  lie  in  those 
things  that  cannot  give  us  health,  or  strength,  or  ease,  or  a  good  night's 
rest,  or  an  hour's  sleep,  or  a  good  stomach  ?  Why,  all  the  honours, 
riches,  and  delights  of  this  world  cannot  give  these  poor  things  to  us, 
therefore  certainly  happiness  lies  not  in  the  enjoyment  of  them,  &c.2 
And  surely  happiness  is  not  to  be  found  in  those  things  that  cannot 
satisfy  the  souls  of  men.  Now  none  of  these  things  can  satisfy  the 
soul  of  man.  '  He  that  loveth  silver  shall  not  be  satisfied  with  silver, 
nor  he  that  loveth  abundance  with  increase  ;  this  is  also  vanity,'  said 
the  wise  man,  Eccles.  v.  10.  The  barren  womb,  the  horse  leech's 
daughter,  the  grave  and  hell,  will  as  soon  be  satisfied,  as  the  soul  of 
man  will  by  the  enjoyment  of  any  worldly  good.  Some  one  thing  or 
other  will  be  for  ever  wanting  to  that  soul  that  hath  none  but  outward 
good  to  live  upon.  You  may  as  soon  fill  a  bag  with  wisdom,  a  chest 
with  virtue,  or  a  circle  with  a  triangle,  as  the  heart  of  man  with  any- 
thing here  below.  A  man  may  have  enough  of  the  world  to  sink  him, 
but  he  can  never  have  enough  to  satisfy  him,  &c. 

Remedy  (8).  The  eighth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  Of  the  dignity  of  the  soul.  Oh,  the  soul  of  man 
is  more  worth  than  a  thousand  worlds  !  It  is  the  greatest  abasing  of 
it  that  can  be  to  let  it  doat  upon  a  little  shining  earth,  upon  a  little 
painted  beauty  and  fading  glory,  when  it  is  capable  of  union  with 
Christ,  of  communion  with  God,  and  of  enjoying  the  eternal  vision  of 

Seneca  could  say,  '  I  am  too  great,  and  born  to  greater  things,  than 
that  I  should  be  a  slave  to  my  body.'3      Oh  !  do  you  say  my  soul  is 

1  True  happiness  lies  only  in  our  enjoyment  of  a  suitable  good,  a  pure  good,  a  total 
good,  and  an  eternal  good  ;  and  God  is  only  such  a  good,  and  such  a  good  can  only 
satisfy  the  soul  of  man.  Philosophers  could  say,  that  he  was  never  a  happy  man  that 
might  afterwards  become  miserable. 

12  Gregory  the  Great  used  to  say,  He  is  poor  whose  soul  is  void  of  grace,  not  whose 
coffers  are  empty  of  money.  Anima  rationalis  cceteris  omnibus  occupari  potest ,  impleri  non 
potest;  the  reasonable  soul  may  be  busied  about  other  things,  but  it  cannot  be  filled 
with  them.  3  Epistle  xiv. — G. 

70  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

too  great,  and  born  to  greater  things,  than  that  I  should  confine  it  to 
a  heap  of  white  and  yellow  earth.1 

I  have  been  the  longer  upon  the  remedies  that  may  help  us  against 
this  dangerous  device  of  Satan,  because  he  doth  usually  more  hurt  to 
the  souls  of  nun  by  this  device  than  he  doth  by  all  other  devices. 
For  a  close,  I  wish,  as  once  Chrysostom  did,  that  that  sentence,  Eccles. 
ii.  11,  'Then  I  looked  on  all  the  works  that  my  hands  had  wrought, 
and  on  the  labour  that  I  had  laboured  to  do,  and  behold  all  was  vanity 
and  vexation  of  spirit,  and  there  was  no  profit  under  the  sun,'  were 
engraven  on  the  door-posts  into  which  you  enter,  on  the  tables  where 
you  sit,  on  the  dishes  out  of  which  you  eat,  on  the  cups  out  of  which 
you  drink,  on  the  bed-steads  where  you  lie,  on  the  walls  of  the  house 
where  you  dwell,  on  the  garments  which  you  wear,  on  the  heads  of 
the  horses  on  which  you  ride,  and  on  the  foreheads  of  all  them  whom 
you  meet,  that  your  souls  may  not,  by  the  beauty  and  bravery  of  the 
world,  be  kept  off  from  those  holy  and  heavenly  services  that  may 
render  you  blessed  while  you  live,  and  happy  when  you  die  ;  that  you 
may  breathe  out  your  last  into  his  bosom  who  lives  for  ever,  and  who 
will  make  them  happy  for  ever  that  prefer  Christ's  spirituals  and 
eternals  above  all  temporal  transitory  things. 

Device  (2.)  The  second  device  that  Satan  hath  to  draw  the  soul 
from  holy  duties,  and  to  keep  them  off  from  religious  services,  is, 
By  presenting  to  them  the  danger,  the  losses,  and  the  sufferings 
that  do  attend  the  'performance  of  such  and  such,  religious  ser- 
vices. By  this  device  Satan  kept  close  those  that  believed  on 
Christ  from  confessing  of  Christ:  in  John  xii.  42,  'Nevertheless  among 
the  chief  rulers  also  many  believed  on  him  ;  but  because  of  the  Pha- 
risees they  did  not  confess  him,  lest  they  should  be  put  out  of  the 
synagogue.'  I  would  walk  in  all  the  ways  of  God,  I  would  give  up 
myself  to  the  strictest  way  of  holiness,  but  I  am  afraid  dangers  will 
attend  me  on  the  one  hand,  and  losses,  and  happily  such  and  such 
sufferings  on  the  other  hand,  saith  many  a  man.  Oh,  how  should  we 
help  ourselves  against  this  temptation  and  device  of  Satan  ! 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  that 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is  to  con- 
sider, That  all  the  troubles  and  afflictions  that  you  meet  with  in  a 
way  of  righteousness  shall  never  hurt  you,  they  shall  never  harm  you. 
'  And  who  is  he  that  shall  harm  you,  if  you  be  followers  of  that  which 
is  good?'  saith  the  apostle,  i.e.  none  shall  harm  you,  1  Pet.  iii.  13.2 
Natural  conscience  cannot  but  do  homage  to  the  image  of  God  stamped 
upon  the  natures,  words,  works,  and  life  of  the  godly  ;  as  we  may  see 
in  the  carriage  of  Nebuchadnezzar  and  Darius  towards  Daniel.     All 

1  Plutarch  tells  of  Themistoclcs,  that  he  accounted  it  not  to  stand  with  his  state  to 
stoop  clown  to  take  up  the  spoils  the  enemies  had  scattered  in  flight;  but  saith  to  one 
of  his  followers,  &6v«.<ra.i  <rv,  yao  ovk  u  ti$fn<rroxkh;,  You  may,  for  you  are  not  Themistocles. 
Oh  what  a  sad  thing  it  is  that  a  heathen  should  set  his  feet  upon  those  very  things 
that  most  professors  set  their  hearts,  and  for  the  gain  of  which,  with  Balaam,  many  ruu 
the  hazard  of  losing  their  immortal  souls  for  ever. 

8  Nemo  pruprie  laiditur  nisi  a  seipso,  Nobody  is  properly  hurt  but  by  himself,  and 
his  own  fault. 

2  Cor.  II  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  71 

afflictions  and  troubles  that  do  attend  men  in  a  way  of  righteousness 
can  never  rob  them  of  their  treasure,  of  their  jewels.  They  may  rob 
them  of  some  light  slight  things,  as  the  sword  that  is  by  their  side,  or 
the  stick  in  their  hand,  or  of  the  flowers  or  ribbons  that  be  in  their 
hats.1  The  treasures  of  a  saint  are  the  presence  of  God,  the  favour  of 
God,  union  and  communion  with  God,  the  pardon  of  sin,  the  joy  of  the 
Spirit,  the  peace  of  conscience,  which  are  jewels  that  none  can  give 
but  Christ,  nor  none  can  take  away  but  Christ.  Now  why  should  a 
gracious  soul  keep  off  from  a  way  of  holiness  because  of  afflictions, 
when  no  afflictions  can  strip  a  man  of  his  heavenly  jewels,  which  are 
his  ornaments  and  his  safety  here,  and  will  be  his  happiness  and  glory 
hereafter  ?  Why  should  that  man  be  afraid,  or  troubled  for  storms  at 
sea,  whose  treasures  are  sure  in  a  friend's  hand  upon  land  ?  Why,  a 
believer's  treasure  is  always  safe  in  the  hands  of  Christ ;  his  life  is 
safe,  his  soul  is  safe,  his  grace  is  safe,  his  comfort  is  safe,  and  his  crown 
is  safe  in  the  hand  of  Christ.2  '  I  know  him  in  whom  I  have  believed, 
and  that  he  is  able  to  keep  that  which  I  have  committed  unto  him 
until  that  day,'  saith  the  apostle,  2  Tim.  i.  12.  The  child's  most  pre- 
cious things  are  most  secure  in  his  father's  hands ;  so  are  our  souls, 
our  graces,  and  our  comforts  in  the  hand  of  Christ. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is  to 
consider,  That  other  precious  saints  that  were  shining  lights  on  earth, 
and  are  noiv  triumphing  in  heaven,  have  held  on  in  religious  ser- 
vices, notwithstanding  all  the  troubles  and  dangers  that  have  sur- 
rounded them?  Nehemiah  and  Ezra  were  surrounded  with  dangers 
on  the  left  hand  and  on  the  right,  and  yet,  in  the  face  of  all,  they  hold 
on  building  the  temple  and  the  wall  of  Jerusalem.  So  Daniel,  and 
those  precious  worthies,  Ps.  xliv.  19,  20,  under  the  want  of  outward 
encouragements,  and  in  the  face  of  a  world  of  very  great  discourage- 
ment?, their  souls  clave  to  God  and  his  ways.  '  Though  they  were  sore 
broken  in  the  place  of  dragons,  and  covered  with  the  shadow  of  death, 
yea,  though  they  were  all  the  day  long  counted  as  sheep  for  the 
slaughter,  yet  their  hearts  were  not  turned  back,  neither  did  their 
steps  decline  from  his  ways.'  Though  bonds  and  imprisonments  did 
attend  Paul  and  the  rest  of  the  apostles  in  every  place,  yet  they  held 
on  in  the  work  and  service  of  the  Lord ;  and  why,  then,  should  you 
degenerate  from  their  worthy  examples,  which  is  your  duty  and  your 
glory  to  follow  ?  2  Cor.  vi.  5,  Heb.  xi.  36. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 

1  Gordius,  that  blessed  martyr,  accounted  it  a  loss  to  him  not  to  suffer  many  kinds  of 
tortures.  He  saith  tortures  are  hut  tradings  with  God  for  glory.  The  greater  the 
combat  is,  the  greater  is  the  following  reward.  [For  above  of  Gordius,  cf.  Clarke's 
'  Martyrologie,'  1677  folio,  pages  54,  55. — G.] 

2  That  was  a  notable  speech  of  Luther,  Let  him  that  died  for  my  soul  see  to  the 
salvation  of  it. 

3  Wil.  Fowler  (martyr)  said  that  heaven  should  as  soon  fall  as  I  will  forsake  my 
profession,  or  budge  in  the  least  degree  from  it.  So  Santus  being  under  as  great  tor- 
ments as  you  have  read  of,  cries  out,  Christianus  sum,  I  am  a  Christian.  No  torments 
could  work  him  to  decline  the  service  of  God.  I  might  produce  a  cloud  of  witnesses ; 
but  if  those  do  not  work  you  to  be  noble  and  brave,  1  am  afraid  more  will  not  [For 
Fowler  see  Clarke's  '  Martyrologie,'  as  before,  pp.  450,  451,  and  for  Sanctus  [not  Santus] 
page  81. — G.] 

72  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

solemnly  to  consider,  That  all  the  troubles  and  dangers  that  do 
attend  the  performance  of  all  hoi//  duties  and  heavenly  services  are 
but  temporal  and  momentary,  but  the  neglect  of  them  may  lay  thee 
open  to  all  temporal,  spiritual,  and  eternal  dangers.  '  How  shall 
we  escape,  it'  we  neglect  so  great  salvation?'  J  lei),  ii.  3.  He  saith 
not,  it  we  reject  or  renounce  so  great  salvation.  No  ;  but  if  we  neglect, 
or  shift  off  so  great  salvation,  how  shall  we  escape?1  That  is,  we 
cannot  by  any  way,  or  means,  or  device  in  the  world,  escape.  Divine 
justice  will  be  above  us,  in  spite  of  our  very  souls.  The  doing  of  such 
and  such  heavenly  services  may  lay  you  open  to  the  frowns  of  nun, 
but  the  neglect  of  them  will  lay  you  open  to  the  frowns  of  God  ;  the 
doing  of  them  may  render  you  contemptible  in  the  eves  of  men, 
but  the  neglect  of  them  may  render  you  contemptible  in  the  eyes  of 
God  ;  the  doing  of  them  may  be  the  loss  of  thy  estate,  but  the  neglect 
of  them  may  be  the  loss  of  God,  Christ,  heaven,  and  thy  soul  tor  ever; 
the  doing  of  them  may  shut  thee  out  from  some  outward  temporal 
contents,  the  neglect  of  them  may  shut  thee  out  from  that  excellent 
matchless  glory  Hhat  eye  hath  not  seen,  nor  ear  heard,  neither  hath 
it  entered  into  the  heart  of  men,'  Isa.  lxiv.  4.  Remember  this,  there 
is  no  man  that  breathes  but  shall  suffer  more  by  neglecting  those  holy 
and  heavenly  services  that  God  commands,  commends,  and  rewards, 
than  possibly  he  can  suffer  by  doing  of  them.2 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  God,  knows  hoiv  to  deliver  from  troubles  by  troubles, 
from  afflictions  by  afflict  ions,  from  dangers  by  dangers.  God,  by 
lesser  troubles  and  afflictions,  doth  oftentimes  deliver  his  people  from 
greater,  so  that  they  shall  say,  We  had  perished,  if  we  had  not 
perished  ;3  we  had  been  undone,  if  we  had  not  been  undone  ;  we  had 
been  in  danger,  if  we  had  not  been  in  clanger.  God  will  so  order  the 
afflictions  that  befall  you  in  the  way  of  righteousness,  that  your  souls 
shall  sa}',  We  would  not  for  all  the  world  but  that  we  had  met  with 
such  and  such  troubles  and  afflictions  ;  for  surely,  had  not  these  be- 
fallen us,  it  would  have  been  worse  and  worse  with  us.  Oh  the  carnal 
security,  pride,  formalitjr,  dead-heartedness,  lukewarmness,  censorious- 
ness,  and  earthliness  that  God  hath  cured  us  of,  by  the  trouble  and 
dangers  that  we  have  met  with  in  the  ways  and  services  of  the  Lord  ! 

I  remember  a  story  of  a  godly  man,  that  as  he  was  going  to  take 
shipping  for  France,  he  broke  his  leg ;  and  it  pleased  Providence  so  to 
order  it,  that  the  ship  that  he  should  have  gone  in,  at  that  very  instant 
was  cast  away,  and  not  a  man  saved  ;  so  by  breaking  a  bone,  his  life 
was  saved.4  So  the  Lord  many  times  breaks  our  bones,  but  it  is  in 
order  to  the  saving  of  our  lives  and  our  souls  for  ever.  He  gives  us 
a  portion  that  makes  us  heart-sick,  but  it  is  in  order  to  the  making  us 
perfectly  well,  and  to  the  purging  of  us  from  those  ill  humours  that 

1  Kpixbtravrts.     Disregard,  not  care  for  it. 

-  Francis  Xavorias  [Xavkr.— G.J  counselled  Jolm  the.  Third,  king  of  Portugal,  to 
meditate  every  day  a  quarter  of  an  hour  upon  that  text,  '  What  shall  it  profit  a  man  to 
Lain  the  whole  world,  and  lose  his  soul !'  8  Periissem  nisi  periissom. 

4  The  'breaking  of  his  leg'  on  the  way  saved  the  life  of  the  saintly  Bernard  Gilpin 
from  being  sacrificed  by  Bonner.  See  Memoir  of  Dr  Airay,  prefixed  to  his  ' Philippians,' 
in  the  series  of  '  Commentaries  '  issued  by  the  Publisher  of  this. — G. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  73 

have  made  our  heads  ache,  and  God's  heart  ache,  and  our  souls  sick, 
and  heavy  to  the  death,  &c.  Oh  therefore  let  no  danger  or  misery 
hinder  thee  from  thy  duty.1 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  you  shall  gain  more  in  the  service  of  God, 
and  by  walking  in  righteous  and  holy  ways,  though  troubles  and 
afflictions  should  attend  you,  than  you  can  possibly  suffer,  or  lose, 
by  your  being  found  in  the  service  of  God.  '  Godliness  is  great  gain/ 
1  Tim.  vi.  6.  Oh,  the  joy,  the  peace,  the  comfort,  the  rest,  that  saints 
meet  with  in  the  ways  and  service  of  God  !  They  find  that  religious 
services  are  not  empty  things,  but  things  in  which  God  is  pleased  to 
discover  his  beauty  and  glory  to  their  souls.  '  My  soul  thirsts  for 
God,'  saith  David,  '  that  I  might  see  thy  beauty  and  thy  glory,  as  I 
have  seen  thee  in  thy  sanctuary,'  Ps.  lxiii.  2.  Oh,  the  sweet  looks, 
the  sweet  words,  the  sweet  hints,  the  sweet  joggings,  the  sweet  in- 
fluences, the  sweet  love-letters,  that  gracious  souls  have  from  heaven, 
when  they  wait  upon  God  in  holy  and  heavenly  services,  the  least  of 
which  will  darken  and  outweigh  all  the  bravery  and  glory  of  this 
world,  and  richly  recompense  the  soul  for  all  the  troubles,  afflictions, 
and  dangers  that  have  attended  it  in  the  service  of  God.2  Oh,  the  saints 
can  say  under  all  their  troubles  and  afflictions,  that  they  have  meat 
to  eat,  and  drink  to  drink,  that  the  world  knows  not  of ;  that  they 
have  such  incomes,  such  refreshments.,  such  warmings,  &c,  that  they 
would  not  exchange  for  all  the  honours,  riches,  and  dainties  of  this 
world.  Ah,  let  but  a  Christian  compare  his  external  losses  with  his 
spiritual,  internal,  and  external  gain,  and  he  shall  find,  that  for  every 
penny  that  he  loses  in  the  service  of  God,  he  gains  a  pound  ;  and  for 
every  pound  that  he  loses,  he  gains  a  hundred  ;  for  every  hundred 
lost,  he  gains  a  thousand.  We  lose  pins  in  his  service,  and  find  pearls; 
we  lose  the  favour  of  the  creature,  and  peace  with  the  creature,  and 
haply  the  comforts  and  contents  of  the  creature,  and  we  gain  the 
favour  of  God,  peace  with  conscience,  and  the  comforts  and  contents 
of  a  better  life.  Ah,  did  the  men  of  this  world  know  the  sweet  that 
saints  enjoy  in  afflictions,  they  would  rather  choose  Manasseh's  iron  chain 
than  his  golden  crown  ;  they  would  rather  be  Paul  a  prisoner,  than 
Paul  rapt  up  in  the  third  heaven.  For  '  light  afflictions/  they  shall 
have  '  a  weight  of  glory  /  for  a  few  afflictions,  they  shall  have  these 
joys,  pleasures,  and  contents,  that  are  as  the  stars  of  heaven,  or  as  the 
sands  of  the  sea  that  cannot  be  numbered  ;  for  momentary  afflictions, 
they  shall  have  an  eternal  crown  of  glory.3     'It  is  but  winking,  and 

1  Non  essem  ego  salvus  nisi  ista  periissent.— Anaxagoras-  Had  not  these  tilings 
perished,  I  could  not  have  been  safe,  said  this  phliosopher,  when  he  saw  great  posses- 
sions that  he  had  lost. 

2  Tertul  [Han],  in  his  book  to  the  martyrs,  hath  an  apt  saying  {Negotiatio  est  aliquid 
amitlere  ut  major  a  lucrerls),  i.e.  that's  right  and  good  merchandise,  when  something  is 
parted  with  to  gain  more.  He  applieth  it  to  their  sufferings,  wherein,  though  the  flesh 
lost  something,  yet  the  spirit  got  much  more. 

3  When  the  noble  General  Zedislaus  had  lost  his  hand  in  the  wars  of  the  king  of 
Poland,  the  king  sent  him  a  golden  hand  for  it.  What  we  lose  in  Christ's  service  he 
will  make  up,  by  giving  us  some  golden  mercies.  Though  the  cross  be  bitter,  yet  it  is 
but  short ;  a  little  storm,  as  one  said  of  Julian's  persecution,  and  an  eternal  calm  follows. 

74  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  CoR.  II.  11. 

thou  slmlt  be  in  heaven  presently/ said  the  martyr.1  Oh,  therefore, 
let  not  afflictions  or  troubles  work  thee  to  shun  the  ways  of  God,  or  to 
quit  thai  service  that  should  be  dearer  to  thee  than  a  world,  yea,  than 
thy  very  life,  &c. 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  hinder  souls  from  holy  and 
heavenly  services,  and  from  religious  performances,  is, 

Device  (3).  By  presenti/ng  to  the  soul  the  difficulty  of  jMrformi/ng 
them.  Saith  Satan,  it  is  so  hard  and  difficult  a  thing  to  pray  as  thou 
Bhouldst,  and  to  wait  on  God  as  thou  shouldst,  and  to  walk  with  God 
as  thou  shouldst,  and  to  be  lively,  warm,  and  active  in  the  communion 
of  saints,  as  thou  shouldst,  that  you  were  better  ten  thousand  times 
to  neglect  them,  than  to  meddle  with  them  ;  and  doubtless  by  this  de- 
vice Satan  hath  and  doth  keep  off  thousands  from  waiting  on  God,  and 
from  giving  to  him  that  service  that  is  due  to  his  name. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  more  upon  the  necessity  of  the  service  and  duty,  titan  on  the 
difficulty  that  doth  attend  the  duty.  You  should  reason  thus  with 
your  souls  :  O  our  souls,  though  such  and  such  services  be  hard  and 
difficult,  yet  are  they  not  exceeding  necessary  for  the  honour  of  God, 
and  the  keeping  up  his  name  in  the  world,  and  the  keeping  under  of 
sin,  and  the  strengthening  of  weak  graces,  and  so  the  reviving  of  lan- 
guishing comforts,  and  for  the  keeping  clear  and  bright  your  blessed 
evidences,  and  for  the  scattering  of  your  fears,  and  for  the  raising  of 
your  hopes,  and  for  the  gladding  the  hearts  of  the  righteous,  and 
stopping  the  mouths  of  unrighteous  souls,  who  are  ready  to  take  all 
advantages  to  blaspheme  the  name  of  God,  and  throw  dirt  and  con- 
tempt upon  his  people  and  ways.  Oh,  never  leave  thinking  on  the 
necessity  of  this  and  that  duty,  till  your  souls  be  lifted  up  far  above 
all  the  difficulties  that  do  attend  religious  duties.2 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  Lord  Jesus  will  make  his  services  easy 
to  you,  by  the  sweet  discovery  of  himself  to  your  souls,  whilst  you  are 
in  his  service.  '  Thou  meetest  him  that  rejoiceth  and  worketh  right- 
eousness, those  that  remember  thee  in  thy  ways,'  as  the  prophet 
Isaiah  saith,  Isa.  lxiv.  5.3  If  meeting  with  God,  who  is  goodness  it- 
self, beauty  itself,  strength  itself,  glory  itself,  will  not  sweeten  his 
service  to  thy  soul,  nothing  in  heaven  or  earth  will. 

Jacob's  meeting  with  Rachel,  and  enjoying  of  Rachel,  made  his 
hard  service  to  be  easy  and  delightful  to  him  ;  and  will  not  the  soul's 
enjoying  of  God,  and  meeting  with  God,  render  his  service  to  be  much 
more  easy  and  delightful?    Doubtless  it  will.    The  Lord  will  give  that 

1  Paulisper  0  senex,  oculos  claude,  nam  statim  lumen  Dei  videbis.— Sozomen,  lib.  ii. 
cap.  ii. — G. 

-  The  necessity  of  doing  your  duty  appears  by  tins,  that  you  are  his  servants  by  a 
threefold  right  ;  you  are  his  servants  (jure  creationis,  jure  suslentationis,  jure  redemptiunu) 
by  right  of  creation,  ami  by  right  of  sustentation,  aud  by  right  of  redemption. 

:l  nyjD,  Paganta,  is  diversely  taken  ;  but  most  take  the  word  here,  to  meet  a  soul  with 
those  bowels  of  love  and  tenderneSB  as  the  fattier  of  the  prodigal  met  the  prodigal  with. 
God  is  lJaler  miserationum,  ho  i3  all  bowels  ;  he  is  swift  to  shew  mercy,  as  he  is  slow 
to  anger. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  75 

sweet  assistance  by  his  Spirit  and  grace,  as  shall  make  his  service 
joyous  and  not  grievous,  a  delight  and  not  a  burden,  a  heaven  and 
not  a  hell,  to  believing  souls.1  The  confidence  of  this  divine  assistance 
raised  up  Nehemiah's  spirit  far  above  all  those  difficulties  and  dis- 
couragements that  did  attend  him  in  the  work  and  service  of  the 
Lord,  as  you  may  see  in  Nehemiah  ii.  19,  20,  '  But  when  Sanballat 
the  Horonite,  and  Tobiah  the  servant,  the  Ammonite,  and  Geshem 
the  Arabian,  heard  it,  they  laughed  us  to  scorn,  and  despised  us,  and 
said,  What  is  this  thing  that  ye  do  1  will  ye  rebel  against  the  king  ? 
Then  answered  I  them,  and  said  unto  them,  The  God  of  heaven,  he 
will  prosper  us  ;  therefore  we  his  servants  will  arise  and  build  :  but 
you  have  no  right,  nor  portion,  nor  memorial,  in  Jerusalem/  Ah,  souls, 
while  you  are  in  the  very  service  of  the  Lord,  you  shall  find  by  ex- 
perience, that  the  God  of  heaven  will  prosper  you,  and  support  you, 
and  encourage  and  strengthen  you,  and  carry  you  through  the  hardest 
service,  with  the  greatest  sweetness  and  cheerfulness  that  can  be. 
Remember  this,  that  God  will  suit  your  strength  to  your  work,  and 
in  the  hardest  service  you  shall  have  the  choicest  assistance. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  upon  the  hard  and  difficult  things  that  the  Lord  Jesus  hath 
passed  through  for  your  temporal,  spiritual,  and  eternal  good.  Ah, 
what  a  sea  of  blood,  a  sea  of  wrath,  of  sin,  of  sorrow  and  misery,  did 
the  Lord  Jesus  wade  through  for  your  internal  and  eternal  good  ! 2 
Christ  did  not  plead,  This  cross  is  too  heavy  for  me  to  bear;  this  wrath 
is  too  great  for  me  to  lie  under ;  this  cup,  which  hath  in  it  all  the  in- 
gredients of  divine  displeasure,  is  too  bitter  for  me  to  sup  off,3  how  much 
more  to  drink  the  very  dregs  of  it  ?  No,  Christ  stands  not  upon  this; 
he  pleads  not  the  difficulty  of  the  service,  but  resolutely  and  bravely 
wades  through  all,  as  the  prophet  Isaiah  shews:  'The  Lord  God  hath 
opened  my  ear,  and  I  was  not  rebellious,  neither  turned  away  my  back. 
I  gave  my  back  to  the  smiters,  and  my  cheeks  to  them  that  plucked 
off  the  hair  ;  I  hid  not  my  face  from  shame  and  spitting/  chap.  1.  6. 
Christ  makes  nothing  of  his  Father's  wrath,  the  burden  of  your  sins, 
the  malice  of  Satan,  and  the  rage  of  the  world,  but  sweetly  and  trium- 
phantly passes  through  all.  Ah,  souls  !  if  this  consideration  will  not 
raise  up  your  spirits  above  all  the  discouragements  that  you  meet  with, 
to  own  Christ  and  his  service,  and  to  stick  and  cleave  to  Christ  and 
his  service,  I  am  afraid  nothing  will.  A  soul  not  stirred  by  this,  not 
raised  and  lifted  up  by  this,  to  be  resolute  and  brave  in  the  service  of 
God,  notwithstanding  all  dangers  and  difficulties,  is  a  soul  left  of  God 
to  much  blindness  and  hardness.4 

1  Luther  speaks  excellently  to  Melancthon,  who  was  apt  to  be  discouraged  with  doubts 
and  difficulties,  and  fear  from  foes,  and  to  cease  the  service  they  had  undertaken.  '  If 
the  work  be  not  good,  why  did  we  ever  own  it  ?  If  it  be  good,  why  should  we  ever  de- 
cline it  ?  Why,  saith  he,  should  we  fear  the  conquered  world,  that  have  Christ  the 
conqueror  on  our  side '  ?  [From  the  Reformer's  Letters  during  the  diet  of  Augsburg,  a.d. 
1530.     Cf.  D'Aubigne,  Hist,  of  Ref. ;  c.  xiv.  §  10,  c.  6.— G.] 

2  It  is  not  fit,  since  the  Head  was  crowned  with  thorns,  that  the  members  should  be 
crowned  with  rosebuds,  saith  Zanch[ius].  3  Qu.  'sip  of? — Ed. 

4  Godfrey  of  Bullen  [Bouillon],  first  king  of  Jerusalem,  refused  to  be  crowned  with 
a  crown  of  gold,  saying,  it  became  not  a  Christian  there  to  wear  a  crown  of  gold,  where 
Christ  for  our  salvation  had  sometime  worn  a  crown  of  thorns.     [Cf.  Tasso. — G.] 

76  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR  II.  11. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is  to 
consider,  That  religious  duties,  holy  and  heavenly  exercises,  are  only 
difficult  to  the  worse,  to  the  ignoble,  part  of  a  saint.  They  are  not 
to  the  noble  and  better  part  of  a  saint,  to  the  noble  part,  the  soul, 
and  the  renewed  affections  of  a  saint.  Holy  exercises  are  a  heavenly 
pleasure  and  recreation,  as  the  apostle  speaks:  'I  delight  in  the  law 
of  God,  alter  the  inward  man  :  with  my  mind  I  serve  the  law  of  God, 
though  with  my  flesh  the  law  of  sin,'  Rom.  vii.  22.  To  the  noble  part 
of  a  saint,  ( Ihrist's  'yoke  is  easy,  and  his  burden  is  light,'  Mat.  xi.  :>().' 
All  the  commands  and  ways  of  Christ  (even  those  that  tend  to  the 
] lulling  out  of  right  eyes  and  cutting  off  of  right  hands)  are  joyous, 
and  not  grievous,  to  the  noble  part  of  a  saint.2  All  the  ways  and  ser- 
vices of  Christ  are  pleasantness,  in  the  abstract,  to  the  better  part  of 
a  saint.  A  saiut,  so  far  as  he  is  renewed,  is  always  best  when  he  sees 
must  of  God,  when  he  tastes  most  of  God,  when  he  is  highest  in  his 
enjoyments  of  God,  and  most  warm  and  lively  in  the  service  of  God. 
Oh,  saith  the  noble  part  of  a  saint,  that  it  might  be  always  thus!  Oh 
that  my  strength  were  the  strength  of  stones,  and  my  flesh  as  brass, 
that  my  worser  part  might  be  more  serviceable  to  my  noble  part,  that 
I  might  act  by  an  untired  power  in  that  service,  that  is  a  pleasure,  a 
paradise,  to  me. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  great  reward  and  glorious  recommence 
that  doth  attend  those  that  cleave  to  the  service  of  the  Lord  in 
the  face  of  all  difficulties  and  discouragements.  Though  the  work 
be  hard,  yet  the  wages  is  great.  Heaven  will  make  amends  for  all. 
Ay,  one  hour's  being  in  heaven  will  abundantly  recompense  you  for 
cleaving  to  the  Lord  and  his  ways  in  the  face  of  all  difficulties.  This 
carried  the  apostle  through  the  greatest  difficulties.  He  had  an  eye 
'  to  the  recompence  of  reward  ;'  he  looked  for  '  a  house  that  had  founda- 
tions, whoso  builder  and  maker  was  God,'  and  for  'a  heavenly  country.' 
Yea,  this  bore  up  the  spirit  of  Christ  in  the  face  of  all  difficulties  and 
discouragements  :  '  Looking  unto  Jesus,  the  author  and  finisher  of  our 
faith  ;  who,  for  the  joy  that  was  set  before  him,  endured  the  cross, 
despising  the  shame,  and  is  set  down  at  the  right  hand  of  the  throne 
of  God,'Heb.  xii.  2.3 

Christians  that  would  hold  on  in  the  service  of  the  Lord,  must  look 
more  upon  the  crown  than  upon  the  cross,  more  upon  their  future 
glory  than  their  present  misery,  more  upon  their  encouragements  than 
upon  their  discouragements.  God's  very  service  is  wages  ;  his  ways 
are  strewed  with  roses,  and  paved  'with  joy  that  is  unspeakable  and 
full  of  glory/  and  with  'peace  that  passeth  understanding.'  Some 
degree  of  comfort  follows  every  good  action,  as  heat  accompanies  fire, 

1  xzwr'f,  ie-  my  yoke  is  a  benign,  a  gracious,  a  pleasant,  a  good,  and  a  gainful  yoke, 
<  pposed  to  Tovroo:,  painful,  tedious. 

2  As  every  Bower  hath  its  sweet  savour,  so  every  good  duty  carries  meat  in  the  mouth, 

i  in  the  performance  of  it. 
8  Basil  Bpeaka  of  some  martyrs  that  were  cast  out  all  night  naked  in  a  cold,  frosty  time, 
ami  were  to  I":  burned  the  next  day,  how  they  comforted  themselves  in  this  manner: 
'I  lie  winter  is  sharp,  bul  paradise  is  sweet ;  here  we  shiver  for  cold,  but  the  bosom  of 
A.1  raham  will  make  amends  for  all. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  77 

as  beams  and  influences  issue  from  the  sun  :  '  Moreover,  by  them  is 
thy  servant  warned,  and  in  keeping  of  them  there  is  great  reward,' 
Ps.  xix.  11.  Not  only  for  keeping,  but  in  keeping  of  them,  there  is 
great  reward.1  The  joy,  the  rest,  the  refreshing,  the  comforts,  the  con- 
tents, the  smiles,  the  incomes2  that  saints  now  enjoy  in  the  ways  of 
God,  are  so  precious  and  glorious  in  their  eyes,  that  they  would  not 
exchange  them  for  ten  thousand  worlds.  Ah  !  if  the  vails3  be  thus 
sweet  and  glorious  before  pay-day  comes,  what  will  be  that  glory  that 
Christ  will  crown  his  saints  with  for  cleaving  to  his  service  in  the  face 
of  all  difficulties  ;  when  he  shall  say  to  his  Father,  'Lo,  here  am  I,  and 
the  children  which  thou  hast  given  me,'  Isa.  viii.  18.  If  there  be  so 
much  to  be  had  in  a  wilderness,  what  then  shall  be  had  in  para- 
dise %  &c. 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  off  from  holy  exer- 
cises, from  religious  services,  is, 

Device,  (4).  By  working  them  to  make  false  inferences  from  those 
blessed  and  glorious  things  that  Christ  hath  done.  As  that  Jesus 
Christ  hath  done  all  for  us,  therefore  there  is  nothing  for  us  to  do  but 
to  joy  and  rejoice.  He  hath  perfectly  justified  us,  and  fulfilled  the 
law,  and  satisfied  divine  justice,  and  pacified  his  Father's  wrath,  and 
is  gone  to  heaven  to  prepare  a  place  for  us,  and  in  the  mean  time  to 
intercede  for  us  ;  and  therefore  away  with  praying,  and  mourning, 
and  hearing,  &c.  Ah  !  what  a  world  of  professors  hath  Satan  drawn 
in  these  days  from  religious  services,  by  working  them  to  make  such 
sad,  wild,  and  strange  inferences  from  the  sweet  and  excellent  things 
that  the  Lord  Jesus  hath  done  for  his  beloved  ones. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  as  muck  on  those  scriptures  that  shew  you,  the  duties  and 
services  that  Christ  requires  of  you,  as  upon  those  scriptures  that 
declare  to  you  the  precious  and  glorious  things  that  Christ  hath  clone 
for  you.*  It  is  a  sad  and  dangerous  thing  to  have  two  eyes  to  behold 
our  dignity  and  privileges,  and  not  one  to  see  our  duties  and  services.  I 
should  look  with  one  eye  upon  the  choice  and  excellent  things  that  Christ 
hath  done  for  me,  to  raise  up  my  heart  to  love  Christ  with  the  purest 
love,  and  to  joy  in  Christ  with  the  strongest  joy,  and  to  lift  up  Christ 
above  all,  who  hath  made  himself  to  be  my  all ';  and  I  should  look  with 
the  other  eye  upon  those  services  and  duties  that  the  Scriptures  require 
of  those  for  whom  Christ  hath  done  such  blessed  things,  as  upon  that 
of  the  apostle  :  '  What,  know  ye  not  that  your  body  is  the  temple  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  which  is  in  you,  which  ye  have  of  God  ?  and  ye  are  not 
your  own  :  for  ye  are  bought  with  a  price  ;  therefore  glorify  God  in 
your  body,  and  in  your  spirit,  which  are  God:s,'  1  Cor.  vi.  19,  20. 
And  that :  '  Therefore,  my  beloved  brethren,  be  ye  stedfast,  unmoveable, 
always  abounding  in  the  work  of  the  Lord,  knowing  that  your  labour 

1  This  is  prcemium  ante  prcemiitm,  a  sure  reward  of  well  doing ;  in  doing  thereof,  not 
only  for  doing  thereof,  there  is  great  reward,  Ps.  xix.  11. 

2  '  In-comings.' — G.  3  '  Gratuities.' — G. 

4  Tertullian  hath  this  expression  of  the  Scriptures  :  Adoro  pleniludinem  Scripturarum, 
I  adore  the  fulness  of  the  Scripture.  Gregory  calls  the  Scripture,  Cor  et  animam  Dei, 
the  heart  and  soul  of  God;  and  who  will  not  then  dwell  in  it  ? 

78  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

is  not  in  vain  in  the  Lord/  1  Cor.  xv.  58.  And  that :  'And  let  us  not 
be  weary  in  well-doing,  for  in  due  season  we  shall  reap  if  we  faint  not,' 
GaL  vi.  9.  And  that  of  the  apostle  :  'Rejoice  always,'  1  Thes.  v.  16, 
and  'Pray  without  ceasing,'  1  Thes.  v.  17.  And  that  in  the  Philip- 
pians,  '  \Vork  out  your  own  salvation  with  fear  and  trembling/  ii.  12  ; 
and  that,  'This  do  till  I  come,'  1  Tim.  iv.  13;  and  that,  'Let  us 
consider  one  another,  to  provoke  one  another  to  love,  and  to  good 
works,  not  forsaking  the  assembling  of  ourselves  together,  as  the  manner 
of  Borne  is,  but  exhorting  one  another,  and  so  much  the  more  as  you 
see  the  day  approaching/  Heb.  x.  24,  25.  Now,  a  soul  that  would  not 
be  drawn  away  by  this  device  of  Satan,  he  must  not  look  with  asquint 
eye  upon  these  blessed  scriptures,  and  abundance  more  of  like  import, 
but  he  must  dwell  upon  them  ;  he  must  make  these  scriptures  to  be 
his  chiefest  and  his  choicest  companions,  and  this  will  be  a  happy 
means  to  keep  him  close  to  Christ  and  his  service  in  these  times, 
wherein  many  turn  their  backs  upon  Christ,  under  pretence  of  being 
interested  in  the  great  glorious  things  that  have  been  acted  by  Christ, 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  the  great  and  glorious  things  that  Jesus  Christ  hath 
dona,  and  is  a-doing  for  us,  should  be  so  far  from  taking  us  of 
from  religious  services  and  pious  performances,  that  they  should  be 
the  greatest  motives  and  encouragements  to  the  performance  of  them 
that  may  be,  as  the  Scriptures  do  abundantly  evidence.  I  will  only 
instance  in  some,  as  that,  '  That  we,  being  delivered  out  of  the  hands 
of  our  enemies,  might  serve  him  without  fear,  in  holiness  and  right- 
teousness  before  him  all  the  days  of  our  lives/  1  Peter  ii.  9,  Luke 
i.  7-i,  75.  Christ  hath  freed  you  from  all  your  enemies,  from  the 
curse  of  the  law,  the  predominant  damnatory  power  of  sin,  the  wrath 
of  God,  the  sting  of  death,  and  the  torments  of  hell  ;  but  what  is  the 
end  and  design  of  Christ  in  doing  these  great  and  marvellous  things 
for  his  people  ?  It  is  not  that  we  should  throw  off  duties  of  righteous- 
ness and  holiness,  but  that  their  hearts  may  be  the  more  free  and 
sweet  in  all  holy  duties  and  heavenly  services.2  So  the  apostle,  '  I  will 
be  their  God,  and  they  shall  be  my  people  :'  '  And  I  will  be  a  Father 
unto  you,  and  ye  shall  be  my  sons  and  daughters,  smith  the  Lord 
Almighty.'  Mark  what  follows:  'Having  therefore  these  promises, 
dearly  beloved,  let  us  cleanse  ourselves  from  all  filthiness  of  the  flesh 
and  spirit,  perfecting  holiness  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord/  2  Cor.  vi.  17,  18, 
chap.  vii.  1  compared.  And  again  :  '  The  grace  of  God  that  bringeth 
salvation  hath  appeared  to  all  men,  teaching  us  that,  denying  all 
ungodliness  and  worldly  lusts,  we  should  live  soberly,  righteously,  and 
yodly  in  this  present  world,  looking  for  that  blessed  hope,  and  the 
glorious  appearing  of  the  great  God  and  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  who 
gave  himself  fur  us,  that  he  might  redeem  us  from  all  iniquity,  and 

1  The  Jews  were  much  in  turning  over  the  leaves  of  the  Scripture,  but  they  did  not 
weigh  the  matter  of  them:  John  v.  39,   'You  search  the  Scriptures.' ■  Greek  there 

.im  ih  to  be  indicative  rather  than  imperative. 

9  This  I  am  sure  of,  that  all  man's  happiness  here  is  his  holiness,  and  his  holiness 
shall  hereafter  be  his  happiness.  Christ  hath  therefore  broke  the  devil's  yoke  from  oif 
our  necks,  that  his  Father  might  have  better  service  from  our  hearts. 

2  COR.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  79 

purify  us  unto  himself  a  peculiar  people,  zealous  of  good  works/  Titus 
ii.  12-14.  Ah,  souls  !  I  know  no  such  arguments  to  work  you  to  a 
lively  and  constant  performance  of  all  heavenly  services,  like  those  that 
are  drawn  from  the  consideration  of  the  great  and  glorious  things  that 
Christ  hath  done  for  you  ;  and  if  such  arguments  will  not  take  you 
and  win  upon  you,  I  do  think  the  throwing  of  hell  fire  in  your  faces 
will  never  do  it.1 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  those  precious  souls  which  Jesus  Christ 
hath  done  and  suffered  as  much  for  as  he  hath  for  you,  have  been 
exceeding  active  and  lively  in  all  religious  services  and  heavenly 
performances.2  He  did  as  much  and  suffered  as  much  for  David  as  for 
you,  and  yet  who  more  in  praying  and  praising  God  than  David  ? 
'  Seven  times  a  day  will  I  praise  the  Lord,'  Ps.  cxix.  174.  Who  more 
in  the  studying  and  meditating  on  the  word  than  David  ?  'The  law  is 
my  meditation  day  and  night/  Ps.  cxix.  97.  The  same  truth  you  may 
run  and  read  in  Jacob,  Moses,  Job,  Daniel,  and  in  the  rest  of  the  holy 
prophets  and  apostles,  for  whom  Christ  hath  done  as  much  for  as  for 
you.  Ah,  how  have  all  those  worthies  abounded  in  works  of  righteous- 
ness and  holiness,  to  the  praise  of  free  grace  ?  Certainly  Satan  hath 
got  the  upper  hand  of  those  souls  that  do  argue  thus.  Christ  hath 
done  such  and  such  glorious  things  for  us,  therefore  we  need  not  make 
any  care  and  conscience  of  doing  such  and  such  religious  services  as 
men  say  the  word  calls  for.  If  this  logic  be  not  from  hell,  what  is  ? 
Ah,  were  the  holy  prophets  and  apostles  alive  to  hear  such  logic  come 
out  of  the  mouths  of  such  as  profess  themselves  to  be  interested  in  the 
great  and  glorious  things  that  Jesus  Christ  hatb  done  for  his  chosen 
ones,  how  would  they  blush  to  look  upon  such  souls  !  and  how  would 
their  hearts  grieve  and  break  within  them  to  hear  the  language  and  to 
observe  the  actings  of  such  souls.3 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider  this,  That  those  that  do  not  walk  in  the  ways 
of  righteousness  and  holiness,  that  do  not  wait  upon  God  in  the 
several  duties  and  services  that  are  commanded  by  him,  cannot  have 
that  evidence  to  their  own  souls  of  their  righteousness  before  God,  of 
their  fellowship  and  communion  with  God,  of  their  blessedness  here, 
and  their  happiness  hereafter,  as  those  souls  have,  that  love  and  de- 
light in  the  ways  of  the  Lord,  that  are  always  best  when  they  are 
most  in  the  works  and  service  of  the  Lord}     '  Little  children/  saith 

1  Tace,  lingua ;  loquere,  vita,  talk  not  of  a  good  life,  hut  let  thy  life  speak.  Your  actions 
in  passing  pass  not  away  ;  for  every  good  work  is  a  grain  of  seed  for  eternal  life. 

2  The  saints'  motto  in  all  ages  hath  been  Laboremus,  let  us  be  doing.  God  love?. 
Curristas,  not  Quairistas,  the  runner,  not  the  questioner  or  disputer,  saith  Luther. 

3  The  day  is  at  hand  when  God  will  require  of  men,  Nonquidlegerint,  sedquid  egerint. 
nee  quid  dixcrint,  sed  quomodo  vixeriat.  He  that  talks  of  heaven,  but  doth  not  the  will  of 
God,  is  like  him  that  gazed  upon  the  moon,  but  fell  into  the  pit. 

4  Certainly  it, is  one  thing  to  judge  by  our  graces,  another  thing  to  rest  or  put 
our  trust  in  them.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  difference  betwixt  declaring  and  de- 
serving. As  David's  daughters  were  known  by  their  garments  of  divers  colours,  so 
are  God's  children  by  their  piety  and  sanctity.  A  Christian's  emblem  should  be  an 
house  walking  towards  heaven.  High  words  surely  make  a  man  neither  holy  nor 
just ;  but  a  virtuous  life,  a  circumspect  walking,  makes  him  dear  to  God.  A  tree 
that  is  not  fruitful  is  for  the  fire.     Christianity  is  not  a  talking,  but  a  walking  with 

80  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

the  apostle,  'lit  do  man  deceive  you:  he  that  doth  righteousness  is 
righteous,  even  as  be  is  righteous,'  1  John  iii.  7.  '  In  this,'  saith  the 
same  apostle,  '  the  children  of  God  are  manifest,  and  the  children  of 
the  devil  ;  whosoever  doth  not  righteousness  is  not  of  God,  neither  he 
that  loveth  qoI  his  brother,'  ver.  10.  '  If  ye  know  that  he  is  righteous/ 
Baith  t  he  same  apostle,  '  ye  know  that  every  one  that  dotli  righteousness, 
is  born  <>f  him.  He  that  saith,  I  know  him,  and  keepeth  not  his  com- 
mandments,  is  a  liar,  and  the  truth  is  not  in  him.  But  whosoever 
keepeth  Ins  word,  in  him  verily  is  the  love  of  God  perfected:  hereby 
know  wo  that  we  are  in  him.  He  that  saith  he  abideth  in  him,  ought 
himself  also  to  walk,  even  as  he  walked/  '  If  we  say  that  we  have 
fellowship  with  him,  and  walk  in  darkness,  we  lie,  and  do  not  the 
truth  ;  hut  it'  we  walk  in  the  light,  as  he  is  in  the  light,  Ave  have  fel- 
lowship one  with  another ;  and  the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ  cleanseth  us 
from  all  sin/  saith  the  same  apostle,  1  John  ii.  4-G,  and  i.  G,  7.  So 
James  ii.  14,  '20,  '  What  cloth  it  profit,  my  brethren,  though  a  man 
say  he  hath  faith,  and  have  no  works  ;  can  faith  save  him  V  i.  o.  it 
cannot.  'For  as  the  body  without  spirit  is  dead,  so  faith  without 
works  is  dead  also.'  To  look  after  holy  and  heavenly  works,  is  the  best 
way  to  preserve  the  soul  from  being  deceived  and  deluded  by  Satan's 
delusions,  and  by  sudden  flashes  of  joy  and  comfort ;  holy  works  being 
a  more  sensible1  and  constant  pledge  of  the  precious  Spirit,  begetting 
and  maintaining  in  the  soul  more  solid,  pure,  clear,  strong,  and  lasting 
joy.  Ah  souls  !  As  you  would  have  in  yourselves  a  constant  and  a 
blessed  evidence  of  your  fellowship  with  the  Father  and  the  Son,  and 
of  the  truth  of  grace,  and  of  your  future  happiness,  look  that  you 
cleave  close  to  holy  services ;  and  that  you  turn  not  your  backs  upon 
religious  duties. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  there  are  other  choice  and  glorious  ends 
for  ll/>'  saint's  performance  of  relicjioiis  duties,  than  for  the  justifying 
of  their  persons  before  God,  erfortheir  satisfying  of  the  law  or  justice 
of  God,  or  for  the  purchasing  of  the  pardon  of  sin,  &c.  viz.,  totestify 
their  justification.2  '  A  good  tree  cannot  but  bring  forth  good  fruits/ 
Mat.  vii.  17,  to  testify  their  love  to  God,  and  their  sincere  obedience  to 
the  commands  of  God  ;  to  testify  their  deliverance  from  spiritual  bond- 
age, to  evidence  the  indwellings  of  the  Spirit,  to  stop  the  mouths  of  the 
worst  of  men,  and  to  glad  those  righteous  souls  that  God  would  not  have 
sadded.  These,  and  abundance  of  other  choice  ends  there  be,  why 
those  that  have  an  interest  in  the  glorious  doings  of  Christ,  should, 
notwithstanding  that,  keep  close  to  the  holy  duties  and  religiqus  ser- 
vices that  are  commanded  by  Christ.  And  if  these  considerations 
will  not  prevail  with  you,  to  wait  upon  God  in  holy  and   heavenly 

God,  who  will  not  be  put  off  with  words  ;  if  lie  miss  of  fruit,  lie  will  fake  up  his  axe, 
and  then  tin'  soul  is  cut  off  for  ever. — [Query,  '  horse' ?  But  prefixed  to  a  volume  of 
1656,  called  'Sacred  Principles,  Services  and  Soliloquies,  or  a  Manual  of  Devotions,' 
is  a  singular  frontispiece,  having  this  very  emblem  of  a 'house'  ascending  upward,  re- 
presentative, as  explained  in  quaint  accompanying  verse,  of  the  Church.  So  that  the 
mixed  metaphor  belongs  to  the  period. — G.]  1  '  Conscious.' — G. 

2  It  is  a  precious  truth,  never  to  he  forgotten.  Quod  non  actilus,  sed  finibus  pensanlur 
officio,,  that  duties  are  esteemed  not  by  their  acts,  but  by  their  cuds. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  81 

duties.  I  am  afraid  if  one  should  rise  from  the  dead,  his  arguments 
would  not  win  upon  you,  but  you  would  hold  on  in  your  sins,  and  ne- 
glect his  service,  though  you  lost  your  souls  for  ever,  &C.1 

The  fifth  device  Satan  hath  to  draw  souls  off  from  religious  ser- 
vices, and  to  keep  souls  off  from  holy  duties,  is, 

Device  (5).  By  'presenting  to  them  the  'paucity  and  poverty  of  those 
that  walk  in  the  ways  of  God,  that  hold  on  in  religious  practices. 
Saith  Satan,  Do  not  you  see  that  those  that  walk  in  such  and  such 
religious  ways  are  the  poorest,  the  meanest,  and  the  most  despicable 
persons  in  the  world  ?  This  took  with  them  in  John  vii.  47-49,  '  Then 
answered  the  pharisees,  Are  ye  also  deceived  ?  Have  any  of  the  rulers, 
or  of  the  pharisees,  believed  on  him  ?  But  this  people  who  knoweth 
not  the  law  are  cursed/ 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  that  follow  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  though  they  are  outwardly  poor,  yet  they  are  in- 
wardly rich.  Though  they  are  poor  in  temporals,  yet  they  are  rich 
in  spirituals.2  The  worth  and  riches  of  the  saints  is  inward.  '  The 
King's  daughter  is  all  glorious  within/  Ps.  xlv.  13.  '  Hearken,  my 
beloved  brethren,  hath  not  God  chosen  the  poor  of  this  world,  rich  in 
faith,  and  heirs  of  the  kingdom  which  he  hath  promised  to  them  that 
love  him  ?'  saith  James  ii.  5.  '  I  know  thy  poverty,  but  thou  art  rich,' 
saith  John  to  the  church  of  Smyrna,'  Rev.  ii.  4.  What  though  they 
have  little  in  possession,  yet  they  have  a  glorious  kingdom  in  rever- 
sion. '  Fear  not,  little  flock,  it  is  your  Father's  pleasure  to  give  you  a 
kingdom,'  Luke  xii.  32.  Though  saints  have  little  in  hand,  yet  they 
have  much  in  hope.  You  count  those  happy,  in  a  worldly  sense,  that 
have  much  in  reversion,  though  they  have  little  in  possession;  and  will 
you  count  the  saints  miserable  because  they  have  little  in  hand,  little 
in  possession,  though  they  have  a  glorious  kingdom  in  reversion  of 
this  ?  I  am  sure  the  poorest  saint  that  breathes  will  not  exchange, 
were  it  in  his  power,  that  which  he  hath  in  hope  and  in  reversion,  for 
the  possession  of  as  many  worlds  as  there  be  stars  in  heaven,  or  sands 
in  the  sea,  &c. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
to  consider,  That  in  all  ages  God  hath  had  some  that  have  been  great, 
rich,  wise,  and  honourable,  that  have  chosen  his  ways,  and  cleaved 
to  his  service  in  the  face  of  all  difficulties.  Though  not  many  wise 
men,  yet  some  wise  men  ;  and  though  not  many  mighty,  yet  some 
mighty  have  ;  and  though  not  many  noble,  yet  some  noble  have. 
Witness  Abraham,  and  Jacob,  and  Job,  and  several  kings,  and  others 
that  the  Scriptures  speak  of.  And  ah  !  how  many  have  we  among 
ourselves,  whose  souls  have  cleaved  to  the  Lord,  and  who  have  swum 
to  his  service  through  the  blood  of  the  slain,  and  who  have  not  counted 

1  Finis  movet  ad  agendum,  the  end  moves  to  doing.  Tene  mensuram  et  respice  finem, 
keep  thyself  within  compass,  and  have  an  eye  always  to  the  end  of  thy  life  and  actions, 
was  Maximilian  the  emperor's  motto. 

2  Do  not  you  see,  saith  Chrysostom,  the  places  where  treasures  are  hid,  are  rough 
and  overgrown  with  thorns  ?  Do  not  the  naturalists  tell  you,  that  the  mountains  that 
are  hig  with  gold  within,  are  bare  of  grass  without  ?  Saints  have,  as  scholars,  poor  com- 
mons here,  because  they  must  3tudy  hard  to  go  to  heaven. 

VOL.  I.  F 

82  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

their  lives  dear  unto  them,  that  they  and  others  might  enjoy  the  holy 
things  of  Christ,  according  to  the  mind  and  heart  of  Christ,  &C.1 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  spiritual  riches  of  the  poorest  saints 
do  infinitely  transcend  the  temporal  riches  of  all  the  wicked  men  in 
the  world ;  their  spiritual  riches  do  satisfy  them ;  they  can  sit 
down  satisfied  with  the  riches  of  grace  that  be  in  Christ,  without 
honours,  and  without  riches,  &c.2  '  He  that  drinks  of  that  water  that 
I  shall  give  him,  shall  thirst  no  more,'  John  iv.  13.  The  riches  of 
poor  saints  are  durable  ;  they  will  bed  and  board  with  them  ;  they 
will  go  to  the  prison,  to  a  sickbed,  to  a  grave,  yea,  to  heaven  with 
them.  The  spiritual  riches  of  poor  saints  are  as  wine  to  cheer  them, 
and  as  bread  to  strengthen  them,  and  as  cloth  to  warm  them,  and  as 
armour  to  protect  them.  Now,  all  you  that  know  anything,  do  know 
that  the  riches  of  this  world  cannot  satisfy  the  souls  of  men,  and  they 
are  as  fading  as  a  flower,  or  as  the  owners  of  them  are,  &c.5 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  is,  seriously  to 
consider,  That  though  the  saints,  considered  comparatively,  are  few; 
though  they  be  'a  little,  little  flock,'  'a  remnant,'  'a  garden  enclosed,' 
'  a  spring  shut  up,  a  fountain  sealed;'  though  they  are  as  '  the  sum- 
mer gleanings;'  thoughthey  are  '  one  of  a  city,  and  two  of  a  tribe  ;'*■ 
though  they  be  but  a  handful  to  a  house  fid,  a  spark  to  a  flame,  a  drop 
to  the  ocean,  yet  consider  them  simply  in  themselves,  and  so  they  are 
an  innumerable  number  that  cannot  be  numbered.  As  John  speaketh : 
'  After  this  I  beheld,  and  lo,  a  great  multitude  which  no  man  could 
number,  of  all  nations,  and  kindreds,  and  peoples,  and  tongues,  stood 
before  the  throne,  and  before  the  Lamb,  clothed  with  white  robes,  and 
palms  in  their  hands,'  Rev.  vii.  9.  So  Matthew  speaks  :  '  And  I  say 
unto  you,  that  many  shall  come  from  the  east  and  west,  and  shall  sit 
down  with  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven,'  Mat. 
viii.  11.  So  Paul :  '  But  ye  are  come  unto  mount  Sion,  and  unto  the 
city  of  the  living  God,  the  heavenly  Jerusalem,  and  to  an  innumerable 
company  of  angels,  to  the  general  assembly  and  church  of  the  first- 
born, which  are  written  in  heaven,  and  to  God  the  judge  of  all,  and  to 
the  spirits  of  just  men  made  perfect/  Heb.  xii.  22.8 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seriously 
to  consider,  That  it  will  be  but  as  a  day  before  these  poor  despised  saints 
shall  shine  brighter  than  the  sun  in  his  glory.  It  will  not  be  long 
before  you  will  wish,  Oh  !  that  we  were  now  among  the  poor,  mean  de- 
spised ones  in  the  day  that  God  comes  to  make  up  his  jewels  !  It  will 
not  be  long  before  these  poor  few  saints  shall  be  lifted  up  upon  their 
thrones  to  judge  the  multitude,  the  world,  as  the  apostle  speaks  :  '  Know 
ye  not  that  the  saints  shall  judge  the  world  ?'  1  Cor.  vi.  2.  And  in  that 

1  Good  nobles,  saith  one,  are  like  black  swans ;  and  [are]  tbinly  scattered  in  the  fir- 
mament of  a  State,  even  like  stars  of  the  first  magnitude  ;  yet  some  God  hath  had  in 
all  apes,  as  might  be  shewed  out  of  histories. 

*  Alexander's  vast  mind  inquired  if  there  were  any  moro  worlds  to  conquer. 

*  Crassus  was  so  rich  that  he  maintained  an  army  with  his  own  revenues  ;  yet  he, 
his  great  army,  with  his  son  and  heir,  fell  together,  and  left  his  great  estate  to  others. 

*  Luke  xii.  32,  Isaiah  i.  9,  Canticles  iv.  12,  Judges  viii.  2,  and  Jeremiah  iii.  14.— G. 
6  When  Fulgentius  saw  the  nobility  of  Rome  sit  mounted  in  their  bravery,  it  mounted 

his  meditations  to  the  heavenly  Jerusalom. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  83 

day,  oh  !  how  will  the  great  and  the  rich,  the  learned  and  the  noble, 
wish  that  they  had  lived  and  spent  their  days  with  these  few  poor  con- 
temptible creatures  in  the  service  of  the  Lord !  Oh !  how  will  this 
wicked  world  curse  the  day  that  ever  they  had  such  base  thoughts  of 
the  poor  mean  saints,  and  that  their  poverty  became  a  stumbling-block 
to  keep  them  off  from  the  ways  of  sanctity.1 

I  have  read  of  Ingo,  an  ancient  king  of  the  Draves,  who,  making  a 
stately  feast,  appointed  his  nobles,  at  that  time  pagans,  to  sit  in  the 
hall  below,  and  commanded  certain  poor  Christians  to  be  brought  up 
into  his  presence-chamber,  to  sit  with  him  at  his  table,  to  eat  and  drink 
of  his  kingly  cheer ;  at  which  many  wondering,  he  said,  '  He  accounted 
Christians,  though  never  so  poor,  a  greater  ornament  to  his  table,  and 
more  worthy  of  his  company,  than  the  greatest  peers  unconverted  to 
the  Christian  faith  ;  for  when  these  might  be  thrust  down  to  hell, 
those  might  be  his  consorts  and  fellow-princes  in  heaven.'  You  know 
how  to  apply  it.  Although  you  see  the  stars  sometimes  by  their  re- 
flections in  a  puddle,  or  in  the  bottom  of  a  well,  ay,  in  a  stinking- 
ditch,  yet  the  stars  have  their  situation  in  heaven.  So,  though  you 
see  a  godly  man  in  a  poor,  miserable,  low,  despised  condition  for  the 
things  of  this  world,  yet  he  is  fixed  in  heaven,  in  the  region  of  heaven : 
'  Who  hath  raised  us  up,'  saith  the  apostle,  •  and  made  us  sit  together 
in  heavenly  places  in  Christ  Jesus.'  Oh  !  therefore,  say  to  your  own 
souls,  when  they  begin  to  decline  the  ways  of  Sion  because  of  the 
poverty  and  paucity  of  those  that  walk  in  them,  The  day  is  at  hand 
when  those  few,  poor,  despised  saints  shall  shine  in  glory,  when  they 
shall  judge  this  world,  and  when  all  the  wicked  of  this  world  will  wish 
that  they  were  in  their  condition,  and  would  give  ten  thousand  worlds, 
were  it  in  their  power,  that  they  might  but  have  the  honour  and  hap- 
piness to  wait  upon  those  whom  for  their  poverty  and  paucity  they 
have  neglected  and  despised  in  this  world. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  there  will  come  a  time,  even  in  this  life, 
in  this  world,  when  the  reproach  and  contempt  that  is  now  cast  upon 
the  ways  of  God,  by  reason  of  the  poverty  and  paucity  of  those  that 
walk  in  those  ways,  shall  be  quite  taken  away,  by  his  making  them 
the  head  that  have  days  without  number  been  the  tail,  and  by  his 
raising  them  up  to  much  outward  riches,  prosperity,  and  glory,  who 
have  been  as  the  outcast  because  of  their  poverty  and  paucity.2    John, 

1  Mr  Fox  being  once  asked  whether  he  knew  a  certain  poor  man  who  had  received 
succour  of  him  in  time  of  trouble,  he  answered,  I  remember  him  well.  1  tell  you  I 
forget  lords  and  ladies  to  remember  such.  So  will  God  deal  by  his  poor  saints.  He  will 
forget  the  great  and  mighty  ones  of  the  world  to  remember  his  few  poor  despised  ones. 
Though  John  the  Baptist  was  poor  in  the  world,  yet  the  Holy  Ghost  calls  him  the  greatest 
that  was  born  of  woman.  Ah,  poor  saints,  men  that  know  not  your  worth,  cannot  have 
such  low  thoughts  of  you,  but  the  Lord  will  have  as  high. 

*  These  following  scriptures  do  abundantly  confirm  this  truth:  Jer.  xxxi.  12;  Isa. 
xxx.  23,  lxii.  8,  9  ;  Joel  ii.  23,  24  ;  Micah  iv.  6  ;  Amos  ix.  13,  14  ;  Zech.  viii.  12  ;  Isa. 
xli.  18, 19,  lv.  13,  lxvi.  6,  7,  lxv.  21,  22,  lxi.  4,  lx.  10  ;  Ezek.  xxxvi.  10.  Only  take  these 
two  cautions:  1.  That  in  these  times  the  saints'  chiefest  comforts,  delights,  and  con- 
tents will  consist  in  their  more  clear,  full,  and  constant  enjoyment  of  God.  2.  That 
they  shall  have  such  abundant  measure  of  the  Spirit  poured  out  upon  them,  that  their 
riches  and  outward  glory  shall  not  be  snares  unto  them,  but  golden  steps  to  a  richer 
living  in  God. 

84  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

speaking  of  the  glory  of  the  church,  the  new  Jerusalem  that  came 
down  from  heaven,  Rev.  xxi.  24,  tells  us,  'That  the  nations  of-  them 
which  are  saved  shall  walk  in  the  light  of  it,  and  the  kings  of  the 
earth  do  bring  their  glory  into  it.'  So  the  prophet  Isaiah,  '  They  shall 
bring  their  sons  from  far,  and  their  silver  and  their  gold  with  them. 
For  brass  I  will  bring  gold,  and  for  iron  I  will  bring  silver,  and  for 
wood  brass,  and  for  stones  iron,'  chap.  lx.  17.  And  so  the  prophet 
Zechariah  speaks:  chap.  xiv.  14,  'And  the  wealth  of  all  the  heathen 
round  about  shall  be  gathered  together,  gold,  and  silver,  and  apparel, 
in  great  abundance.'  The  Lord  hath  promised  that  '  the  meek  shall 
inherit  the  earth,'  Mat.  v.  5  ;  and  '  heaven  and  earth  shall  pass  away, 
before  one  jot  or  one  tittle  of  his  word  shall  pass  unfulfilled,'  ver.  18. 
Ah,  poor  saints !  now  some  thrust  sore  at  you,  others  look  a-squint 
upon  you,  others  shut  the  door  against  you,  others  turn  their  backs 
upon  you,  aud  most  of  men  (except  it  be  a  few  that  live  much  in  God, 
and  are  filled  with  the  riches  of  Christ)  do  either  neglect  you  or 
despise  you  because  of  your  poverty  ;  but  the  day  is  coming  when  you 
shall  be  lifted  up  above  the  dunghill,  when  you  shall  change  poverty 
for  riches,  your  rags  for  robes,  your  reproach  for  a  crown  of  honour, 
your  infamy  for  glory,  even  in  this  world. 

And  this  is  not  all,  but  God  will  also  mightily  increase  the  number 
of  his  chosen  ones,  multitudes  shall  be  converted  to  him  :  '  Who  hath 
heard  such  a  thing?  who  hath  seen  such  things?  shall  the  earth  be 
made  to  bring  forth  in  one  day  ?  or  shall  a  nation  be  born  at  once  ? 
for  as  soon  as  Sion  travailed,  she  brought  forth  children.  And  they 
shall  bring  all  your  brethren  for  an  offering  unto  the  Lord,  out  of  all 
nations,  upon  horses,  and  in  chariots,  in  litters,  and  upon  mules,  and 
upon  swift  beasts,  to  my  holy  mountain  Jerusalem,  saith  the  Lord ; 
as  the  children  of  Israel  bring  an  offering  in  a  clean  vessel  into  the 
house  of  the  Lord,'  Isa.  lxvi.  8,  19,  20.  Doth  not  the  Scripture  say, 
that  '  the  kingdoms  of  this  world  must  become  the  kingdoms  of  our 
Lord'?  Rev.  xi.  15.  Hath  not  God  given  to  Christ  'the  heathen,  and 
the  uttermost  parts  of  the  earth  for  his  possession'?  Ps.  ii.  8.  Hath 
not  the  Lord  said,  that  in  '  the  last  days  the  mountain  of  the  Lord's 
house  shall  be  lifted  up  above  the  hills,  and  shall  be  established  in  the 
top  of  the  mountains,  and  all  nations  shall  flow  unto  it,'  Isa.  ii.  2  and 
liv.  14  and  lxi.  9.  Pray,  read,  and  meditate  upon  Isa.  lx.  and  lxvi.  and 
ii.  1-5,  and  there  you  shall  find  the  multitudes  that  shall  be  converted 
to  Christ.  And  oh  !  that  you  would  be  mighty  in  believing  ;  and,  in 
wrestling  with  God,  that  he  would  hasten  the  day  of  his  glory,  that 
the  reproach  that  is  now  upon  his  people  and  wa}rs  may  cease  ! 

The  sixth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  off  from  religious 
services  is, 

Device  (6).  By  presenting  before  them  the  examples  of  the  greatest 
part  of  the  world,  that  walk  in  the  ways  of  their  own  hearts,  <<  u<l  that 
make  light  and  slight  of  the  ways  of  the  Lord.1  Why,  saith  Satan, 
do  not  you  see  that  the  great  and  the  rich,  the  noble  and  the  honour- 
able, the  learned  and  the  wise,  even  the  greatest  number  of  men,  never 
trouble  themselves  about  such  and  such  ways,  and  why  then  should 

1  John  vii.  48,  49,  1  Cor.  i.  20,  28,  Micah  vii.  2-4. 

2  COR.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  85 

you  be  singular  and  nice  ?  You  were  far  better  do  as  the  most 
do,  &c. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider  Of  those  scriptures  that  make  directly  against 
following  the  sinful  examines  of  men.  As  that  in  Exodus,  '  Thou 
shalt  not  follow  a  multitude  to  do  evil,  neither  shalt  thou  speak  in  a 
cause  to  decline  after  many  to  wrest  judgment/  chap,  xxiii.  2.  The 
multitude  generally  are  ignorant,  and  know  not  the  way  of  the  Lord, 
therefore  they  speak  evil  of  that  they  know  not.  They  are  envious 
and  maliciously  bent  against  the  service  and  way  of  God,  and  there- 
fore they  cannot  speak  well  of  the  ways  of  God  :  '  This  way  is  every- 
where spoken  against,'  saith  they,  Acts  xxviii.  22.  So  in  Num.  xvi.  21, 
'  Separate  from  them,  and  come  out  from  among  them.'  So  the  apostle, 
'  Have  no  fellowship  with  the  unfruitful  works  of  darkness,'  Eph.  v.  1J. 
So  Solomon,  '  Enter  not  into  the  way  of  the  wicked ;  forsake  the  foolish, 
and  live,'  Pro  v.  iv.  14  and  ix.  6.  They  that  walk  with  the  most  shall 
perish  with  the  most.1  They  that  do  as  the  most  shall  ere  long  suffer 
with  the  most.  They  that  live  as  the  most,  must  die  with  the  most, 
and  to  hell  with  the  most. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  if  you  will  sin  with  the  multitude,  all  the 
angels  in  heaven  and  men  on  earth  cannot  keep  you  from  suffering 
with  the  multitude.  If  you  will  be  wicked  with  them,  you  must  un- 
avoidably be  miserable  with  them.2  Say  to  thy  soul,  0  my  soul !  if 
thou  wilt  sin  with  the  multitude,  thou  must  be  shut  out  of  heaven  with 
the  multitude,  thou  must  be  cast  down  to  hell  with  the  multitude  : 
'And  I  heard  a  voice  from  heaven  saying,  Come  out  of  her,  my  people, 
that  ye  be  not  partakers  of  her  sins,  and  that  ye  receive  not  of  her 
plagues,'  Rev.  xviii.  4.  Come  out  in  affection,  in  action,  and  in  habi- 
tation, for  else  the  infection  of  sin  will  bring  upon  you  the  infliction 
of  punishment.  So  saith  the  wise  man,  '  He  that  walketh  with  wise 
men  shall  be  wise,  but  a  companion  of  fools  shall  be  destroyed,'  or  as 
the  Hebrew  hath  it,  '  shall  be  broken  in  pieces,'  Prov.  xiii.  20.3  Mul- 
titudes may  help  thee  into  sin,  yea,  one  may  draw  thee  into  sin,  but  it 
is  not  multitudes  that  can  help  thee  to  escape  punishments  ;  as  you 
may  see  in  Moses  and  Aaron,  that  were  provoked  to  sin  by  the  multi- 
tude, but  were  shut  out  of  the  pleasant  land,  and  fell  by  a  hand  of 
justice  as  well  as  others. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  The  worth  and  excellency  of  thy  immortal  soul. 
Thy  soul  is  a  jewel  more  worth  than  heaven  and  earth.  The  loss  of 
thy  soul  is  incomparable,  irreparable,  and  irrecoverable  ;  if  that  be 
lost,  all  is  lost,  and  thou  art  undone  for  ever.  Is  it  madness  and  folly 
in  a  man  to  kill  himself  for  company,  and  is  it  not  greater  madness 
or  folly  to  break  the  neck  of  thy  soul,  and  to  damn  it  for  company  ? 

1  The  way  to  hell  is  broad  and  well  beaten.  The  way  to  be  undone  for  ever  is  to 
do  as  the  most  do.  ,  Argumentum  lurpissimum  est  turba.  the  multitude  is  the  weakest  and 
worst  argument,  saith  Seneca.     \De  Vita  Beata,  ii. — G.] 

2  Sin  and  punishment  are  linked  together  with  chains  of  adamant.  Of  sin  we  may 
say  as  Isidore  doth  of  the  serpent,  Tot  dolor es  quot  colores,  so  many  colours,  so  mauy 
dolours.  3  yiT,  Jeroange,  from  VD,  Ruange,  to  be  naught. 

86  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

Suspect  that  way  wherein  thou  seest  multitudes  to  walk ;  the  multi- 
tude being  a  stream  that  thou  must  row  hard  against,  or  thou  wilt  be 
carried  into  that  gulf  out  of  which  angels  cannot  deliver  thee.  Is  it 
not  better  to  walk  in  a  straight  way  alone,  than  to  wander  into  crooked 
ways  with  company  ?  Sure  it  is  better  to  go  to  heaven  alone  than  to 
hell  with  company. 

I  might  add  other  things,  but  these  may  suffice  for  the  present;  and 
I  am  afraid,  if  these  arguments  do  not  stir  you,  other  arguments  will 
work  but  little  upon  you.1 

The  seventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  off  from  holy  ex- 
ercises, from  religious  services,  is, 

Device  (7).  By  casting  in  a  multitude  of  vain  thoughts,  whilst 
the  soul  is  in  seeking  of  God,  or  in  waiting  on  God ;  and  by  this 
device  he  hath  cooled  some  men's  spirits  in  heavenly  services,  and 
taken  off,  at  least  for  a  time,  many  precious  souls  from  religious  per- 
formances. I  have  no  heart  to  hear,  nor  no  heart  to  pray,  nor  no 
delight  in  reading,  nor  in  the  society  of  the  saints,  &c.  Satan  doth  so 
dog  and  follow  my  soul,  and  is  still  a-casting  in  such  a  multitude  of 
vain  thoughts  concerning  God,  the  world,  and  my  own  soul,  &c,  that 
I  even  tremble  to  think  of  waiting  upon  God  in  any  religious  service. 
Oh  !  the  vain  thoughts  that  Satan  casts  in  do  so  distaste  my  soul,  and 
so  grieve,  vex,  perplex,  and  distract  my  soul,  that  they  even  make  me 
weary  of  holy  duties,  yea,  of  my  very  life.  Oh  !  I  cannot  be  so  raised 
and  ravished,  so  heated  and  melted,  so  quickened  aud  enlarged,  so 
comforted  and  refreshed,  as  I  should  be,  as  I  might  be,  and  as  I  would 
be  in  religious  services,  by  reason  of  that  multitude  of  vain  thoughts, 
that  Satan  is  injecting  or  casting  into  my  soul,  &c.2 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  of  Satan  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
have  your  hearts  strongly  affected  with  the  greatness,  holinesss, 
majesty,  and  glory  of  that  God  before  whom  you  stand,  and  with 
whom  your  souls  do  converse  in  religious  services.  Oh  !  let  your  souls 
be  greatly  affected  with  the  presence,  purity,  and  majesty  of  that  God 
before  whom  thou  standest.  A  man  would  be  afraid  of  playing  with 
a  feather,  when  he  is  speaking  with  a  king.  Ah  !  when  men  have 
poor,  low,  light,  slight,  &c,  thoughts  of  God,  in  their  drawing  near  to 
God,  they  tempt  the  devil  to  bestir  himself,  and  to  cast  in  a  multitude 
of  vain  thoughts  to  disturb  and  distract  the  soul  in  its  waiting  on  God. 
There  is  nothing  that  will  contribute  so  much  to  the  keeping  out  of 
vain  thoughts,  as  to  look  upon  God  as  an  omniscient  God,  an  omni- 
present God,  an  omnipotent  God,  a  God  full  of  all  glorious  perfections, 
a  God  whose  majesty,  purity,  and  glory  will  not  suffer  him  to  behold 
the  least  iniquity.3  The  reason  why  the  blessed  saints  and  glorious 
angels  in  heaven  have  not  so  much  as  one  vain  thought  is,  because 

1  What  wise  man  would  fetch  gold  out  of  a  fiery  crucible,  hazard  his  immortal  soul, 
to  gain  the  world,  by  following  a  multitude  in  those  steps  that  lead  to  the  chambers  of 
death  and  darkness '? 

-  Vellem  servire  Domino,  sed  cogitatioms  non  patiuntur ;  Lord,  now  how  fain  would  I 
serve  thee,  and  vain  thoughts  will  not  suffer  me  ! 

3  When  1'ompey  could  not  keep  his  soldiers  in  the  camp  by  persuasion,  he  cast  him- 
self all  along  in  the  narrow  passage  that  led  out  of  it,  and  bid  them  go  if  you  will,  but 
you  must  first  trample  upon  your  general ;  and  the  thoughts  of  this  overcame  them. 
You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it  to  the  point  in  hand. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  87 

they  are  greatly  affected  with  the  greatness,  holiness,  majesty,  purity, 
and  glory  of  God. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
be  peremptory  in  religious  services,  notwithstanding  all  those  wan- 
dering thoughts  the  soul  is  troubled  with.  This  will  be  a  sweet  help 
against  them  :  for  the  soul  to  be  resolute  in  waiting  on  God,  whether 
it  be  troubled  with  vain  thoughts  or  not  ;x  to  say,  Well  I  will  pray 
still,  and  hear  still,  and  meditate  still,  and  keep  fellowship  with  the 
saints  still.  Many  precious  souls  can  say  from  experience,  that  when 
their  souls  have  been  peremptory  in  their  waiting  on  God,  that  Satan 
hath  left  them,  and  hath  not  been  so  busy  in  vexing  their  souls  with 
vain  thoughts.  When  Satan  perceives  that  all  those  trifling  vain 
thoughts  that  he  casts  into  the  soul  do  but  vex  the  soul  into  greater 
diligence,  carefulness,  watchfulness,  and  peremptoriness  in  holy  and 
heavenly  services,  and  that  the  soul  loses  nothing  of  his  zeal,  piety, 
and  devotion,  but  doubles  his  care,  diligence,  and  earnestness,  he  often 
ceases  to  interpose  his  trifles  and  vain  thoughts,  as  he  ceased  to  tempt 
Christ,  when  Christ  was  peremptory  in  resisting  his  temptations. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider  this,  That  those  vain  and  trifling  thoughts  that  are  cast  into 
our  souls,  when  we  are  waiting  upon  God  in  this  or  that  religious 
service,  if  they  be  not  cherished  and  indulged,  but  abhorred,  resisted, 
and  disclaimed,  they  are  not  sins  upon  our  souls,  though  they  may 
be  troubles  to  our  minds  ;  they  shall  not  be  put  upon  our  accounts, 
nor  keep  mercies  and  blessings  from  being  enjoyed  by  ^ls.  When  a 
soul  in  uprightness  can  look  God  in  the  face,  and  say,  Lord,  when  I 
approach  near  unto  thee,  there  be  a  world  of  vain  thoughts  crowd 
in  upon  me,  that  do  disturb  my  soul,  and  weaken  my  faith,  and  lessen 
my  comfort  and  spiritual  strength.  Oh,  these  are  my  clog,  my  burden, 
my  torment,  my  hell  !  Oh,  do  justice  upon  these,  free  me  from  these, 
that  I  may  serve  thee  with  more  freeness,  singleness,  spiritual ness,  and 
sweetness  of  spirit.2  These  thoughts  may  vex  that  soul,  but  they  shall 
not  harm  that  soul,  nor  keep  a  blessing  from  that  soul.  If  vain 
thoughts  resisted  and  lamented  could  stop  the  current  of  mercy,  and 
render  a  soul  unhappy,  there  would  be  none  on  earth  that  should  ever 
taste  of  mercy,  or  be  everlastingly  happy. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  watching  against  sinful  thoughts,  resist- 
ing of  sinful  thoughts,  lamenting  and  weeping  over  sinful  thoughts, 
carries  with  it  the  siveetest  and  strongest  evidence  of  the  truth  and 
power  of  grace,  and  of  (he  sincerity  of  your  hearts,  and  is  the  readiest 
and  the  surest  way  to  be  rid  of  them,  Ps.  cxxxix.  23.  Many  low  and 
carnal  considerations  may  work  men  to  watch  their  words,  their  lives, 
their  actions  ;  as  hope  of  gain,  or  to  please  friends,  or  to  get  a  name  in 
the  world,  and  many  other  such  like  considerations.    Oh  !  but  to  watch 

1  It  is  a  rule  in  the  civil  law,  Nee  videtur  actum,  si  quid  supersit  quod  agatur,  nothing 
seems  to  be  done,  if  there  remains  aught  to  be  done.  Si  dixisti,  Sufficit,  periisli,  if  once 
thou  sayest  it  is  enough,  thou  art  undone,  saith  Augustine. 

*  It  is  not  Satan  casting  in  of  vain  thoughts  that  can  keep  mercy  from  the  soul,  or 
undo  the  soul,  but  the  lodging  and  cherishing  of  vain  thoughts:  '  0  Jerusalem,  how  long 
shall  vain  thoughts  lodge  within  thee?'  Jer.  iv.  14;  Heb.  *  in  the  midst  of  thee.'  They 
pass  through  the  best  hearts,  they  are  lodged  and  cherished  only  in  the  worst  hearts. 

88  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

our  thoughts,  to  weep  and  lament  over  them,  &c.,  this  must  needs 
be  from  some  noble,  spiritual,  and  internal  principle,  as  love  to  God,  a 
holy  fear  of  God,  a  holy  care  and  delight  to  please  the  Lord,  &C.1  The 
schools  do  well  observe,  that  outward  sins  are  of  greater  infamy,  majoris 
infamiai;  but  inward  heart  sins  are  of  greater  guilt,  majoris  reatus; 
as  we  see  in  the  devil's.  There  is  nothing  that  so  speaks  out  a  man  to  be 
thoroughly  and  kindly  wrought  upon,  as  his  having  his  thoughts  to  be 
•  brought  into  obedience,'  as  the  apostle  speaks,  2  Cor.  x.  4,  5.  Grace  is 
grown  up  to  a  very  great  height  in  that  soul  where  it  prevails,  to  the 
subduing  of  those  vain  thoughts  that  walk  up  and  down  in  the  soul.2 
Well !  though  you  cannot  be  rid  of  them,  yet  make  resistance  and  opposi- 
tion against  the  first  risings  of  them.  When  sinful  thoughts  arise,  then 
think  thus,  The  Lord  takes  notice  of  these  thoughts  ;  '  he  knows  them 
afar  off,'  as  the  Psalmist  speaks,  Ps.  xxxviii.  G.  He  knew  Herod's 
bloody  thoughts,  and  Judas  his  betraying  thoughts,  and  the  Pharisees' 
cruel  and  blasphemous  thoughts  afar  off.3  Oh  !  think  thus  :  All  these 
sinful  thoughts,  they  defile  and  pollute  the  soul,  they  deface  and  spoil 
much  of  the  inward  beauty  and  glory  of  the  soul.  If  I  commit  this 
or  that  sin,  to  which  my  thoughts  incline  me,  then  either  I  must  re- 
pent or  not  repent;  if  I  repent,  it  will  cost  me  more  grief,  sorrow, 
shame,  heart-breaking,  and  soul-bleeding,  before  my  conscience  will 
be  quieted,  divine  justice  pacified,  my  comfort  and  joy  restored,  my 
evidences  cleared,  and  my  pardon  in  the  court  of  conscience  sealed, 
than  the  imagined  profit  or  seeming  sensual  pleasure  can  be  v\orth  : 
'  What  fruit  had  you  in  those  things  whereof  you  are  now  ashamed,' 
Rom.  vi.  21. * 

If  I  never  repent,  oh  !  then  my  sinful  thoughts  will  be  scorpions  that 
will  eternally  vex  me,  the  rods  that  will  eternally  lash  me,  the  thorns 
that  will  everlastingly  prick  me,  the  dagger  that  will  be  eternally 
a-stabbing  me,  the  worm  that  will  be  for  ever  a-gnawing  me  !  Oh  ! 
therefore,  watch  against  them,  be  constant  in  resisting  them,  and  in 
lamenting  and  weeping  over  them,  and  then  they  shall  not  hurt  thee, 
though  they  may  for  a  time  trouble  thee.  And  remember  this,  he 
that  doth  this  doth  more  than  the  most  glistering  and  blustering 
hypocrite  in  the  world  doth.5 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
labour  more  and  more  to  be  filled  with  tlie  fulness  of  God,  and  to  be 
enriched  with  all  spiritual  and  heavenly  things.  What  is  the  reason 
that  the  angels  in  heaven  have  not  so  much  as  an  idle  thought  ?  It 
is  because  they  are  filled  with  the  fulness  of  God,  Eph.  iii.  19.6  Take 
it  for  an  experienced  truth,  the  more  the  soul  is  filled  with  the  fulness 
of  God  and  enriched  with  spiritual  and  heavenly  things,  the  less  room 

1  Thoughts  are  the  first-born,  the  blossoms  of  the  soul,  the  beginning  of  our  strength, 
whether  for  good  or  evil,  and  they  are  the  greatest  evidences  for  or  against  a  man  that 
can  be. 

2  Ps.  exxxix.  23  ;  Isa.  lix.  7,  lxvi.  18  ;  Mat.  ix.  4.  xii.  25. 

8  Zeno,  a  wise  heathen,  affirmed  God  even  beheld  the  thoughts.    Mat  xv.  15-18. 

4  Tears  instead  of  gems  were  tho  ornaments  of  David's  bed  when  lie  had 'sinned; 
and  b  I  they  must  be  thine,  or  else  thou  must  lie  down  in  the  bed  of  sorrow  forever. 

5  Inward  bleeding  kills  man  J  a  man  ;  so  will  sinful  thoughts,  if  not  repented  of. 

6  The  words  are  an  Hebraism.  The,  Hebrews,  when  they  would  set  out  many  ex- 
cellent things,  they  add  the  name  of  God  to  it:  city  of  God,  cedars  of  God,  wrestlings  of 
God.     So  here,  '  That  ye  may  be  tilled  with  the  fulness  of  God.' 

2  Cor  11.11]  against  sat  an  's  devices.  89 

there  is  in  that  soul  for  vain  thoughts.  The  fuller  the  vessel  is  of  wine, 
the  less  room  there  is  for  water.  Oh,  then,  lay  up  much  of  God,  of 
Christ,  of  precious  promises,  and  choice  experiences  in  your  hearts,  and 
then  you  will  be  less  troubled  with  vain  thoughts.  '  A  good  man,  out 
of  the  good  treasure  of  his  heart,  bringeth  forth  good  things,'  Mat. 
xii.  35. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
keep  up  holy  and  spiritual  affections  ;  for  such  as  your  affections 
are,  such  will  be  your  thoughts.  '  Oh  how  I  love  thy  law  !  it  is  my 
meditation  all  the  day,'  Ps.  cxix.  97.  What  we  love  most,  we  most 
muse  upon.  '  When  I  awake,  I  am  still  with  thee/  Ps.  cxxxix.,  &c. 
That  which  we  much  like,  we  shall  much  mind.  They  that  are  fre- 
quent in  their  love  to  God  and  his  law,  will  be  frequent  in  thinking  of 
God  and  his  law :  a  child  will  not  forget  his  mother. 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  avoid  multiplicity  of  worldly  business.  Oh  let  not  the  world 
take  up  your  hearts  and  thoughts  at  other  times.  Souls  that  are  torn 
in  pieces  with  the  cares  of  the  world  will  be  always  vexed  and  tor- 
mented with  vain  thoughts  in  all  their  approaches  to  God.1  Vain 
thoughts  will  be  still  crowding  in  upon  him  that  lives  in  a  crowd  of 
business.  The  stars  which  have  least  circuit  are  nearest  the  pole  ; 
and  men  that  are  least  perplexed  with  business  are  commonly  nearest 
to  God. 

The  eighth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  hinder  souls  from  religious 
services,  from  holy  performances,  is, 

Device  (8).  By  working  them  to  rest  in  their  performances ;  to 
rest  in  prayer,  and  to  rest  in  hearing,  reading,  and  the  communion 
of  saints,  &c.  And  when  Satan  hath  drawn  the  soul  to  rest  upon  the 
service  done,  then  he  will  help  the  soul  to  reason  thus :  Why,  thou 
Avert  as  good  never  pray,  as  to  pray  and  rest  in  prayer ;  as  good  never 
hear,  as  to  hear  and  rest  in  hearing  ;  as  good  never  be  in  the  com- 
munion of  saints,  as  to  rest  in  the  communion  of  saints.  And  by  this 
device  he  stops  many  souls  in  their  heavenly  race,  and  takes  off  poor 
souls  from  those  services  that  should  be  their  joy  and  crown,  Isa. 
lviii.  1-3,  Zech.  vii.  4-6,  Mat,  vi.  2,  Rom.  i.  7. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  much  upon  the  imperfections  and  weaknesses  that  do  attend 
your  choicest  services.  Oh  the  spots,  the  blots,  the  blemishes  that  are 
to  be  seen  on  the  face  of  our  fairest  duties  ! 2  When  thou  hast  done 
all  thou  canst,  thou  hast  need  to  close  up  all  with  this,  '  Oh  enter  not 
into  judgment  with  thy  servant,  O  Lord,'  Ps.  cxliii.  2,  for  the  weak- 
nesses that  cleave  to  my  best  services.  We  may  all  say  with  the 
church,  '  All  our  righteousnesses  are  as  a  menstruous  cloth/  Isa.  lxiv.  6. 
If  God  should  be  strict  to  mark  what  is  done  amiss  in  our  best  actions, 
we  are  undone.  Oh  the  water  that  is  mingled  with  our  wine,  the 
dross  that  cleaves  unto  our  gold  ! 

1  2  Tim.  ii.  4,  l^vxtxtrat,  is  entangled  ;  it  is  a  comparison  which  St  Paul  borroweth 
from  the  custom  of  the  Roman  empire,  wherein  soldiers  were  forbidden  to  be  proctors 
of  other  men's  causes,  to  undertake  husbandry  or  merchandise. 

2  Pride  and  high  confidence  is  most  apt  to  creep  in  upon  duties  well  done,  saith  one. 

90  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider  The  impotence  and  inability  of  any  of  your  best  services, 
divinely  to  comfort,  refresh,  and  bear  your  souls  up  from  faint- 
ing, and  sinking  in  the  days  of  trouble,  when  darkness  is  round 
about  you,  when  God  shall  say  to  you,  as  he  did  once  to  the  Israelites, 
1  Go  and  cry  unto  the  gods  that  you  have  chosen  ;  let  them  save  you 
in  the  time  of  your  tribulation,'  Judges  x.  J  4.  So,  when  God  shall  say 
in  the  day  of  your  troubles,  Go  to  your  prayers,  to  your  hearing,  and 
to  your  fasting,  &c,  and  see  if  they  can  help  you,  if  they  can  support 
you,  if  they  can  deliver  you.1  If  God  in  that  day  doth  but  withhold 
the  influence  of  his  grace,  thy  former  services  will  be  but  poor  cordials 
to  comfort  thee  ;  and  then  thou  must  and  will  cry  out,  Oh,  'none  but 
Christ,  none  but  Christ.'  Oh  my  prayers  are  not  Christ,  my  hearing 
is  not  Christ,  my  fasting  is  not  Christ,  &c.  Oh  !  one  smile  of  Christ, 
one  glimpse  of  Christ,  one  good  word  from  Christ,  one  nod  of  love  from 
Christ  in  the  day  of  trouble  and  darkness,  will  more  revive  and  refresh 
the  soul  than  all  your  former  services,  in  which  your  souls  rested,  as  if 
they  were  the  bosom  of  Christ,  which  should  be  the  only  centre  of  our 
souls.  Christ  is  the  crown  of  crowns,  the  glory  of  glories,  and  the 
heaven  of  heavens. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  good  things  rested  upon  will  as  certainly 
undo  us,  and  everlastingly  destroy  us,  as  the  greatest  enormities  that 
can  be  committed  by  us.  Those  souls  that  after  they  have  done  all, 
do  not  look  up  so  high  as  Christ,  and  rest,  and  centre  alone  in  Christ, 
laying  down  their  services  at  the  footstool  of  Christ,  must  lie  down  in 
sorrow  ;  their  bread  is  prepared  for  them  in  hell.  '  Behold,  all  ye  that 
kindle  a  fire,  compass  yourselves  with  the  sparks :  and  walk  in  the 
light  of  your  fire,  and  in  the  sparks  ye  have  kindled.  This  shall  ye 
have  at  mine  hands  ;  ye  shall  lie  down  in  sorrow,'  Isa.  1. 11.  Is  it  good 
dwelling  with  everlasting  burnings,  with  a  devouring  fire  ?  If  it  be, 
why  then  rest  in  your  duties  still ;  if  otherwise,  then  see  that  you 
centre  only  in  the  bosom  of  Christ. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  much  upon  the  necessity  and  excellency  of  that  resting-p)lace 
that  God  hath  provided  for  you.  Above  all  other  resting-places  him- 
self is  your  resting-place  ;  his  free  mercy  and  love  is  your  resting-place  ; 
the  pure,  glorious,  matchless,  and  spotless  righteousness  of  Christ  is 
your  resting-place.  Ah  !  it  is  sad  to  think,  that  most  men  have  for- 
gotten their  resting-place,  as  the  Lord  complains:  'My  people  have  been 
as  lost  sheep,  their  shepherds  have  caused  them  to  go  astray,  and  have 
turned  them  away  to  the  mountains :  they  are  gone  from  mountain 
to  hill,  and  forgotten  their  resting-place/ J er.  1.  6.  So  poor  souls  that 
see  not  the  excellency  of  that  resting-place  that  God  hath  appointed 
for  their  souls  to  lie  down  in,  they  wander  from  mountain  to  hill,  from 
one  duty  to  another,  and  here  they  will  rest  and  there  they  will  rest ; 
but  souls  that  see  the  excellency  of  that  resting-place  that  God  hath 
provided  for  them,  they  will  say,  Farewell  prayer,  farewell  hearing, 
farewell  fasting,  &c,  I  will  rest  no  more  in  you,  but  now  I  will  rest 

1  Omne  bonum  in  summo  bono,  all  good  ia  in  the  cbiefcst  good.  Nee  Christus,  nee 
caelum  patitur  hyperbolem. 

2  Cor.  II  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  91 

only  in  the  bosom  of  Christ,  the  love  of  Christ,  the  righteousness  of 

III.  The  third  thing  to  be  shewed  is, 

The  several  devices  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubt- 
ing, questioning,  and  uncomfortable  condition. 

Though  he  can  never  rob  a  believer  of  his  crown,  yet  such  is  his 
malice  and  envy,  that  he  will  leave  no  stone  unturned,  no  means  un- 
attempted,  to  rob  them  of  their  comfort  and  peace,  to  make  their  life 
a  burden  and  a  hell  unto  them,  to  cause  them  to  spend  their  days  in 
sorrow  and  mourning,  in  sighing  and  complaining,  in  doubting  and 
questioning.  Surely  we  have  no  interest  in  Christ ;  our  graces  are  not 
true,  our  hopes  are  the  hopes  of  hypocrites ;  our  confidence  is  our 
presumption,  our  enjoyments  are  our  delusions,  &C1 

I  shall  shew  you  this  in  some  particulars,  &c. 

Device  1.  The  first  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad, 
doubting,  and  questioning  condition,  and  so  making  their  life  a  hell, 
is,  By  causing  them  to  be  still  poring  and  musing  upon  sin,  to 
mind  their  sins  more  than  their  Saviour;  yea,  so  to  mind  their  sins 
as  to  forget,  yea,  to  neglect  their  Saviour;  that,  as  the  Psalmist  speaks, 
■  The  Lord  is  not  in  all  their  thoughts,'  Ps.  x.  4.  Their  eyes  are  so 
fixed  upon  their  disease,  that  they  cannot  see  the  remedy,  though  it 
be  near ;  and  they  do  so  muse  upon  their  debts,  that  they  have  neither 
mind  nor  heart  to  think  of  their  Surety,  &c.2 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these. 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  is  for  weak  believers  to  consider, 
That  though  Jesus  Christ  hath  not  freed  them  from  the  presence  of 
sin,  yet  he  hath  freed  them  from  the  damnatory  power  of  sin.  It  is 
most  true  that  sin  and  grace  were  never  born  together,  neither  shall 
sin  and  grace  die  together ;  yet  while  a  believer  breathes  in  this 
world,  they  must  live  together,  they  must  keep  house  together. 
Christ  in  this  life  will  not  free  any  believer  from  the  presence  of  any 
one  sin,  though  he  doth  free  every  believer  from  the  damning  power 
of  every  sin.  '  There  is  no  condemnation  to  them  that  are  in  Christ 
Jesus,  who  walk  not  after  the  flesh,  but  after  the  Spirit,'  Rom.  viii.  1. 
The  law  cannot  condemn  a  believer,  for  Christ  hath  fulfilled  it  for 
him  ;  divine  justice  cannot  condemn  him,  for  that  Christ  hath  satis- 
fied ;  his  sins  cannot  condemn  him,  for  they  in  the  blood  of  Christ  are 
pardoned  ;  and  his  own  conscience,  upon  righteous  grounds,  cannot 
condemn  him,  because  Christ,  that  is  greater  than  his  conscience,  hath 
acquitted  him.3 
Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 

1  Blessed  Bradford,  in  one  of  his  epistles,  saith  thus,  '  0  Lord,  sometime  methinks  I 
feel  it  so  with  me,  as  if  there  were  no  difference  between  my  heart  and  the  wicked.  I 
have  a  blind  mind  as  they,  a  stout,  stubborn,  rebellious  hard  heart  as  they,'  and  so  he 
goes  on,  &c  [A  frequent  plaint  by  this  holy  man.  See  his  '  Writings,'  consisting 
mainly  of  '  Letters,'  by  Townsend  (Parker  Society),  1853. — G.] 

2  A  Christian  should  wear  Christ  in  his  bosom  as  a  flower  of  delight,  for  he  is  a  wbole 
paradise  of  delight.  He  that  mind3  not  Christ  more  than  his  sin,  can  never  be  thankful 
aud  fruitful  as  he  should. 

8  Peccata  enim  non  nocent,  si  non  placent,  my  sins  hurt  me  not,  if  they  like  me  not. 
Sin  is  like  that  wild  fig-tree,  or  ivy  in  the  wall ;  cut  off  stump,  body,  bouph,  and 
branches,  yet  some  strings  or  other  will  sprout  out  again,  till  the  wall  be  plucked  down. 

92  PRFX'IOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

consider,  That  /hovgh  Jesus  Christ  hath  not  freed  you  from  the  mo- 
letit  i-)i()  a  ml  resin;/  /xnrer  if  sin,  yet  he  hath  freed  you  from  the  reign 
and  tluiiii  nioit  if  sin.  Thou  sayest  that  sin  doth  so  molest  and  vex 
thee,  that  thou  canst  not  think  of  God,  nor  go  to  God,  nor  speak  with 
God.1  Oh  !  but  remember  it  is  one  thing  for  sin  to  molest  and  vex 
thee,  and  another  thing  tor  sin  to  reign  and  have  dominion  over  thee. 
'  For  sin  shall  not  have  dominion  over  you,  for  ye  are  not  under  the 
law,  but  under  grace,'  Rom.  vi.  14-.  Sin  may  rebel,  but  it  shall  never 
reign  in  a  saint.  It  fareth  with  sin  in  the  regenerate  as  with  those 
beasts  that  Daniel  speaks  of,  'that  had  their  dominion  taken  away, 
yet  their  lives  were  prolonged  for  a  season  and  a  time,'  Dan.  vii.  12. 

Now  sin  reigns  in  the  soul  when  the  soul  willingly  and  readily 
obeys  it,  and  subjects  to  its  commands,  as  subjects  do  actively  obey 
and  embrace  the  commands  of  their  prince.  The  commands  of  a  king 
are  readily  embraced  and  obeyed  by  his  subjects,  but  the  commands 
of  a  tyrant  are  embraced  and  obeyed  unwillingly.  All  the  service 
that  is  done  to  a  tyrant  is  out  of  violence,  and  not  out  of  obedience. 
A  free  and  willing  subjection  to  the  commands  of  sin  speaks  out  the 
soul  to  be  under  the  reign  and  dominion  of  sin  ;  but  from  this  plague, 
this  hell,  Christ  frees  all  believers.2  Sin  cannot  say  of  a  believer  as 
the  centurion  said  of  his  servants,  '  I  bid  one  Go,  and  he  goeth ;  and  to 
another,  Come,  and  he  cometh ;  and  to  another,  Do  this,  and  he  doth  it,' 
Mat.  viii.  9.  No  !  the  heart  of  a  saint  riseth  against  the  commands  of 
sin ;  and  when  sin  would  carry  his  soul  to  the  devil,  he  hales  his  sin 
before  the  Lord,  and  cries  out  for  justice.  Lord  !  saith  the  believing 
soul,  sin  plays  the  tyrant,  the  devil  in  me ;  it  would  have  me  to  do 
that  which  makes  against  thy  holiness  as  well  as  against  my  happi- 
ness ;  against  thy  honour  and  glory,  as  my  comfort  and  peace  ;  there- 
fore do  me  justice,  thou  righteous  Judge  of  heaven  and  earth,  and  let 
this  tyrant  sin  die  for  it,  &c. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
Constantly  to  keep  one  eye  upon  the  promises  of  remission  of  sin,  as 
well  as  the  otlter  eye  upon  the  inward  operations  of  sin.  This  is  the 
most  certain  truth,  that  God  would  graciously  pardon  those  sins  to 
his  people  that  he  will  not  in  this  life  fully  subdue  in  his  people. 
Paul  prays  thrice,  i.e.  often,  to  be  delivered  from  the  thorn  in  the 
flesh.  All  he  can  get  is,  '  My  grace  is  sufficient  for  thee/  2  Cor.  xii.  9; 
I  will  graciously  pardon  that  to  thee  that  I  will  not  conquer  in  thee, 
saith  God.  '  And  I  will  cleanse  them  from  all  their  iniquity,  whereby 
they  have  sinned  against  me,  and  whereby  they  have  transgressed 
against  inc.  I,  even  I,  am  he  that  blotteth  out  thy  transgressions  for 
mine  own  sake,  and  will  not  remember  thy  sins,'*  Jer.  xxxiii.  8,  Isa. 

1  The  primitive  Christians  chose  rather  to  be  thrown  to  lions  without  than  left  to 
within.  Ad  leones  may  is  quam  leonem,  saith  Tertullian.  [Often  in  his  famous 
'  Apology.'— G.] 

"  It  is  a  sign  that  sin  hath  not  gained  your  consent,  but  committed  a  rape  upon  your 
souls,  when  you  cry  out  to  God.  If  the  ravished  virgin  under  the  law  cried  out,  she  was 
guiltless,  Deut,  xxii.  27;  so  when  sin  plays  the  tyrant  over  the  soul,  and  the  soul 
cries  out,  it  is  guiltless  ;  those  sins  shall  not  be  charged  upon  the  soul. 

3  Isa.  xliv.  22,  Micah  vii.  18,  19,  Col.  ii.  13,  14.  The  promises  of  God  are  a  precious 
hook,  every  leaf  drops  myrrh  and  mercy.  Though  the  weak  Christian  cannot  open, 
read,  and  apply  them,  Christ  can  and  will  apply  them  to  their  souls.     nTV3,  an  Hebrew 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  93 

xliii.  25.  Ah  !  you  lamenting  souls,  that  spend  your  days  in  sighing 
and  groaning  under  the  sense  and  burden  of  your  sins,  why  do  you 
deal  so  unkindly  with  God,  and  so  injuriously  with  your  own  souls,  as 
not  to  cast  an  eye  upon  those  precious  promises  of  remission  of  sin 
which  may  bear  up  and  refresh  your  spirits  in  the  darkest  night,  and 
under  the  heaviest  burden  of  sin  ? 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  look  upon  all  your  sins  as  charged  upon  the  account  of  Christ, 
as  debts  which  the  Lord  Jesus  hath  fully  satisfied;  and  indeed,  were 
there  but  one  farthing  of  that  debt  unpaid  that  Christ  was  engaged  to 
satisfy,  it  would  not  have  stood  with  the  unspotted  justice  of  God  to 
have  let  him  come  into  heaven  and  sit  down  at  his  own  right  hand. 
But  all  our  debts,  by  his  death,  being  discharged,  we  are  freed,  and  he 
is  exalted  to  sit  down  at  the  right  hand  of  his  Father,  which  is  the 
top  of  his  glory,  and  the  greatest  pledge  of  our  felicity :  '  For  he  hath 
made  him  to  be  sin  for  us  that  knew  no  sin,  that  we  might  be  made 
the  righteousness  of  God  in  him/  saith  the  apostle,  2  Cor.  v.  2 1.1  All 
our  sins  were  made  to  meet  upon  Christ,  as  that  evangelical  prophet 
hath  it :  '  He  was  wounded  for  our  transgressions,  he  was  bruised  for 
our  iniquities,  the  chastisement  of  our  peace  was  upon  him,  and  with 
his  stripes  we  are  healed.  All  we  like  sheep  have  gone  astray,  we 
have  turned  every  one  to  his  own  way,  and  the  Lord  hath  laid  on  him 
the  iniquity  of  us  all  \  or,  as  the  Hebrew  hath  it,  '  He  hath  made  the 
iniquity  of  us  all  to  meet  in  him,'  Isa.  liii.  5,  6.  In  law,  we  know  that 
all  the  debts  of  the  wife  are  charged  upon  the  husband.  Saith  the 
wife  to  one  and  to  another,  If  I  owe  you  anything,  go  to  my  husband. 
So  may  a  believer  say  to  the  law,  and  to  the  justice  of  God,  If  I  owe 
you  anything,  go  to  my  Christ,  who  hath  undertaken  for  me.  I  must 
not  sit  down  discouraged,  under  the  apprehension  of  those  debts,  that 
Christ,  to  the  utmost  farthing,  hath  fully  satisfied.  Would  it  not 
argue  much  weakness,  I  had  almost  said  much  madness,  for  a  debtor 
to  sit  down  discouraged  upon  his  looking  over  those  debts  that  his 
surety  hath  readily,  freely,  and  fully  satisfied  ?  The  sense  of  his  great 
love  should  engage  a  man  for  ever  to  love  and  honour  his  surety,  and 
to  bless  that  hand  that  hath  paid  the  debt,  and  crossed  the  books,  &c. 
But  to  sit  down  discouraged  when  the  debt  is  satisfied,  is  a  sin  that 
bespeaks  repentance.2 

Christ  hath  cleared  all  reckoning  betwixt  God  and  us.  You  re- 
member the  scapegoat.  Upon  his  head  all  the  iniquities  of  the  children 
of  Israel,  and  all  their  transgressions  in  all  their  sins,  were  confessed 
and  put,  and  the  goat  did  bear  upon  him  all  their  iniquities,  &c,  Lev. 
xvi.  21.  Why !  the  Lord  Jesus  is  that  blessed  scapegoat,  upon  whom 
all  our  sins  were  laid,  and  who  alone  hath  carried  '  our  sins  away  into 
the  land  of  forge tfulness,  where  they  shall  never  be  remembered  more/3 

participle,  and  notes  a  constant,  a  continued  act  of  God.  I,  I  am  he,  blotting  out  thy 
transgressions  to  day  and  to-morrow,  &c. 

1  Christ  was  peccatorum  maximus,  the  greatest  of  sinners  by  imputation  and  reputation. 

2  Christ  hath  the  greatest  worth  and  wealth  in  him.  As  the  worth  and  value  of  many 
pieces  of  silver  is  in  one  piece  of  gold,  so  all  the  excellencies  scattered  abroad  in  the 
creatures  are  united  in  Christ.  All  the  whole  volume  of  perfections  which  are  spread 
through  heaven  and  earth  are  epitomised  in  him. 

3  Christ  is  canalis  gratia,  the  channel  of  grace  from  God. 

94  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

A  believer,  under  the  guilt  of  bis  sin,  may  look  the  Lord  in  the  face, 
and  sweetly  plead  thus  with  him :  It  is  true,  Lord,  I  owed  thee  much, 
but  thy  Sou  was  my  ransom,  my  redemption.  His  blood  was  the  price ; 
he  was  my  surety  and  undertook  to  answer  for  my  sins  ;  1  know  thou 
must  be  satisfied,  and  Christ  hath  satisfied  thee  to  the  utmost  farthing : 
not  for  himself,  for  what  sins  had  he  of  his  own  ?  but  for  me  ;  they  were 
my  debts  that  he  satisfied  for  ;  be  pleased  to  look  over  the  book,  and 
thou  shalt  fiud  that  it  is  crossed  by  thy  own  hand  upon  this  very  account, 
that  Christ  hath  suffered  and  satisfied  for  them.1 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  Of  the  reasons  why  the  Lord  is  pleased  to  have  his  people 
exercised,  troubled,  and  vexed  with  the  operations  of  sinful  corrup- 
tions;  and  they  are  these  :  partly  to  keep  them  humble  and  low  in 
their  own  eyes  ;2  and  partly  to  put  them  upon  the  use  of  all  divine  helps, 
whereby  sin  may  be  subdued  and  mortified  ;  and  partly,  that  they  may 
live  upon  Christ  for  the  perfecting  the  work  of  sanctification  ;  and 
partly,  to  wean  them  from  things  below,  and  to  make  them  heart-sick 
of  their  absence  from  Christ,  and  to  maintain  in  them  bowels  of  com- 
passion towards  others  that  are  subject  to  the  same  infirmities  with 
them  ;  and  that  they  may  distinguish  between  a  state  of  grace  and  a 
state  of  glory,  and  that  heaven  may  be  more  sweet  to  them  in  the  close. 
Now  doth  the  Lord  upon  these  weighty  reasons  suffer  his  people  to  be 
exercised  and  molested  with  the  operations  of  sinful  corruptions  ?  Oh 
then,  let  no  believer  speak,  write,  or  conclude  bitter  things  against  his 
own  soul  and  comforts,  because  that  sin  troubles  and  vexes  his  righteous 
soul,  &c. ;  but  lay  his  hand  upon  his  mouth  and  be  silent,  because  the 
Lord  will  have  it  so,  upon  such  weighty  grounds  as  the  soul  is  not  able 
to  withstand.3 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  believers  must  repent  for  their  being  discouraged  by 
their  sins.  Their  being  discouraged  by  their  sins  will  cost  them  many 
a  prayer,  many  a  tear,  and  many  a  groan  ;  and  that  because  their  dis- 
couragements under  sin  flow  from  ignorance  and  unbelief.  It  springs 
from  their  ignorance  of  the  richness,  freeness,  fulness,  and  everlasting- 
ness  of  God's  love  ;  and  from  their  ignorance  of  the  power,  glory,  suffi- 
ciency, and  efficacy  of  the  death  and  sufferings  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ ; 
and  from  their  ignorance  of  the  worth,  glory,  fulness,  largeness,  and 
completeness  of  the  righteousness  of  Jesus  Christ ;  and  from  their  ignor- 
ance of  that  real,  close,  spiritual,  glorious,  and  inseparable  union  that  is 
between  Christ  and  their  precious  souls.  Ah  !  did  precious  souls  know 
and  believe  the  truth  of  these  things  as  they  should,  they  would  not  sit 
down  dejected  and  overwhelmed  under  the  sense  and  operation  of  sin,  &c.4 

1  The  bloods  of  Abel,  for  so  the  Hebrew  hath  it,  as  if  the  blood  of  one  Abel  had  so 
many  tongues  as  drops,  cried  for  vengeance  against  sin ;  but  the  blood  of  Christ  cries 
louder  for  the  pardon  of  sin. 

*  Augustine  saith,  that  the  first,  second,  and  third  virtue  of  a  Christian  is  humility. 
[Cf.  under  Humilitas  in  Conf.,  aud  De  C.  D.  Epist.  56  ad  Diosc. — G.] 

3  Lilme  Blelammed,  we  therefore  learn,  that  we  may  teach,  is  a  proverb  among  the 
Rabbins.  After  the  Trojans  had  been  wandering  aud  tossing  up  and  down  the  Mediter- 
ranean sea,  as  soon  as  they  espied  Italy,  they  cried  out  with  exulting  joy,  Italy,  Italy  ! 
Ho  will  saints  when  they  come  to  heaven. 

*  God  never  gave  a  believer  a  new  heart  that  it  should  always  lie  a-bleeding,  and  that 
it  should  always  be  rent  and  torn  in  pieces  with  discouragements. 

2  COR.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  95 

The  second  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
and  questioning  condition  is, 

Device  (2).  By  working  them  to  make  false  definitions  of  their 
graces.  Satan  knows,  that  as  false  definitions  of  sin  wrong  the  soul  one 
way,  so  false  definitions  of  grace  wrong  the  soul  another  way. 

I  will  instance  only  in  faith  :  Oh  how  doth  Satan  labour  might  and 
main  to  work  men  to  make  false  definitions  of  faith  !  Some  he  works 
to  define  faith  too  high,  as  that  it  is  a  full  assurance  of  the  love  of  God  to 
a  man's  soul  in  particular,  or  a  full  persuasion  of  the  pardon  and  remis- 
sion of  a  man's  own  sins  in  particular.  Saith  Satan,  What  dost  thou  talk 
of  faith  ?  Faith  is  an  assurance  of  the  love  of  God,  and  of  the  pardon 
of  sin  ;  and  this  thou  hast  not ;  thou  knowest  thou  art  far  off  from  this  ; 
therefore  thou  hast  no  faith.  And  by  drawing  men  to  make  such  a  false 
definition  of  faith,  he  keeps  them  in  a  sad,  doubting,  and  questioning 
condition,  and  makes  them  spend  their  days  in  sorrow  and  sighing,  so 
that  tears  are  their  drink,  and  sorrow  is  their  meat,  and  sighing  is  their 
work  all  the  day  long,  &c. 

The  philosophers  say  there  are  eight  degrees  of  heat ;  we  discern 
three.  Now,  if  a  man  should  define  heat  only  b}?  the  highest  degree, 
then  all  other  degrees  will  be  cast  out  from  being  heat.  So  if  men  shall 
define  faith  only  by  the  highest  degrees,  by  assurance  of  the  love  of 
God,  and  of  the  pardon  of  his  sins  in  particular,  what  will  become  of 
lesser  degrees  of  faith  ? 

If  a  man  should  define  a  man. to  be  a  living  man,  only  by  the  highest 
and  strongest  demonstrations  of  life,  as  laughing,  leaping,  running, 
working,  walking,  &c,  would  not  many  thousands  that  groan  under  in- 
ternal and  external  weaknesses,  and  that  cannot  laugh,  nor  leap,  nor 
run,  nor  work,  nor  walk,  be  found  dead  men  by  such  a  definition,  that 
yet  we  know  to  be  alive  ?  It  is  so  here,  and  you  know  how  to  apply 
it,  &c. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  there  may  be  true  faith,  yea,  great  measures  of  faith, 
where  there  is  no  assurance.  The  Canaanite  woman  in  the  Gospel 
had  strong  faith,  yet  no  assurance  that  we  read  of.  '  These  things  have 
I  written  unto  you,'  saith  John,  '  that  believe  on  the  name  of  the  Son 
of  God,  that  ye  may  know  that  ye  have  eternal  life,  and  that  ye  may 
believe  on  the  name  of  the  Son  of  God,'  1  John  v.  ]  3.  In  these  words 
you  see  that  they^did  believe,  and  had  eternal  life,  in  respect  of  the  pur- 
pose and  promise  of  God,  and  in  respect  of  the  seeds  and  beginnings  of 
it  in  their  souls,  and  in  respect  of  Christ  their  head,  who  sits  in  heaven 
as  a  public  person,  representing  all  his  chosen  ones,  '  Who  hath  raised 
us  up  together,  and  made  us  sit  together  in  heavenly  places  in  Christ 
Jesus,'  Eph.  ii.  6  ;  and  yet  they  did  not  know  that  they  had  eternal  life. 
It  is  one  thing  to  have  a  right  to  heaven,  and  another  thing  to  know  it; 
it  is  one  thing  to  be  beloved,  and  another  thing  for  a  man  to  know  that 
he  is  beloved.  It  is  one  thing  for  God  to  write  a  man's  name  in  the 
book  of  life,  and  another  thing  for  God  to  tell  a  man  that  his  name  is 
written  in  the  book  of  life  ;  and  to  say  to  him,  Luke  x.  20,  '  Rejoice,  be- 
cause thy  name  is  written  in  heaven.'  So  Paul,  '  In  whom  ye  also 
trusted,  after  ye  heard  the  word  of  truth,  the  gospel  of  your  salvation : 

96  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

in  whom  also,  after  ye  believed,  ye  were  sealed  with  that  Holy  Spirit  of 
promise,'  Eph.  i.  1 3.  So  Micah :  '  Rejoice  not  against  me,  O  my  enemy : 
for  when  I  shall  fall,  I  shall  rise  ;  when  I  shall  sit  in  darkness,  the  Lord 
shall  be  a  light  unto  me.  I  will  bear  the  indignation  of  the  Lord,  be- 
cause I  have  sinned,'  &c.,  or,  'the  sad  countenance  of  God,'  as  the 
Hebrew  hath  it,  Micah  vii.  8,  9.  This  soul  had  no  assurance,  for  he  sits 
in  darkness,  and  was  under  the  sad  countenance  of  God;  and  yet  had 
strong  faith,  as  appears  in  those  words,  '  When  I  fall,  I  shall  rise  ;  when 
I  sit  in  darkness,  the  Lord  shall  be  a  light  unto  me.'  He  will  bring  me 
forth  to  the  Light,  and  I  shall  behold  his  righteousness.  And  let  this 
suffice  for  the  first  answer.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  God  in  the  Scripture  doth  define  faith 
otherwise.  God  defines  faith  to  be  a  receiving  of  Christ — 'As  many  as 
received  him,  to  them  he  gave  this  privilege,  to  be  the  sons  of  God,* 
John  i.  12.  'To  as  many  as  believed  on  his  name,'  Acts  xi.  23 — to  be 
a  cleaving  of  the  soul  unto  God,  though  no  joy,  but  afflictions,  attend 
the  soul.  Yea,  the  Lord  defines  faith  to  be  a  coming  to  God  in  Christ, 
and  often  to  a  resting  and  staying,  rolling  of  the  soul  upon  Christ.  It 
is  safest  and  sweetest  to  define  as  God  defines,  both  vices  and  graces. 
This  is  the  only  way  to  settle  the  soul,  and  to  secure  it  against  the  wiles 
of  men  and  devils,  who  labour,  by  false  definitions  of  grace,  to  keep  pre- 
cious souls  in  a  doubting,  staggering,  and  languishing  condition,  and  so 
make  their  lives  a  burden,  a  hell,  unto,  them.2 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider  this,  That  there  may  be  true  faith  where  there  is  much 
doublings.  Witness  those  frequent  sayings  of  Christ  to  his  disciples, 
'  Why  are  ye  afraid,  O  ye  of  little  faith  ?'3  Persons  may  be  truly  be- 
lieving who  nevertheless  are  sometimes  doubting.  In  the  same  persons 
that  the  fore-mentioned  scriptures  speak  of,  you  may  see  their  faith  com- 
mended and  their  doubts  condemned,  which  doth  necessarily  suppose  a 
presence  of  both. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  assurance  is  an  effect  of  faith;  therefore 
it  cannot  be  faith.  The  cause  cannot  be  the  effect,  nor  the  root  the 
fruit.  As  the  effect  flows  from  the  cause,  the  fruit  from  the  root,  the 
stream  from  the  fountain,  so  doth  assurance  flow  from  faith.  This 
truth  I  shall  make  good  thus  : 

The  assurance  of  our  salvation  and  pardon  of  sin  doth  primarily  arise 
from  the  witness  of  the  Spirit  of  God  that  we  are  the  children  of  God, 
Eph.  i.  13 ;  and  the  Spirit  never  witnesseth  this  till  we  are  believers : 
'  For  we  are  sons  by  faith  in  Christ  Jesus,'  Gal.  iv.  6.  Therefore  assur- 
ance is  not  faith,  but  follows  it,  as  the  effect  follows  the  cause. 

Again,  no  man  can  be  assured  and  persuaded  of  his  salvation  till  he  be 
united  to  Christ,  till  he  be  ingrafted  into  Christ ;  and  a  man  cannot  be 
ingrafted  into  Christ  till  he  hath  faith.  He  must  first  be  ingrafted  into 
Christ  by  faith  before  he  can  have  assurance  of  his  salvation  ;  which 
doth  clearly  evidence,  that  assurance  is  not  faith,  but  an  effect  and  fruit 
of  faith,  &c. 

1  So  those  in  Isa.  1.  10  had  faith,  though  they  had  no  assurance. 

4  Mat.  xi.  23,  John  vi.  37,  Heb.  vii.  25,  26.     3  Mat.  vi.  30,  xiv.  31,  xvi.  8 ;  Luke  xii.  28. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  97 

Again,  faith  cannot  be  lost,  but  assurance  may  ;  therefore  assurance 
is  not  faith.1  Though  assurance  be  a  precious  flower  in  the  garden  of 
a  saint,  and  is  more  infinitely  sweet  and  delightful  to  the  soul  than  all 
outward  comforts  and  contents  ;  yet  it  is  but  a  flower  that  is  subject  to 
fade,  and  to  lose  its  freshness  and  beauty,  as  saints  by  sad  experience 
find,  &c. 

Again,  a  man  must  first  have  faith  before  he  can  have  assurance, 
therefore  assurance  is  not  faith.  And  that  a  man  must  first  have  faith 
before  he  can  have  assurance,  is  clear  by  this,  a  man  must  first  be  saved 
before  he  can  be  assured  of  his  salvation  ;  for  he  cannot  be  assured  of 
that  which  is  not.  And  a  man  must  first  have  a  saving  faith  before  he 
can  be  saved  by  faith,  for  he  cannot  be  saved  by  that  which  he  hath 
not ;  therefore  a  man  must  first  have  faith  before  he  can  have  assur- 
ance, and  so  it  roundly  follows  that  assurance  is  not  faith,  &c.2 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  the  soul  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
and  questioning  condition  is, 

Device  (3).  By  vjorking  the  soul  to  make  false  inferences  from  the 
cross  actings  of  Providence.  Saith  Satan,  Dost  thou  not  see  how 
Providence  crosses  thy  prayers,  and  crosses  thy  desires,  thy  tears,  thy 
hopes,  thy  endeavours  ?3  Surely  if  his  love  were  towards  thee,  if  his 
soul  did  delight  and  take  pleasure  in  thee,  he  would  not  deal  thus  with 
thee,  &c. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  many  things  may  be  cross  to  our  desires 
that  are  not  cross  to  our  good.  Abraham,  Jacob,  David,  Job,  Moses, 
Jeremiah,  Jonah,  Paul,  &c,  met  with  many  things  that  were  contrary 
to  their  desires  and  endeavours,  that  were  not  contrary  to  their  good  ; 
as  all  know  that  have  wisely  compared  their  desires,  and  endeavours  and 
God's  'actings  together.  Physic  often  works  contrary  to  the  patients' 
desires,  when  it  doth  not  work  contrary  to  their  good. 

I  remember  a  story  of  a  godly  man,  who  had  a  great  desire  to  go  to 
France,  and  as  he  was  going  to  take  shipping  he  broke  his  leg ;  and  it 
pleased  Providence  so  to  order  it,  that  the  ship  that  he  should  have 
gone  in  at  that  very  same  time  was  cast  away,  and  not  a  man  saved  ; 
and  so  by  breaking  a  bone  his  life  was  saved.  Though  Providence  did 
work  cross  to  his  desire,  yet  it  did  not  work  cross  to  his  good,  &c.4 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  hand  of  God  may  be  against  a  mam, 
when  the  love  and  heart  of  God  is  much  set  upon  a  man.  No  man 
can  conclude  how  the  heart  of  God  stands  by  his  hand.  The  hand  of 
God  was  against  Ephraim,  and  yet  his  love,  his  heart,  was  dearly  set 
upon  Ephraim  :  '  I  have  surely  heard  Ephraim  bemoaning  himself  thus : 
Thou  hast  chastised  me,  and  I  was  chastised,  as  a  bullock  unaccustomed 

1  Ps.  li.  12,  xxx.  6,  7  ;  Cant.  v.  6  ;  Isa.  viii.  17. 

2  There  is  many  thousand  precious  souls,  of  whom  this  world  is  not  worthy,  that  have 
the  faith  of  reliance,  and  yet  want  assurance  and  the  effects  of  it ;  as  high  joy,  glorious 
peace,  and  vehement  longings  after  the  coming  of  Christ. 

3  Ps.  lxxvii.  7,  et  seq.,  xxxi.  1,  ult.,  lxxiii.  2,  23. 

4  The  Circumcellians  heing  not  aide  to  withstand  the  preaching  and  writing  of  Augus- 
tine, sought  his  destruction,  having  beset  the  way  he  was  to  go  to  his  visitation,  but  by 
God's  providence  he,  missing  his  way,  escaped  the  danger.     [See  ante,  Conf. — G.] 

VOL.  I.  G 

98  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

to  the  yoke.  Turn  tliou  me,  and  I  shall  be  turned  ;  for  thou  art  the 
Lord  my  God.  Surely,  after  that  I  was  returned,  I  repented;  and  after 
that  I  was  instructed,  I  smote  upon  my  thigh  ;  I  was  ashamed,  yea, 
even  confounded,  because  I  did  hear  the  reproach  of  my  youth. 
Ephraim  is  my  dear  Son,  lie  is  a  pleasant  child;  for  since  I  spake 
against  him,  I  do  earnestly  remember  him  still.  Therefore  my  bowels 
are  troubled  for  him;  I  will  surely  have  mercy  upon  him,  saith  the 
Lord,'  Jer.  xxxi.  18-20.1 

God  can  look  sourly,  and  chide  bitterly,  and  strike  heavily,  even 
where  and  when  he  loves  dearly.  The  hand  of  God  was  very  much 
against  Job,  and  yet  his  love,  his  heart,  was  very  much  set  upon  Job, 
as  you  may  see  by  comparing  chaps,  i.  and  ii.  with  xli.  and  xlii.  The 
hand  of  God  was  sore  against  David  and  Jonah,  when  his  heart  was 
much  set  upon  them.  He  that  shall  conclude  that  the  heart  of  God  is 
against  those  that  his  hand  is  against,  will  condemn  the  generation  of 
the  just,  whom  God  unjustly  would  not  have  condemned. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan,  is,  to 
consider,  That  all  the  cross  providences  tin  it  befall  the  saints  arebut  in 
order  to  some  noble  good  that  God  doth  intend  to  prefer2  upon  them. 
Providence  wrought  cross  to  David's  desire,  in  taking  away  the  child 
sinfully  begotten,  but  yet  not  cross  to  more  noble  good  ;  for  was  it  not 
far  better  for  David  to  have  such  a  legitimate  heir  as  Solomon  was,  than 
that  a  bastard  should  wear  the  crown,  and  sway  the  sceptre  ? 

Joseph,  you  know,  was  sold  into  a  far  country  by  the  envy  and  malice 
of  his  brethren,  and  afterwards  imprisoned  because  he  would  not  be  a 
prisoner  to  his  mistress's  lusts  ;  yet  all  these  providences  did  wonder- 
fully conduce  to  his  advancement,  and  the  preservation  of  his  father's 
family,  which  was  then  the  visible  church  of  Christ.  It  was  so  handled 
by  a  noble  hand  of  providence,  that  what  they  sought  to  decline;'  they 
did  promote.  Joseph  was  therefore  sold  by  his  brethren  that  he  might 
not  be  worshipped,  and  yet  he  was  therefore  worshipped  because  he  was 

David  was  designed  to  a  kingdom,  but  oh !  the  straits,  troubles,  and 
deaths  that  he  rims  through  before  he  feels  the  weight  of  the  crown  ; 
and  all  this  was  but  in  order  to  the  sweetening  of  his  crown,  and  to  the 
settling  of  it  more  firmly  and  gloriously  upon  his  head.  God  did  so 
contrive  it  that  Jonah's  offence,  and  those  cross  actings  of  his  that  did 
attend  it,  should  advantage  that  end  which  the}7-  seemed  most  directly 
to  oppose.  Jonah  he  flies  to  Tarshish,  then  cast  into  the  sea,  then  saved 
by  a  miracle.  Then  the  mariners,  as  it  is  very  probable,  who  cast 
donah  into  the  sea,  declared  to  the  Ninevites  what  had  happened ;  there- 
fore he  must  be  a  man  sent  of  God,  and  that  his  threatenings  must  be 
believed  and  hearkened  to,  and  therefore  they  must  repent  and  humble 
themselvts,  that  the  wrath  threatened  might  not  be  executed,  &c.5 

Remedy  (4).    The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan   is, 

1  God's  providential  hand  may  be  with  persons  when  his  heart  is  Bet  againsl  them. 
Clod's  providential  hand  was  for  a  time  with  Saul,  Hainan,  Asshnr,  and  Jehu,  and  ye1  his 
heart  was  set  against  him.  '  No  man  knoweth  love  or  hatred  by  all  that  is  before  him,' 
Eccles.  ix.  1,  2.  2  =  confer. — G.  3  '  Lower'  =  injure. — G. 

*  Cf.  Genesis  xxxvii.  7,  &c. — G. 

■  The  motions  of  divine  providence  are  so  dark,  so  deep,  so  changeable,  that  the  wisest 
and  noblest  souls  cannot  toll  what  conclusions  to  make. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  09 

seriously  to  consider,  That  all  the  strange,  dark,  deep,  and  changeable 
providences  that  believers  meet  with,  shall  further  them  in  their  way  to 
heaven,  in  their  journey  to  happiness.  Divine  wisdom  and  love  will 
so  order  all  things  here  below,  that  they  shall  work  for  the  real,  internal, 
and  eternal  good  of  them  that  love  him.  All  the  rugged  providences 
that  David  met  with,  did  contribute  to  the  bringing  of  him  to  the 
throne  ;  and  all  the  rugged  providences  that  Daniel  and  the  '  three 
children'  met  with,  did  contribute  to  their  great  advancement.  So  all 
the  rugged  providences  that  believers  meet  with,  they  shall  all  contribute 
to  the  lifting  up  of  their  souls  above  all  things,  below  God.  As  the 
waters  lifted  up  Noah's  ark  nearer  heaven,  and  as  all  the  stones  that 
were  about  Stephen's  ears  did  but  knock  him  the  closer  to  Christ,  the 
corner-stone,  so  all  the  strange  rugged  providences  that  we  meet  with, 
they  shall  raise  us  nearer  heaven,  and  knock  us  nearer  to  Christ,  that 
precious  corner-stone.1 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
and  questioning  condition  is, 

Device  (4).  By  suggesting  to  them  that  their  graces  are  not  true,  but 
counterfeit,  Saith  Satan,  All  is  not  gold  that  glitters,  all  is  not  free 
grace  that  you  count  grace,  that  you  call  grace.  That  which  you  call 
faith  is  but  a  fancy,  and  that  which  you  call  zeal,  is  but  a  natural  heat 
and  passion  ;  and  that  light  you  have,  it  is  but  common,  it  is  short,  to 
what  many  have  attained  to  that  are  now  in  hell,  &c.  Satan  doth  not 
labour  more  mightily  to  persuade  hypocrites  that  their  graces  are  true 
when  they  are  counterfeit,  than  he  doth  to  persuade  precious  souls  that 
their  graces  are  counterfeit,  when  indeed  they  are  true,  and  such  as  will 
abide  the  touchstone  of  Christ,  &c.2 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these : 

Remedy  (IV  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seriously 
to  consider,  Thai  grace  is  taken  two  ways. 

[1.]  It  is  taken  for  the  gracious  good-ivill  and  favour  of  God,  whereby 
he  is  pleased  of  his  own  free  love  to  accept  of  some  in  Christ  for  his  own. 
This,  some  call  the  first  grace,  because  it  is  the  fountain  of  all  other- 
graces,  and  the  spring  from  whence  they  flow,  and  it  is  therefore  called 
grace,  because  it  makes  a  man  gracious  with  God,  but  this  is  only  in 

[2.]  Grace  is  taken  for  the  gifts  of  grace,  and  they  are  of  two  sorts, 
common  or  special. 

Some  are  common  to  believers  and  hypocrites,  as  a  gift  of  knowledge, 
a  gift  of  prayer,  &c. 

Some  are  special  graces,  and  they  are  proper  and  peculiar  to  the 
saints,  as  faith,  humility,  meekness,  love,  patience,  &c,  Gal.  v,  22,  23. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  wisely 
to  consider,  The  differences  betwixt  renewing  grace  and,  restrawivng 
grace,  betwixt  sanctifying  grace  and  temporary  grace  ;  and  this  I  will 
shew  you  in  these  ten  particulars. 

[1.]  True  grace  makes  all  glorious  within  and  without :  'The  King's 

1  Orosius,  speaking  of  Valentinian,  saith  :  He  that  for  Christ's  name's  sake  had  lost  a 
tribuneship,  within  a  while  after  succeeded  his  persecutor  in  the  empire. 

2  Yet  it  must  be  granted  that  many  a  fair  flower  may  grow  out  of  a  stinking  root,  and 
many  sweet  dispositions  and  fair  actions  may  be  where  there  is  only  the  corrupt  root  of 

100  PRECIOUS  REMEDI  IS  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

(laughter  18  all  glorious  within  ;  her  raiment  is  of  wrought  gold,'  Ps. 
xlv.  13.  True  grace  makes  the  understanding  glorious,  the  affections 
glorioua  It  casts  a  general  glory  upon  all  the  noble  parts  of  the  soul : 
'  The  King's  daughter  is  all  glorious  wilhin.'  And  as  it  makes  the  inside 
glorious,  bo  ii  makes  the  outside  glorious  :  'Her  clothing  is  of  wrought 
gold.'  It  makes  men  look  gloriously,  and  speak  gloriously,  and  walk 
and  act  gloriously,  so  that  vain  souls  shall  be  forced  to  say  that  these 
are  they  that  have  seen  Jesus.1  As  grace  is  a  fire  to  burn  up  and  con- 
sume the  dross  and  lilt  h  of  t  he  soul,  so  it  is  an  ornament  to  beautify  and 
adorn  the  soul.  True  grace  makes  all  new,  the  inside  new  and  the  out- 
aide  new  :  'If  any  man  be  in  Christ,  he  is  a  new  creature,'  2  Cor.  v.  17,2 
but  temporary  grace  doth  not  this.  True  grace  changes  the  very  nature 
of'  a  man.  floral  virtue  doth  only  restrain  or  chain  up  the  outward  man, 
it  doth  not  change  the  whole  man.  A  lion  in  a  grate  is  a  lion  still  ;  he 
is  restrained,  but  not  changed,  for  he  retains  his  lion-like  nature  still. 
So  temporary  graces  restrain  many  men  from  this  and  that  wickedness, 
but  it  doth  not  change  and  turn  their  hearts  from  wickedness.  But  now 
t  rue  grace,  that  turns  a  lion  into  a  lamb,  as  you  may  see  in  Paul,  Acts  ix., 
and  a  notorious  strumpet  into  a  blessed  and  glorious  penitent,  as  you 
may  see  in  Mary  Magdalene,  &c,  &c,  Luke  vii.3 

[2.]  The  objects  of  true  grace  are  supernatural.  True  grace  is  con- 
versant about  the  choicest  and  the  highest  objects,  about  the  most  soul- 
ennobling  and  soul-greatening  objects,  as  God,  Christ,  precious  promises 
that  are  more  worth  than  a  world,  and  a  kingdom  that  shakes  not,  a 
crown  of  glory  that  withers  not,  and  heavenly  treasures  that  rust  not. 
The  objects  of  temporary  grace  are  low  and  poor,  and  always  within  the 
compass  of  reason's  reach.4 

[&]  True  grace  enables  a  Christian,  when  he  is  hvmself,  to  do  spi- 
ritual actions  witli  reel  pleasure  a  ml  ih-l'ajht,  To  souls  truly  gracious, 
Christ's  yoke  'is  easy,  and  his  burden  is  light;'  'his  commandments 
are  not  grievous,  but  joyous.'  '  I  delight  in  the  law  of  God  after  the 
inward  man,'  saith  Paul.5  The  blessed  man  is  described  by  this,  that 
he  'delights  in  the  law  of  the  Lord,'  Ps.  i.  2.  '  It  is  joy  to  the  just  to 
do  judgment,'  saith  Solomon,  Prov.  xxi.  15.  To  a  gracious  soul,  'All 
the  ways  of  the  Lord  are  pleasantness,  and  his  paths  are  peace,  Prov. 
iii.  17  ;  but  to  souls  that  have  but  temporary  grace,  but  moral  virtues, 
religious  services  are  a  toil,  not  a  pleasure  ;  a  burden,  and  not  a  delight. 
'  Wherefore  have  we  fasted,'  say  they,  'and  thou  seest  not  ?  Wherefore 
have  we  afflicted  our  souls,  and  thou  takest  no  knowledge  ?'  Isa.  lviii.  3, 
&c.  '  Ye  have  said,'  say  those  in  Malachi,  '  It  is  vain  to  serve  God  ;  and 
what  profit  is  it  that  we  have  kept  his  ordinances,  and  that  we  have 
walked  mournfully  before  the  Lord  of  hosts?'  Mai.  iii.  14%  'When 
will  the  new  moon  be  gone,'  say  those  in  Amos,  '  that  we  may  sell  corn, 
and  the  Sabbath,  that  we  may  set  forth  wheat,  making  the  ephah  small, 

1  God  brings  not  a  pair  of  scales  to  weigh  our  grnces,  but  a  touchstone  to  try  oar  graces. 
Purity,  preciousness,  ami  holiness  is  stamped  upon  all  saving  graces,  Acts  xv.  9,  'J  P<  ter 
iv.  1,  Judo  20. 

-  Kaivn  ktiitis,  a  new  creation  :  new  Adam,  new  covenant,  new  paradise,  new  Lord,  new 
Law,  new  hearts,  and  new  creatures  go  together. 

•■  Ii  Beems  right  to  question  this  admittedly  common  mode  of  speaking  of  Mary  of  Mag- 
dala.     It  is  not  certain  thai  the  two  were  identical. — G. 

1  2  Cor.  iv.  18.  Prov.  xiv.     A  saint  hath  his  feet  where  other  rnenVheads  are,  Mat.  vi. 

5  Mat.  xi.  30  ;  1  John  v.  3 ;  Rom.  vii.  22. 

2  Cor.  II  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  101 

and  the  shekel  great,  and  falsifying  the  balances  by  deceit,'  Amos 
viii.  5. 

[4.]  True  grace  makes  a  man  most  careful,  and  most  fearful  of  his 
awn  heart}  It  makes  him  most  studious  about  his  own  heart,  inform- 
ing that,  examining  that,  and  watching  over  that  ;  but  temporary 
grace,  moral  virtues,  make  men  more  mindful  and  careful  of  others,  to 
instruct  them  and  counsel  them,  and  stir  up  them,  and  watch  over 
them,  &c.  Which  doth  with  open  mouth  demonstrate  that  their 
graces  are  not  saving  and  peculiar  to  saints,  but  that  they  are  tempo- 
rary, and  no  more  than  Judas,  Demas,  and  the  pharisees  had,  &c. 

[5. J  Grace  will  ivovk  a  man's  heart  to  love  and  cleave  to  the  strictest  and 
holiest  ways  and  tilings  of  God,  for  their  purity  and  sanctity,  in  the  face 
of  all  dangers  and  hardships.  '  Thy  word  is  very  pure,  therefore  thy 
servant  loveth  it/  Ps.  cxix.  140.  Others  love  it,  and  like  it,  and  follow 
it,  for  the  credit,  the  honour,  the  advantage  that  they  get  by  it  ;  but  I 
love  it  for  the  spiritual  beauty  and  purity  of  it.  So  the  psalmist,  '  All 
this  is  come  upon  us  ;  yet  have  we  not  forgotten  thee,  neither  have  we 
dealt  falsely  in  thy  covenant.  Our  heart  is  not  turned  back,  neither 
have  our  steps  declined  from  thy  way  :  though  thou  hast  sore  broken  us 
in  the  place  of  dragons,  and  covered  us  with  the  shadows  of  death,' 
Ps.  xliv.  17-19.  But  temporary  grace,  that  will  not  bear  up  the  soul 
against  all  oppositions  and  discouragements  in  the  ways  of  God,  as  is 
clear  by  their  apostasy  in  John  vi.  60,  66,  and  by  the  stony  grounds 
falling  away,  &c,  Mat.  xiii.  20,  21. 2 

[6.]  True  grace  will  enable  a  man  to  step  over  the  world's  crown,  to 
take  up  Christ's  cross ;  to  prefer  the  cross  of  Christ  above  the  glory  of 
this  world.  It  enabled  Abraham,  and  Moses,  and  Daniel,  with  those 
other  worthies  in  Heb.  xi.,  to  do  so. 

Godfrey  of  Bullen  [Bouillon],  first  king  of  Jerusalem,  refused  to  be 
crowned  with  a  crown  of  gold,  saying,  '  That  it  became  not  a  Christian 
there  to  wear  a  crown  of  gold,  where  Christ  had  worn  a  crown  of  thorns.' 
Oh  !  but  temporary  grace  cannot  work  the  soul  to  prefer  Christ's  cross 
above  the  world's  crown ;  but  when  these  two  meet,  a  temporary 
Christian  steps  over  Christ's  cross  to  take  up,  and  keep  up,  the  world's 
crown.  '  Demas  hath  forsaken  us  to  embrace  this  present  world,'  2  Tim. 
iv.  10.  So  the  young  man  in  the  Gospel  had  many  good  things  in  him  ; 
he  bid  fair  for  heaven,  and  came  near  to  heaven  ;  but  when  Christ  set 
his  cross  before  him,  he  steps  over  that  to  enjoy  the  world's  crown, 
Mat.  xix.  19-22.  When  Christ  bid  him,  'go  and  sell  all  that  he  had, 
and  give  to  the  poor,'  &c,  '  he  went  away  sorrowful,  for  he  had  great 
possessions.'  If  heaven  be  to  be  had  upon  no  other  terms,  Christ  may 
keep  his  heaven  to  himself,  he  will  have  none,  &c. 3 

[7.]  Sanctifying  grace,  renewing  grace,  puts  the  soul  upon  spiritual 
duties,  from  spiritual  and  intrinsecal  motives,  as  from  the  sense  of 
divine  love,  that  dotli  constrain  the  soul  to  wait  on  God,  and  to  act  for 

1  Ps.  li.  10,  and  cxix.  36,  80,  and  cxxxix.  23,  and  lxxxvi.  11. 

2  Grace  is  a  panoply  against  all  trouble,  and  a  paradise  of  all  pleasures. 

3  Few  are  of  Jerome's  mind,  that  had  rather  have  St  Paul's  coat  with  his  heavenly 
graces,  than  the  purple  of  kings  with  their  kingdoms.  The  king  of  Navarre  told  Beza, 
that  in  the  cause  of  religion  he  would  launch  no  further  into  their  sea,  than  he  might  be 
sure  to  return  safe  to  the  haven.  [Henry  IV.,  afterwards  the  Apostate  from  Protestant- 
ism.— G.] 

102  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  it. 

God  ;x  and  the  sense  of  the  excellency  and  sweetness  of  communion 
with  God,  and  the  choice  and  precious  discoveries  that  the  soul  hath  for- 
merly  had  of  the  beauty  and  glory  to  [sic]  God,  whilst  it  hath  been  in  the 
Bervice  of  God.  The  good  looks,  the  good  words,  the  blessed  love-let- 
ters, the  glorious  kisses,  and  the  sweet  embraces  that  gracious  souls 
have  had  from  ( Ihrist  in  his  service,  do  provoke  and  move  them  to  wait 
upon  him  in  holy  duties.  Ah  !  hut  restraining  grace,  temporary  grace, 
that  puts  men  upon  religious  duties  only  from  external  motives,  as  the 
care  of  the  creature,  the  eye  of  the  creature,  the  rewards  of  the  creature, 
and  the  keeping  up  of  a  name  among  the  creatures,  and  a  thousand 
such  like  considerations,  as  you  may  see  in  Saul,  Jehu,  Judas,  Demas, 
and  the  scribes  and  pharisees,  &c.2 

The  abbot  in  Melancthon  lived  strictly,  and  walked  demurely,  and 
looked  humbly,  so  long  as  he  was  but  a  monk,  but  when,  by  his  seeming 
extraordinary  sanctity,  he  got  to  be  abbot,  he  grew  intolerable  proud 
and  insolent ;  and  being  asked  the  reason  of  it,  confessed,  '  That  his 
former  lowly  look  was  but  to  see  if  he  could  find  the  keys  of  the  abbey.' 
Such  poor,  low,  vain  motives  work  temporary  souls  to  all  the  service 
they  do  perform,  &c. 

[8.]  Saving  grace,  renewing  grace,  will  cause  a  man  to  follow  the 
Lord  fully  in  the  desertion  of  all  sin,  and  in  the  observation  of  all 
God's  precepts.  Joshua  and  Caleb  followed  the  Lord  fully,3  Num. 
xiv.  24  ;  Zacharias  and  Elizabeth  were  righteous  before  God,  and 
walked  in  all  the  commandments  and  ordinances  of  the  Lord  blame- 
less, Luke  i.  5,  6.  The  saints  in  the  Revelation  are  described  by  this, 
that  '  they  follow  the  Lamb  whithersoever  he  goes/  Rev.  xiv.  4  ;  but 
restraining  grace,  temporary  grace,  cannot  enable  a  man  to  follow  the 
Lord  fully.  All  that  temporary  grace  can  enable  a  man  to  do,  is  to 
follow  the  Lord  partially,  unevenly,  and  haltingly,  as  you  may  see  in 
Jehu,  Herod,  Judas,  and  the  scribes  and  pharisees,  who  paid  tithe  of 
'  mint,  and  anise,  and  cummin,  but  omitted  the  weighty  matters  of  the 
law,  judgment,  mercy,  and  faith,'  &c,  Mat.  xxiii.  23. 

True  grace  works  the  heart  to  the  hatred  of  all  sin,  and  to  the  love 
of  all  truth  ;  it  works  a  man  to  the  hatred  of  those  sins  that  for  his 
blood  he  cannot  conquer,  and  to  loathe  those  sins  that  he  would  give  all 
the  world  to  overcome,  Ps.  cxix.  104,  128.4  So  that  a  soul  truly 
gracious  can  say,  Though  there  be  no  one  sin  mortified  and  subdued  in 
me,  as  it  should,  and  as  I  would,  yet  every  sin  is  hated  and  loathed  by 
me.  So  a  soul  truly  gracious  can  say,  Though  I  do  not  obey  any  one 
command  as  I  should,  and  as  I  would,  yet  every  word  is  sweet,  every 
command  of  God  is  precious,  Ps.  cxix.  6,  119,  127,  167-  I  dearly  prize 
and  greatly  love  those  commands  that  I  cannot  obey ;  though  there  be 

1  As  what  I  have,  if  offered  to  thee,  pleaseth  not  thee.  0  Lord,  without  myself,  so  the 
good  things  we  have  from  thee,  though  they  may  refresh  us,  yet  they  satisy  us  not  with- 
out thyself. — J3ern[<ird]. 

*  It  is  an  excellent  speech  of  Bernard,  Bonus  es  Domine  animw  qucerenti ;  quid  in- 
venienti  ?  Good  art  thou,  O  Lord,  to  the-  soul  that  seeks  thee,  what  art  thou  then  to  the 
soul  that  finds  thee? 

3  n6du>  bath  fulfilled  after  me.  A  metaphor  taken  from  a  ship  under  sail,  that  is  strongly 
carried  with  the  wind,  as  fearing  neither  rocks  nor  sands. 

*  I  had  rather  go  to  hell  pure  from  sin,  than  to  heaven  polluted  with  that  filth,  saith 
Anselm.  Da  quod  juhes  et  juke  quod  vis,  Give  what  thou  commaudest,  and  command 
what  thuu  wilt.     [Augustine — GJ. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  10.3 

many  commands  that  I  cannot  in  a  strict  sense  fulfil,  yet  there  is  no 
command  I  would  not  fulfil,  that  I  do  not  exceedingly  love.  '  I  love 
thy  commandments  above  gold,  above  fine  gold  :'  '  My  soul  hath  kept 
thy  testimonies,  and  I  love  them  exceedingly,'  Ps.  cxix.  1 17,  and  xcix.  7. 

[9.]  True  grace  leads  the  soul  to  rest  in  Christ,  as  in  his  summum 
bonum,  chief  est  good.  It  works  the  soul  to  centre  in  Christ,  as  in  his 
highest  and  ultimate  end.  '  Whither  should  we  go  ?  thou  hast  the 
words  of  eternal  life,'  John  vi.  68.  '  My  beloved  is  white  and  ruddy, 
the  chiefest  of  ten  thousand  ;  I  found  him  whom  my  soul  loved,  I  held 
him  and  would  not  let  him  go,'  Cant.  v.  10,  iii.  4.  That  wisdom  a  believer 
hath  from  Christ,  it  leads  him  to  centre  in  the  wisdom  of  Christ,  1  Cor. 
i.  30  ;  and  that  love  the  soul  hath  from  Christ,  it  leads  the  soul  to 
centre  in  the  love  of  Christ ;  and  that  righteousness  the  soul  hath  from 
Christ,  it  leads  the  soul  to  rest  and  centre  in  the  righteousness  of 
Christ,  Philip,  iii.  9.1  True  grace  is  a  beam  of  Christ,  and  where  it  is, 
it  will  naturally  lead  the  soul  to  rest  in  Christ.  The  stream  doth  not 
more  naturally  lead  to  the  fountain,  nor  the  effect  to  the  cause,  than 
true  grace  leads  the  soul  to  Christ.  But  restraining  grace,  temporary 
grace,  works  the  soul  to  centre  and  rest  in  things  below  Christ.  Some- 
times it  works  the  soul  to  centre  in  the  praises  of  the  creature  ;  some- 
times to  rest  in  the  rewards  of  the  creature  :  '  Verily  they  have  their 
reward,'  saith  Christ,  Mat.  vi.  1,  2  :  and  so  in  an  hundred  other  things. 
&c,  Zech.  vii.  5,  6. 

[10.]  True  grace  will  enable  a  soul  to  sit  down  satisfied  and  con- 
tented with  the  naked  enjoyments  of  Christ.  The  enjoyment  of  Christ 
without  honour  will  satisfy  the  soul ;  the  enjoyment  of  Christ  without 
riches,  the  enjoyment  of  Christ  without  pleasures,  and  without  the 
smiles  of  creatures,  will  content  and  satisfy  the  soul.  '  It  is  enough  ; 
Joseph  is  alive,'  Gen.  xlv.  28.  So  saith  a  gracious  soul,  though  honour 
is  not,  and  riches  are  not,  and  health  is  not,  and  friends  are  not,  &c,  it 
is  enough  that  Christ  is,  that  he  reigns,  conquers,  and  triumphs. 
Christ  is  the  pot  of  manna,  the  cruse  of  oil,  a  bottomless  ocean  of  all 
comfort,  content,  and  satisfaction.  He  that  hath  him  wants  nothing ; 
he  that  wants  him  enjoys  nothing.2  '  Having  nothing,'  saith  Paul, 
'  and  yet  possessing  all  things,'  2  Cor.  vi.  10.  Oh  !  but  a  man  that  hath 
but  temporary  grace,  that  hath  but  restraining  grace,  cannot  sit  down 
satisfied  and  contented,  under  the  want  of  outward  comforts.3  Christ 
is  good  with  honours,  saith  such  a  soul ;  and  Christ  is  good  with  riches, 
and  Christ  is  good  with  pleasures,  and  he  is  good  with  such  and  such 
outward  contents.  I  must  have  Christ  and  the  world,  or  else  with  the 
young  man  in  the  Gospel,  in  spite  of  my  soul,  I  shall  forsake  Christ 
to  follow  the  world.  Ah  !  how  many  shining  professors  be  there  in  the 
world,  that  cannot  sit  down  satisfied  and  contented,  under  the  want  of 
this  or  that  outward  comfort  and  content,  but  are  like  bedlams,  fretting 

1  Grace  is  that  star  that  leads  to  Christ;  it  is  that  cloud  and  pillar  of  fire  that  leads  the 
soul  to  the  heavenly  Canaan,  where  Christ  sits  chief. 

2  Cut  cum  paupertate  bene  convenit,  pauper  non  est,  saith  Seneca,  a  contented  man  cannot 
be  a  poor  man.  [Epistle  i.  and  De  Constantia  Sapientis,  vi. — G].  ,    , 

8  Charles  the  Great  his  motto  was,  Christus  regnat,  vincit,  triumphat.  And  so  it  is  the 
saints.'  St  Austin  upon  Ps.  xii.  brings  in  God  rebuking  a  discontented  Christian  thiis  : 
What  is  thy  faith  ?  have  I  promised  thee  these  things  ?  What !  wert  thou  made  a  Christian 
that  thou  shouldst  flourish  here  in  this  world  ? 

104  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

and  vexing,  raging  and  madding,1  as  if  there  were  no  God,  no  heaven, 
no  hell,  nor  no  Christ  to  make  up  all  such  outward  wants  to  souls. 
That  a  soul  truly  gracious  can  say,  in  having  nothing  I  have  all  things, 
because  ]  have  Christ;  having  therefore  all  things  in  him,  I  seek  no 
Other  reward,  for  he  is  the  universal  reward.  Such  a  soul  can  say, 
Nothing  is  sweet  to  me  without  the  enjoyment  of  Christ  in  it ;  honours, 
nor  riches,  nor  the  smiles  of  creatures,  are  not  sweet  to  me  no  farther 
than  I  see  Christ,  and  taste  Christ  in  them.2  The  confluence  of  all  out- 
ward good  cannot  make  a  heaven  of  glory  in  my  soul,  if  Christ,  who  is 
the  top  («!'  my  glory,  be  absent  ;  as  Absalom  said,  '  What  is  all  this  to 
me  so  long  as  J  cannot  see  the  king's  face  T  2  Sam.  xiv.  32.  So  saith  the 
soul,  why  do  you  tell  me  of  this  and  that  outward  comfort,  when  I  cannot 
see  his  face  whom  my  soul  loves  ?  Why,  my  honour  is  not  my  Christ, 
nor  riches  is  not  Christ,  nor  the  favour  of  the  creature  is  not  Christ  ; 
let  me  have  him,  and  let  the  men  of  this  world  take  the  world,  and 
divide  it  amongst  themselves  ;  I  prize  my  Christ  above  all,  I  would 
enjoy  my  Christ  above  all  other  things  in  the  world  ;  his  presence  will 
make  up  the  absence  of  all  other  comforts,  and  his  absence  will  darken 
and  embitter  all  my  comforts ;  so  that  my  comforts  will  neither  taste 
like  comforts,  nor  look  like  comforts,  nor  warm  like  comforts,  when  he 
that  should  comfort  my  soul  stands  afar  off,  &c,  Lam.  i.  16.  Christ  is 
all  and  in  all  to  souls  truly  gracious,  Col.  iii.  11.  We  have  all  things 
in  Christ,  and  Christ  is  all  things  to  a  Christian.  If  we  be  sick,  he  is 
a  physician  ;  if  we  thirst,  he  is  a  fountain  ;  if  our  sins  trouble  us,  he  is 
righteousness  ;  if  we  stand  in  need  of  help,  he  is  mighty  to  save  ;  if  we 
fear  death,  he  is  life  ;  if  we  be  in  darkness,  he  is  light ;  if  we  be  weak, 
he  is  strength  ;  if  we  be  in  poverty,  he  is  plenty ;  if  we  desire  heaven, 
he  is  the  way.  The  soul  cannot  say,  this  I  would  have,  and  that  I 
would  have  ;  but  saith  Christ,  it  is  in  me,  it  is  in  me  eminently,  per- 
fectly, eternally.3 

The  fifth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
and  questioning  condition  is, 

Device  (5).  By  suggesting  to  them,  TJait  that  conflict  that  is  in  th&m>\ 
is  not  a  conflict  that  is  only  in  saints,  but  such  a  conflict  that  is  to  be 
fun  iid  in  hypocrites  and  profane  souls;  when  the  truth  is,  there  is  as 
much  difference  betwixt  the  conflict  that  is  in  them,  and  that  which  is 
in  wicked  men,  as  there  is  betwixt  light  and  darkness,  betwixt  heaven 
and  hell.'4  And  the  truth  of  this  I  shall  evidence  to  you  in  the  follow- 
ing particulars  : 

[1.]  The  whole  frame  of  a  believer's  soul  is  aga/mst  si/n,.  Understand- 
ing, will,  and  affection,  all  the  powers  and  faculties  of  the  soul  are  m 

1  Goin<2;  about  as  '  mad.' — G. 

8  Content  is  the  deputy  of  outward  felicity,  and  supplies  the  place  whore  it  is  absent. 
As  the  .lews  throw  the  book  of  Esther  to  the  ground  before  they  read  it,  because  the 
name  of  God  is  nut  in  it,  us  the  Rabbins  have  observed;  so  do  saints  in  Bome  smse 
those  mercies  wherein  they  do  nut  read  Christ's  name,  and  see  Christ's  heart.  [With 
reference  to  the  throwing  down  of  the  book  of  Esther,  sit  Trapp's  quaint  remarks  on  it, 
under  Esther  i.  1. — <  1 1. 

3  Luther  said,  he  had  rather  bo  in  lull  with  Christ,  than  in  heaven  without  him. 
None  hut  Christ,  none  hut  Christ,  said  Lambert,  lifting  up  his  hands  and  his  fingers' 
end  flaming.     [Clarke's  '  Martyrologie,'  as  before,  sub  nomine. — G]. 

«  John  viii.  44,  the  devil  is  a  liar,  and  the  father  of  it.  The  devil's  breasts  (saith 
Luther)  are  very  fruitful  with  lies. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  105 

arms  against  sin.  A  covetous  man  may  condemn  covetousness,  and  yet  the 
frame  and  bent  of  his  heart  may  be  to  it ;  a  proud  person  may  condemn 
pride,  and  yet  the  frame  of  his  spirit  may  be  to  it ;  and  the  drunkard  may 
condemn  drunkenness,  and  yet  the  frame  of  his  spirit  may  be  to  it  ;  a 
man  may  condemn  stealing  and  lying,  and  yet  the  frame  of  his  heart 
may  be  to  it.1  '  Thou  that  preachest  a  man  should  not  steal,  dost  thou 
steal  ?  Thou  that  sayest  a  man  should  not  commit  adultery,  dost  thou 
commit  adultery?  thou  that  abhorrest  idols,  dost  thou  commit  sacrilege? 
Thou  that  makest  thy  boast  of  the  law,  through  breaking  the  law  dis- 
honourest  thou  God  V  Rom.  ii.  21-23.  But  a  saint's  will  is  against  it. 
'  The  evil  that  I  would  not  do,  that  I  do  ;'  and  his  affections  are  against 
it,  '  What  I  hate,  I  do/  Rom.  vii.  19,  20. 

[2.]  A  saint  conflicts  against  sin  universally,  the  least  as  ivell  as 
the  greatest ;  the  most  profitable  and  the  most  pleasing  sin,  as  well  as 
against  those  that  are  less  pleasing  and  profitable.  He  will  combat 
with  all,  though  he  cannot  conquer  one  as  he  should,  and  as  he  would. 
He  knows  that  all  sin  strikes  at  God's  holiness,  as  well  as  his  own  hap- 
piness ;  at  God's  glory,  as  well  as  at  his  soul's  comfort  and  peace.2 

He  knows  that  all  sin  is  hateful  to  God,  and  that  all  sinners  are 
traitors  to  the  crown  and  dignity  of  the  Lord  Jesus.  He  looks  upon 
one  sin,  and  sees  that  that  threw  down  Noah,  the  most  righteous  man 
in  the  world,  and  he  looks  upon  another  sin,  and  sees  that  that  cast 
down  Abraham,  the  greatest  believer  in  the  world,  and  he  looks  upon 
another  sin,  and  sees  that  that  threw  down  David,  the  best  king  in  the 
world,  and  he  looks  upon  another  sin,  and  sees  that  that  cast  down 
Paul,  the  greatest  apostle  in  the  world.  He  sees  that  one  sin  threw 
down  Samson,  the  strongest  man  in  the  world  ;  another  cast  down 
Solomon,  the  wisest  man  in  the  world  ;  and  another  Moses,  the  meekest 
man  in  the  world  ;  and  another  sin  cast  down  Job,  the  patientest  man 
in  the  world  ;  and  this  raiseth  a  holy  indignation  against  all,  so  that 
nothing  can  satisfy  and  content  his  soul  but  a  destruction  of  all  those 
lusts  and  vermin  that  vex  and  rack  his  righteous  soul.  It  will  not 
suffice  a  gracious  soul  to  see  justice  done  upon  one  sin,  but  he  cries  out 
for  justice  upon  all.  He  would  not  have  some  crucified  and  others 
spared,  but  cries  out,  Lord,  crucify  them  all,  crucify  them  all.  Oh  !  but 
now  the  conflict  that  is  in  wicked  men  is  partial;  they  frown  upon  one 
sin  and  smile  upon  another;  they  strike  at  some  sins  yet  stroke  others; 
they  thrust  some  out  of  doors  but  keep  others  close  in  their  bosoms ;  as 
you  may  see  in  Jehu,  Herod,  Judas,  Simon  Magus,  and  Demas.  Wicked 
men  strike  at  gross  sins,  such  as  are  not  only  against  the  law  of  God, 
but  against  the  laws  of  nature  and  nations,  but  make  nothing  of  less 
sins ;  as  vain  thoughts,  idle  words,    sinful  motions,   petty  oaths,  &c. 

1  It  was  a  good  saying  of  him  [Augustine,  Conf. — G-]  that  said,  Domine  libera  me  a 
malo  homine,  me  ipso,  Lord,  deliver  me  from  an  ill  man,  myself.  Austin  complains,  That 
men  do  not  tame  their  beasts  in  their  own  bosoms. 

2  Ps.  cxix.  104,  1  hate  every  false  way  ;  sindhi,  from  JO^',  which  signifies  to  hate  with 
a  deadly  and  irreconcileable  hatred.  He  knows  that  all  the  parts  of  the  old  man  hath, 
and  doth  play  the  part  of  a  treacherous  friend  and  a  friendly  traitor ;  therefore  he  strikes 
at  all.  The  greater  the  combat  is,  the  greater  shall  be  the  following  rewards,  saith  Ter- 
tullian.  True  hatred  is  *•£««  ™  ylvn,  against  the  whole  kind.  Plutarch  reports  of  one  who 
would  not  be  resolved  of  his  doubts,  because  he  would  not  lose  the  pleasure  in  seeking 
for  resolution.  So  wicked  men  will  not  be  rid  of  some  sins,  because  they  would  not  lose 
the  seeming  pleasure  of  sinning. 

106  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

They  fight  against  those  sins  that  fight  against  their  honour,  profits, 
pleasures,  Ac,  but  make  truce  with  those  that  are  as  right  hand  and 
as  right  eyes  to  them,  &c. 

[3.]  The  conflict  l/i<(t  is  in  a  saint,  against  sin,  is  maintained  by 
several  arguments:  by  arguments  drawn  from  the  love  of  God,  the 
honour  of  God,  the  sweetness  and  communion  with  God,  and  from  the 
spiritual  and  heavenly  blessings  and  privileges  that  are  conferred  upon 
them  by  God,  and  from  arguments  drawn  from  the  blood  of  Christ,  the 
glory  of  ( Jurist,  the  eye  of  Christ,  the  kisses  of  Christ,  and  the  interces- 
sion ot  Christ,  and  from  arguments  drawn  from  the  earnest  of  the  Spirit, 
the  seal  of  the  Spirit,  the  witness  of  the  Spirit,  the  comforts  of  the 
Spirit.  Oh  !  but  the  conflict  that  is  in  wicked  men  is  from  low,  carnal, 
and  legal  arguments,  drawn  from  the  eye,  ear,  or  hand  of  the  creature, 
or  drawn  from  shame,  hell,  curses  of  the  law,  &c,  2  Cor.  xii.  7-9.1 

[4.]  The  conflict  that  is  in  saints  is  a  constant  conflict.  Though  sin 
and  grace  were  not  born  in  the  heart  of  a  saint  together,  and  though 
they  shall  not  die  together,  yet.  whilst  a  believer  lives,  they  must  con- 
flict together.  Paul  had  been  fourteen  years  converted,  when  he  cried 
out,  '  1  have  a  law  in  my  members  rebelling  against  the  law  of  my  mind, 
and  leading  me  captive  to  the  law  of  sin,'  Rom.  vii.  2,  3. 

Pietro  Candiano,  one  of  the  dukes  of  Venice,  died  fighting  against 
the  Nauratines  with  the  weapons  in  his  hands.  So  a  saint  lives  fight- 
ing and  dies  fighting,  he  stands  fighting'  and  falls  fighting,  with  his 
spiritual  weapons  in  his  hands.2  But  the  conflict  that  is  in  wicked  men 
is  inconstant :  now  they  fall  out  with  sin,  and  anon  they  fall  in  with  sin ; 
now  it  is  bitter,  anon  it  is  sweet ;  now  the  sinner  turns  from  his  sin, 
and  anon  he  turns  to  the  wallowing  in  sin,  as  the  swine  doth  to  the 
wallowing  in  the  mire,  2  Pet.  ii.  19,  20.  One  hour  you  shall  have  him 
praying  against  sin,  as  if  he  feared  it  more  than  hell,  and  the  next  hour 
you  shall  have  him  pursuing  after  sin,  as  if  there  were  no  God  to  punish 
him,  no  justice  to  damn  him,  no  hell  to  torment  him. 

[5.j  The  conflict  that  is  in  the  saints,  is  in  the  same  faculties ;  there 
is  the  judgment  against  the  judgment,  the  mind  against  the  mind,  the 
will  against  the  will,  the  affections  against  the  affections,  that  is,  the 
regenerate  part  against  the  unregenerate  part,  in  all  the  parts  of  the 
soul ;  but  now,  in  wicked  men,  the  conflict  is  not  in  the  same  faculties, 
but  between  the  conscience  and  the  will.  The  will  of  a  sinner  is  bent 
strongly  to  such  and  such  sins,  but  conscience  puts  in  and  tells  the 
sinner,  God  hath  made  me  his  deputy,  he  hath  given  me  a  power  to 
hang  and  draw,  to  examine,  scourge,  judge  and  condemn,  and  if  thou 
dost  such  and  such  wickedness,  I  shall  be  thy  jailor  and  tormenter.  I 
do  not  bear  the  rod  nor  the  sword  in  vain,  saith  conscience;  if  thou 
sinnest,  I  shall  do  my  office,  and  then  thy  life  will  be  a  hell:  and  this 
raises  a  tumult  in  the  soul.3 

1  Though  to  he  kept  from  sin  brings  comfort  to  us,  yet  for  us  to  oppose  sin  from  spi- 
ritual ami  heavenly  arguments,  ami  God  t<>  pardon  sin,  that  brings  most  glory  to  God. 

2  It  was  an  excellent  saying  of  Eusebius  Emesenus,  Our  fathers  overcame  the  torrents 
of  the  flames,  let  us  uverenine  tin;  fiery  darts  of  vices.  Consider  that  the  pleasure  and 
sweetness  that  follows  victory  over  sin,  is  a  thousand  times  beyond  that  seeming  sweet- 
ness that  is  in  sin. 

:)  A  heathen  could  say,  their  soul  is  in  a  mutiny;  a  wicked  man  is  not  friends  with 
himself,  he  and  his  conscience  are  at  difference. — Arisl[otlc]. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  sat  an  's  devices.  107 

[6.]  The  conflict  that  is  in  the  saints,  is  a  more  blessed,  successful, 
and  prevailing  conflict.  A  saint,  by  his  conflict  with  sin,  gains  ground 
upon  his  sin  :  '  They  that  are  Christ's/  saith  the  apostle,  '  have  crucified 
the  world  with  the  affections  and  lusts/  Gal.  v.  24<.  Christ  puts  to  his 
hand  and  helps  them  to  lead  captivity  captive,  and  to  set  their  feet  upon 
the  necks  of  those  lusts  that  have  formerly  trampled  upon  their  souls 
and  their  comforts.  As  the  house  of  Saul  grew  weaker  and  weaker, 
and  the  house  of  David  stronger  and  stronger,  so  the  Lord,  by  the  dis- 
coveries of  his  love,  and  by  the  influences  of  his  Spirit,  he  causeth  grace, 
the  nobler  part  of  a  saint,  to  grow  stronger  and  stronger,  and  corrup- 
tion, like  the  house  of  Saul,  to  grow  weaker  and  weaker.  But  sin  in  a 
wicked  heart  gets  ground,  and  grows  stronger  and  stronger,  notwith- 
standing all  his  conflicts.  His  heart  is  more  encouraged,  emboldened, 
and  hardened  in  away  of  sin,  as  you  may  see  in  the  Israelites,  Pharaoh, 
Jehu,  and  Judas,  who  doubtless  found  many  strange  conflicts,  tumults, 
and  mutinies  in  their  souls,  when  God  spake  such  bitter  things  against 
them,  and  did  such  justice  upon  them,  2  Tim.  iii.  13.1 

But  remember  this  by  way  of  caution  :  Though  Christ  hath  given 
sin  its  death -wound,  by  his  power,  Spirit,  death,  and  resurrection,  yet 
it  will  die  but  a  lingering  death.2  As  a  man  that  is  mortally  wounded 
dies  by  little  and  little,  so  doth  sin  in  the  heart  of  a  saint.  The  death 
of  Christ  on  the  cross  was  a  lingering  death,  so  the  death  of  sin  in  the 
soul  is  a  lingering  death  ;  now  it  dies  a  little,  and  anon  it  dies  a  little, 
&c,  as  the  psalmist  speaks,  '  Slay  them  not,  lest  my  people  forget :  scatter 
them  by  thy  power  ;  and  bring  them  down,  O  Lord  our  shield,'  Ps. 
lix.  11.  He  would  not  have  them  utterly  destroyed,  but  some  relics 
preserved  as  a  memorial.  So  God  dealeth  in  respect  of  sin ;  it  is  wounded 
and  brought  down,  but  not  wholly  slain  ;  something  is  still  left  as  a 
monument  of  divine  grace,  and  to  keep  us  humble,  wakeful,  and  watch- 
ful, and  that  our  armour  may  be  still  kept  on,  and  our  weapons  always 
in  our  hands. 

The  best  men's  souls  in  this  life  hang  between  the  flesh  and  the 
spirit,  as  it  were  like  Mahomet's  tomb  at  Mecca,  between  two  loadstones  ; 
like  Erasmus,  as  the  papists  paint  him,  betwixt  heaven  and  hell ;  like 
the  tribe  of  Manasseh,  half  on  this  side  of  Jordan,  in  the  land  of  the 
Amorites,  and  half  on  that  side,  in  the  Holy  Land  ;  yet,  in  the  issue, 
they  shall  overcome  the  flesh,  and  trample  upon  the  necks  of  their  spi- 
ritual enemies.3 

The  sixth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
questioning  condition  is, 

Device  (tj).  By  suggesting  to  the  soul,  that  surely  his  estate  is  not 

1  These  two,  grace  and  sin,  are  like  two  buckets  of  a  well,  when  one  is  up.  the  other  is 
down.  They  are  like  the  two  laurels  at  Rome,  when  one  flourishes  the  other  withers. 
The  more  grace  thrives  in  the  soul,  the  more  sin  dies  in  the  soul.  From  naught  they 
grow  to  be  very  naught,  and  from  very  naught  to  be  stark  naught.  Lactant[ius]  said  of 
Lucian,  Nee  Diis,  nee  hominibus  pepercit,  he  spared  neither  God  nor  man. 

2  Mortification  is  a  continued  act,  it  is  a  daily  dying  to  sin,  '  I  die  daily.'  A  crucified 
man  will  strive  and  struggle,  yet,  in  the  eyes  of  the  law,  and  in  the  account  of  all  that 
see  him,  lie  is  dead.     It  is  just  so  with  sin. 

3  There  is  no  such  pleasure,  saith  Cyprian,  as  to  have  overcome  an  offered  pleasure ; 
neither  is  there  any  greater  conquest  than  that  that  is  gotten  over  a  man's  corruptions. 
The  Romans  lost  many  a  battle,  and  yet  in  the  issue  were  conquerors  in  all  their  wars  ; 
it  is  just  so  with  the  saints. 

108  PilECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

good,  beca/use  he  cam/not  joy  cmd  rejoice  in  Christ  as  once  he  could ; 
/>  cause  he  hath  lost  that  comfort  cmd  joy  that  once  wax  m  his  spirit 
Saith  Satan,  Thou  knowest  the  time  was  when  thy  heart  was  much 
tallied  out  to  joying  and  rejoicing  in  Christ ;  thou  dost  not  forget  the 
time  when  thy  heart  used  to  be  full  of  joy  and  comfort;  but  now,  how 
ait  thou  fallen  in  thy  joys  and  comforts  !  Therefore,  thy  estate  is  not 
good  ;  thou  dost  but  deceive  thyself  to  think  that  ever  it  was  good,  for 
surely  if  it  had,  thy  joy  and  comfort  would  have  continued.  And  here- 
upon the  soul  is  apt  to  take  part  with  Satan,  and  say,  It  is  even  so  ;  I 
se     dl  is  naught,  and  I  have  but  deceived  my  own  soul,  &c. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to  con- 
sider, Thai  /he  loss  of  comfort  is  a  separable  adjunct  from  grace.  The 
soul  may  be  full  of  holy  affections  when  it  is  empty  of  divine  consola- 
tions.1 There  may  be,  and  often  is,  true  grace,  yea,  much  grace,  where 
there  is  not  a  drop  of  comfort,  nor  dram  of  joy.  Comfort  is  not  of  the 
being,  but  of  the  well-being,  of  a  Christian.  God  hath  not  so  linked 
these  two  choice  lovers  together,  but  that  they  may  be  put  asunder. 
That  wisdom  that  is  from  above  will  never  work  a  man  to  reason  thus  : 
I  have  no  comfort,  therefore  I  have  no  grace  ;  I  have  lost  that  joy  that 
once  I  had,  therefore  my  condition  is  not  good,  was  never  good,  &c. 
But  it  will  enable  a  man  to  reason  thus  :  Though  my  comfort  is  gone, 
yet  the  God  of  my  comfort  abides  ;  though  my  joy  is  lost,  yet  the  seeds 
of  grace  remain.  The  best  men's  joys,  are  as  glass,  bright  and  brittle, 
and  evermore  in  danger  of  breaking.2 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  /he  precious  thi/ngs  that  thou  still  enjoyest 
arc  for  better  than  the  joys  and  comforts  that  thou  Joist  lust.  Thy 
union  with  Christ,  thy  communion  with  Christ,  thy  sonship,  thy  saint- 
ship,  thy  heirship,  thou  still  enjoyest  by  Christ,  are  far  better  than  the 
comforts  thou  hast  lost  by  sin.  What  though  thy  comforts  be  gone, 
yet  thy  union  and  communion  with  Christ  remains,  Jer.  xxxi.  18,  19, 
20.  Though  thy  comforts  be  gone,  yet  thou  art  a  son,  though  a  com- 
fortless son  ;  an  heir,  though  a  comfortless  heir  ;  a  saint,  though  a 
comfortless  saint.  Though  the  bag  of  silver,  thy  comforts,  be  lost,  yet 
the  box  of  jewels,  thy  union  with  Christ,  thy  communion  with  Christ, 
thy  sonship,  thy  saintship,  thy  heirship,  which  thou  still  enjoyest,  is  far 
better  than  the  bag  of  silver  thou  hast  lost ;  yea,  the  least  of  those 
precious  jewels  is  more  worth  than  all  the  comforts  in  the  world.  Will ! 
let  this  be  a  cordial  to  comfort  thee,  a  star  to  lead  thee,  and  a  staff  to 
support  thee,  that  thy  box  of  jewels  are  safe,  though  thy  bag  of  silver 
be  lost.3 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  thy  coin/ it  ion  is  no  other  titan  what  hath  l>e<'n  /he  con* 
dition  of  those  precious  souls  whose  names  were  written  upon  thehea/ti 
of  Christ,  and  who  arc  now  at  rest  in  the  bosom  of  Chris/.     One  day 

1  Ps.  lxiii.  1,  2,  8,  Isa.  1.  10,  Micah  vii.  8,  9,  Pa.  xlii.  5. 

-  Spiritual  joy  is  a  sun  that  is  often  clouded  ;  though  it  be  as  precious  a  flower  as  most 
paradise  affords,  yet  it  is  subject  to  fade  ami  wither. 

•'■  When  one  objected  to  Faninus  his  cheerfulness  to  Christ's  agony  and  sadness,  he 
answered,  Christ  was  sad,  that  1  might  be  merry  ;  he  had  my  sins,  and  1  have  his  right- 
eousness.   [Clarke's  '  Martyrologie,1  as  before,  sub  nomine. — G.] 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  109 

you  shall  have  them  praising  and  rejoicing,  the  next  day  a-mourning 
and  weeping.  One  day  you  shall  have  them  a-singing,  '  The  Lord  is 
our  portion ;'  the  next  day  a-sighing  and  expostulating  with  themselves, 
'  Why  are  ye  cast  down,  0  our  souls  ?'  '  Why  is  our  harp  turned  to 
mourning  ?  and  our  organ  into  the  voice  of  them  that  weep  ?'  &c.x 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  causes  of  joy  and  comfort  are  not 
always  the  same.  Happily,  thy  former  joy  and  comfort  did  spring 
from  the  witness  of  the  Spirit,  he  bearing  witness  to  thy  soul,  that  thy 
nature  was  changed,  thy  sins  pardoned,  thy  soul  reconciled,  &c.2  Now, 
the  Spirit  may,  upon  some  special  occasion,  bear  witness  to  the  soul, 
that  the  heart  of  God  is  dearly  set  upon  him,  that  he  loves  him  with 
an  everlasting  love,  &c,  and  yet  the  soul  may  never  enjoy  such  a  testi- 
mony all  the  days  of  his  life  again.  Though  the  Spirit  be  a  witnessing 
Spirit,  it  is  not  his  office  eveiy  day  to  witness  to  believers  their  interest 
in  God,  Christ,  heaven,  &c. 

Or,  happily,  thy  former  joy  and  comfort  did  spring  from  the  newness 
and  suddenness  of  the  change  of  thy  condition.  For  a  man  in  one  hour 
to  have  his  night  turned  into  day,  his  darkness  turned  into  light,  his 
bitter  into  sweet,  God's  frowns  into  smiles,  his  hatred  into  love,  his  hell 
into  a  heaven,  must  greatly  joy  and  comfort  him.3  It  cannot  but  make 
his  heart  to  leap  and  dance  in  him,  who,  in  one  hour,  shall  see  Satan 
accusing  him,  his  own  heart  condemning  him,  the  eternal  God  frowning 
■upon  him,  the  gates  of  heaven  #barred  against  him,  all  the  creation 
standing  armed,  at  the  least  beck  of  God,  to  execute  vengeance  on  him, 
and  the  mouth  of  the  infernal  pit  open  to  receive  him.  Now,  in  this 
hour,  for  Christ  to  come  to  the  amazed  soul,  and  to  say  to  it,  I  have 
trod  the  wine-press  of  my  Father's  wrath  for  thee  ;  I  have  laid  down  my 
life  a  ransom  for  thee  ;  by  my  blood  I  have  satisfied  my  Father's  jus- 
tice, and  pacified  his  anger,  and  procured  his  love  for  thee  ;  by  my 
blood  I  have  purchased  the  pardon  of  thy  sins,  thy  freedom  from  hell, 
and  thy  right  to  heaven ;  oh  !  how  wonderfully  will  this  cause  the  soul 
to  leap  for  joy  ! 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to  con- 
sider, That  God  ivill  restore  and  moJce  up  the  comforts  of  his  people.1 
Though  thy  candle  be  put  out,  yet  God  will  light  it  again,  and  make  it 
burn  more  light  than  ever.  Though  thy  sun  for  the  present  be  clouded, 
yet  he  that  rides  upon  the  clouds  shall  scatter  those  clouds,  and  cause 
the  sun  to  shine  and  warm  thy  heart  as  in  former  days,  as  the  psalmist 
speaks:  'Thou  which  hast  shewed  me  great  and  sore  troubles,  shalt 

1  Ps.  li.  12,  xxx.  6,  7  ;  Job  xxiii.  6,  8,  9,  30,  31 ;  Lamen.  i.  16,  Mat.  xxvii.  4G,  Ps. 
xlii.  5,  Lament,  v.  15. 

2  The  Spirit  doth  not  every  day  make  a  feast  in  the  soul ;  he  doth  not  make  every  day 
to  he  a  day  of  weaving  the  wedding  robes. 

3  A  pardon  given  unexpectedly  into  the  hand  of  a  malefactor,  when  he  is  on  the  last 
step  of  the  ladder,  ready  to  be  turned  off,  will  cause  much  joy  and  rejoicing.  The  new- 
ness and  suddenness  of  the>change  of  his  condition  will  cause  his  heart  to  leap  and 
rejoice  ;  yet,  in  process  of  time,  much  of  his  joy  will  be  abated,  though  his  life  be  as 
dear  to  him  still  as  ever  it  was. 

4  Hudson  the  martyr,  deserted  at  the  stake,  went  from  under  his  chain,  and,  having 
prayed  earnestly,  was  comforted  immediately,  and  suffered  valiantly.  So  Mr  Glover, 
when  he  was  within  sight  of  the  stake,  cried  out  to  his  friend,  He  is  come,  lie  is  come, 
meaning  the  Comforter  that  Christ  promised  to  send.  [On  Thomas  Hudson,  see  Clarke's 
'  Martyrologie,'  as  before,  pp.  498,499  ;  on  Glover,  ibid.  pp.  460-61. — G.] 

110  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

quicken  mo  again,  and  shalt  bring  me  up  again  from  the  depths  of  the 
earth.  Thou  shalt  increase  my  greatness,  and  comfort  me  on  every 
side.'  Ps.  lxxi.  20,  21.  God  takes  away  a  little  comfort,  that  he  may 
make  room  in  tin'  soul  for  a  greater  degree  of  comfort.  This  the  pro- 
phel  Isaiah  sweetly  shews  :  'I  have  seen  his  ways,  and  will  heal  him  ; 
I  will  lead  him  also,  and  restore  comforts  unto  him,  and  to  his  mourners,' 
Isa.  lvii.  18.  Bear  up  sweetly,  0  precious  soul !  thy  storm  shall  end  in 
a  calm,  and  thy  dark  night  in  a  sunshine  day  ;  thy  mourning  shall  be 
turned  into  rejoicing,  and  the  waters  of  consolation  shall  be  sweeter  and 
higher  in  thy  soul  than  ever  -,1  the  mercy  is  surely  thine,  but  the  time 
of  "ivin"-  it  is  the  Lord's.  Wait  but  a  little,  and  thou  shalt  find  the 
Lord  comforting  thee  on  every  side. 

The  seventh  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
and  questioning  condition,  is, 

Device  (7).  By  suggesting  to  the  soul  his  often  relapses  i/nto  the 
same  sin  ivhich  formerly  he  hath  pursued  with  particula/r  sorrow, 
grief,  shame,  and  tears,  and  prayed,  complai/ned,  and  resolved 
agamst.  Saith  Satan,  Thy  heart  is  not  right  with  God  ;  surely  thy 
estate  is  not  good  ;  thou  dost  but  flatter  thyself  to  think  that  ever 
God  will  eternally  own  and  embrace  such  a  one  as  thou  art,  who  com- 
plainest  against  sin,  and  yet  relapsest  into  the  same  sin  ;  who  with 
tears  and  groans  confessest  thy  sin,  and  yet  ever  and  anon  art  fallen 
into  the  same  sin. 

I  confess  this  is  a  very  sad  condition  for  a  soul  after  he  hath  ob- 
tained mercy  and  pity  from  the  Lord,  after  God  hath  spoken  peace 
and  pardon  to  him,  and  wiped  the  tears  from  his  eyes,  and  set  him 
upon  his  legs,  to  return  to  folly.2  Ah  !  how  do  relapses  lay  men 
open  to  the  greatest  afflictions  and  worst  temptations  !  How  do  they 
make  the  wound  to  bleed  afresh  !  How  do  they  darken  and  cloud 
former  assurances  and  evidences  for  heaven  !  How  do  they  put  a 
sword  into  the  hand  of  conscience  to  cut  and  slash  the  soul  !  They 
raise  such  fears,  terrors,  horrors,  and  doubts  in  the  soul,  that  the  soul 
cannot  be  so  frequent  in  duty  as  formerly,  nor  so  fervent  in  duty  as 
formerly,  nor  so  confident  in  duty  as  formerly,  nor  so  bold,  familiar, 
and  delightful  with  God  in  duty  as  formerly,  nor  so  constant  in  duty 
as  formerly.  They  give  Satan  an  advantage  to  triumph  over  Christ ; 
they  make  the  work  of  repentance  more  difficult  ;  they  make  a  man's 
life  a  burden,  and  they  render  death  to  be  very  terrible  unto  the  soul, 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is. 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  there  are  many  scriptures  that  do  dearM 
evidence  a  possibility  of  the  sai/nts  fallvng  i/nto  the  same  sins  wfa  recm 
they  here  formerly  repented.  'I  will  heal  their  backslidiugs,  I  will 
love  them  freely  :  for  mine  anger  is  turned  away  from  them,'  saith  the 
Lord  by  the  -prophet  Hosea,  chap.  xiv.  4.  So  the  prophet  Jeremiah 
speaks:  'Go  and  proclaim  these  words  toward  the  north,  and  say, 
Return,  thou  backsliding  Israel,  saith  the  Lord,  and  I  will  not  cause 
mine  anger  to  fall  upon  you  :  for  I  am  merciful,  saith  the  Lord,  and  I 

i  See  Ps.  exxvi.  6,  arid  xlii.  7,  8. 

2  A  backslider  may  say,  Opera  el  impensa  periit,  all  my  pains  and  charge  is  lost. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  ni 

will  not  keep  mine  anger  for  ever.  Turn,  O  backsliding  Israel,  saith 
the  Lord  ;  for  I  am  married  unto  you  :  and  I  will  take  you  one  of  a 
city,  and  two  of  a  family,  and  I  will  bring  you  to  Zion,'  chap.  iii.  12,  14. 
So  the  psalmist :  '  They  turned  back,  and  dealt  unfaithfully  with  their 
fathers  ;  they  were  turned  aside  like  a  deceitful  bow.'  And  no  wonder, 
for  though  their  repentance  be  never  so  sincere  and  sound,  yet  their 
graces  are  but  weak,  and  their  mortification  imperfect  in  this  life. 
Though  by  grace  they  are  freed  from  the  dominion  of  sin,  and  from 
the  damnatory  power  of  every  sin,  and  from  the  love  of  all  sin,  yet 
grace  doth  not  free  them  from  the  seed  of  any  one  sin  ;  and  therefore 
it  is  possible  for  a  soul  to  fall  again  and  again  into  the  same  sin.  If 
the  fire  be  not  wholly  put  out,  who  would  think  it  impossible  that  it 
should  catch  and  burn  again  and  again  I1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  God  hath  nowhere  engaged  himself  by  any 
'particular  promise,  that  souls  converted  and  united  to  Christ  shall 
not  fall  again  and  again  into  the  same  sin  after  conversion.  I  can- 
not find  in  the  whole  book  of  God  where  he  hath  promised  any  such 
strength  or  power  against  this  or  that  particular  sin,  as  that  the  soul 
should  be  for  ever,  in  this  life,  put  out  of  a  possibility  of  falling  again 
and  again  into  the  same  sins  ;  and  where  God  hath  not  a  mouth  to 
speak,  I  must  not  have  a  heart  to  believe.  God  will  graciously  pardon 
those  sins  to  his  people  that  he  will  not  in  this  life  effectually  subdue 
in  his  people.  I  would  go  far  to  speak  with  that  soul  that  can  shew 
me  a  promise,  that  when  our  sorrow  and  grief  hath  been  so  great,  or  so 
much,  for  this  or  that  sin,  that  then  God  will  preserve  us  from  ever 
falling  into  the  same  sin.  The  sight  of  such  a  promise  would  be  as  life 
from  the  dead  to  many  a  precious  soul,  who  desires  nothing  more  than 
to  keep  close  to  Christ,  and  fears  nothing  more  than  backsliding  from 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  the  most  renowned  and  now  croivned  saints 
have,  in  the  days  of  their  being  on  earth,  relapsed  into  one  and 
the  same  sin.3  Lot  was  twice  overcome  with  wine  ;  John  twice  wor- 
shipped the  angel  ;  Abraham  did  often  dissemble,  and  lay  his  wife 
open  to  adultery  to  save  his  own  life,  which  some  heathens  would  not 
have  done  :  '  And  it  came  to  pass,  when  God  caused  me  to  wander 
from  my  father's  house,  that  I  said  unto  her,  This  is  thy  kindness  which 
thou  shalt  shew  unto  me  ;  at  every  place  whither  we  shall  come,  say  of 
me,  as  he  is  my  brother/  Gen.  xx.  13.  David  in  his  wrath  was  re- 
solved, if  ever  man  was,  that  he  would  be  the  death  of  Nabal,  and  all 
his  innocent  family  ;  and  after  this  he  fell  into  the  foul  murder  of 
TJnah.  Though  Christ  told  his  disciples  that  his  '  kingdom  was  not 
of  this  world,'  yet  again,  and  again,  and  again,  three  several  times  they 

1  The  sin  of  backsliding  is  a  soul-wounding  sin,  '  I  will  heal  their  backsliding.'  You 
read  of  no  arms  for  the  back,  though  you  do  for  the  breast.  When  a  soldier  bragged 
too  much  of  a  great  scar  in  his  forehead,  Augustus  Caesar  (in  whose  time  Christ  was 
born)  asked  him  if  he  did  not  get  it  as  he  looked  back  when  he  fled. 

2  In  some  cases  the  saints  have  found  God  better  than  his  word.  He  promised  the 
children  of  Israel  only  the  land  of  Canaan,  but  besides  that  he  gave  them  two  other 
kingdoms  which  he  never  promised.  And  to  Zacharias  he  promised  to  give  him  his 
speech  at  the  birth  of  the  child,  but  besides  that  he  gave  him  the  gift  of  prophecy. 

3  A  sheep  may  often  slip  into  a  slough,  as  well  as  a  swine. 

112  PRBCIOtJS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

would  needs  be  on  horseback  ;  they  would  fain  be  high,  great,  and 
glorious  in  this  world.  Their  pride  and  ambitious  humour  put  them, 
that  were  but  as  so  many  beggars,  upon  striving  for  pre-eminence  and 
greatness  in  the  world,  when  their  Lord  and  Master  told  them  three 
several  times  of  liis  sufferings  in  the  world,  and  of  his  going  out  of  the 
world.  Jehoshapliat,  though  a  godly  man,  yet  joins  affinity  with  Ahab, 
2  Chron.  xviii.  1-3,  30,  31  ;  and  though  he  was  saved  by  a  miracle,  yet 
soon  after  he  falls  into  the  same  sin,  and  'joins  himself  with  Ahaziah 
king  of  [srael,  who  did  very  wickedly,'  2  Chron.  xx.  35-37.  Samson  is 
by  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  numbered  among  the  faithful  worthies,  yet 
he  fell  often  into  one  gross  sin,  as  is  evident,  Heb.  xi.  32.  Peter,  you 
know,  relapsed  often,  and  so  did  Jonah  ;  and  this  comes  to  pass  that 
they  may  see  their  own  inability  to  stand,  to  resist  or  overcome  any 
temptation  or  corruptions,  Jude  14,  15,  1G.1  And  that  they  may  be 
taken  off  from  all  false  confidences,  and  rest  wholly  upon  God,  and  only 
upon  God,  and  always  upon  God  ;  and  for  the  praise  and  honour  of 
the  power,  wisdom,  skill,  mercy,  and  goodness  of  the  physician  of  our 
souls,  that  can  heal,  help,  and  cure  when  the  disease  is  most  dangerous, 
when  the  soul  is  relapsed,  and  grows  worse  and  worse,  and  when  others 
say,  '  There  is  no  help  for  him  in  his  God,'  and  when  his  own  heart 
and  hopes  are  dying.2 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  there  are  relapses  into  enormities,  ami  there  a/re  relapses 
into  infirmities.  Now  it  is  not  usual  with  God  to  leave  his  people 
frequently  to  relapse  into  enormities  ;  for  by  his  Spirit  and  grace,  by 
his  smiles  and  frowns,  by  his  word  and  rod,  he  doth  usually  preserve 
his  people  from  a  frequent  relapsing  into  enormities  ;  yet  he  doth  leave 
his  choicest  ones  frequently  to  relapse  into  infirmities  (and  of  his  grace 
he  pardons  them  in  course),  as  idle  words,  passion,  vain  thoughts,  &c.3 
Though  gracious  souls  strive  against  these,  and  complain  of  these,  and 
weep  over  these,  yet  the  Lord,  to  keep  them  humble,  leaves  them  fre- 
quently to  relapse  into  these  ;  and  these  frequent  relapses  into  infirmi- 
ties shall  never  be  their  bane,  because  they  be  their  burden. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  there  are  vrwolwntary  relapses,  and  there  are  volun- 
tary relapses.  Involuntary  relapses  are,  when  the  resolution  and  full 
bent  of  the  heart  is  against  sin,  when  the  soul  strives  with  all  its  might 
against  sin,  by  sighs  and  groans,  by  prayers  and  tears,  and  yet  out  of 
weakness  is  forced  to  fall  back  into  sin,  because  there  is  not  spiritual 
strength  enough  to  overcome.  Now,  though  involuntary  relapses  must 
humble  us,  yet  they  must  never  discourage  nor  defect  us  ;  for  God  will 
freely  and  readily  pardon  those,  in  course.  Voluntary  relapses  are, 
when  the  soul  longs  and  loves  to  '  return  to  the  flesh-pots  of  Egypt,' 
Exod.  xvi.  3 ;  when  it  is  a  pleasure  and  a  pastime  to  a  man  to  return 

1  Perhaps  the  prodigal  sets  out  unto  us  a  Christian  relapse,  for  he  was  a  son  before, 
and  with  his  father,  mil  then  went  away  from  him,  and  spent  all;  and  yet  he  was  not 
quite  undone,  but  returned  again. 

-  'I'll.'  prodigal  saw  (he  compassion  of  his  father  the  greater,  in  receiving  him  after  he 
had  run  away  from  him. 

3  Relapses  into  enormities  are  peccata  mtinerantia  et  divastantia,  wounding  and  wast- 
ing sins ;  therefore  the  Lord  is  graciously  pleased  to  put  under  his  everlasting  arms,  and 
stay  his  chosen  ones  from  frequent  falling  into  them. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  113 

to  his  old  courses,  such  voluntary  relapses  speak  out  the  man  blinded, 
hardened,  and  ripened  for  ruin,  &C.1 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  there  is  no  such  povjer,  or  infinite  virtue,  in  the  greatest 
horror  or  sorrow  the  soul  can  be  under  for  sin,  nor  in  the  sweetest  or 
choicest  discoveries  of  God's  grace  and  love  to  the  soul,  as  for  ever  to 
fence  and  secure  the  soul  from  relapsing  into  the  same  sin.  Grace  is 
but  a  created  habit,  that  may  be  prevailed  against  by  the  secret,  subtle, 
and  strong  workings  of  sin  in  our  hearts  ;  and  those  discoveries  that 
God  makes  of  his  love,  beauty,  and  glory  to  the  soul,  do  not  always 
abide  in  their  freshness  and  power  upon  the  heart ;  but  by  degrees  they 
fade  and  wear  off,  and  then  the  soul  may  return  again  to  folly,  as  we 
see  in  Peter,  who,  after  he  had  a  glorious  testimony  from  Christ's  own 
mouth  of  his  blessedness  and  happiness,  labours  to  prevent  Christ  from 
going  up  to  Jerusalem  to  suffer,  out  of  bare  slavish  fears  that  he  and 
his  fellows  could  not  be  secure,  if  his  Master  should  be  brought  to  suf- 
fer, Mat.  xvi.  15-19,  and  ver.  22-24.  And  again,  after  thisr  Christ  had 
him  up  into  the  mount,  and  there  shewed  him  his  beauty  and  his  glory, 
to  strengthen  him  against  the  hour  of  temptation  that  was  coming  upon 
him  ;  and  yet,  soon  after  he  had  the  honour  and  happiness  of  seeing 
the  glory  of  the  Lord  (which  most  of  his  disciples  had  not),  he  basely  and 
most  shamefully  denies  the  Lord  of  glory,  thinking  by  that  means  to 
provide  for  his  own  safety  ;2  and  yet  again,  after  Christ  had  broke  his 
heart  with  a  look  of  love  for  his  most  unlovely  dealings,  and  bade  them 
that  were  first  acquainted  with  his  resurrection  to  '  go  and  tell  Peter 
that  he  was  risen/  Mark  xvi.  7  ;  I  say,  after  all  this,  slavish  fears  pre- 
vail upon  him,  and  he  basely  dissembles,  and  plays  the  Jew  with  the 
Jews,  and  the  Gentile  with  the  Gentiles,  to  the  seducing  of  Barnabas, 
&c,  Gal.  ii.  11-13. 

Yet,  by  way  of  caution,  know,  it  is  very  rare  that  God  doth  leave  his 
beloved  ones  frequently  to  relapse  into  one  and  the  same  gross  sin ;  for 
the  law  of  nature  is  in  arms  against  gross  sins,  as  well  as  the  law  of 
grace,  so  that  a  gracious  soul  cannot,  dares  not,  will  not,  frequently 
return  to  gross  folly.  And  God  hath  made  even  his  dearest  ones  dearly 
smart  for  their  relapses,  as  may  be  seen  by  his  dealings  with  Samson, 
Jehoshaphat,  and  Peter.  Ah,  Lord  !  what  a  hard  heart  hath  that  man, 
that  can  see  thee  stripping  and  whipping  thy  dearest  ones  for  their 
relapses,  and  yet  make  nothing  of  returning  to  folly,  &c. 

The  eighth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 
and  questionable  condition,  is, 

Device  (8).  By  persuading  them  that  their  estate  is  not  good,  their 
hearts  are  not  upright,  their  graces  are  not  sound,  because  they  are  so 
followed,  vexed,  and  tormented  with  temptations.  It  is  his  method, 
first  to  weary  and  vex  thy  soul  with  temptations,  and  then  to  tempt 
the  soul,  that  surely  it  is  not  beloved,  because  it  is  so  much  tempted. 
And  by  this  stratagem  he  keeps  many  precious  souls  in  a  sad,  doubting, 

1  There  is  a  great  difference  between  a  sheep  that  by  weakness  falls  into  the  mire,  and 
a  swine  that  delights  to  wallow  in  the  mire  ;  between  a  woman  that  is  forced,  though 
she  strives  and  cries  out,  and  an  alluring  adulteress. 

2  Christ  upbraided  his  disciples  for  their  unbelief  and  hardness  of  heart,  who  had  seen 
his  glory,  '  as  the  glory  of  the  only  begotten  Son  of  God,  full  of  grace  and  truth.' 

VOL.  I.  H 

114-  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

and  mourning  temper  many  years,  as  many  of  the  precious  sons  of  Sion 
have  found  by  woful  experience,  &C.1 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  those  tltat  have  been  best  and  most  beloved,  have  been 
most  tempted  by  Satan.  Though  Satan  can  never  rob  a  Christian  of 
his  crown,  yet  such  is  his  malice,  that  he  will  therefore  tempt,  that 
he  may  spoil  them  of  their  comforts.  Such  is  his  enmity  to  the  Father, 
that  the  nearer  and  dearer  any  child  is  to  him,  the  more  will  Satan 
trouble  him,  and  vex  him  with  temptations.  Christ  himself  was  most 
near  and  most  dear,  most  innocent  and  most  excellent,  and  yet  none  so 
much  tempted  as  Christ.  David  was  dearly  beloved,  and  yet  by  Satan 
tempted  to  number  the  people.2  Job  was  highly  praised  by  God  him- 
self, and  yet  much  tempted  ;  witness  those  sad  things  that  fell  from  his 
mouth,  when  he  was  wet  to  the  skin.  Peter  was  much  prized  by  Christ ; 
witness  that  choice  testimony  that  Christ  gave  of  his  faith  and  happi- 
ness, and  his  shewing  him  his  glory  in  the  mount,  and  that  eye  of  pity 
that  he  cast  upon  him  after  his  fearful  fall,  &c,  and  yet  tempted  by 
Satan.  '  And  the  Lord  said,  Simon,  Simon,  behold,  Satan  hath  desired 
to  have  you,  that  he  may  sift  you  as  wheat :  but  I  have  prayed  for 
thee,  that  thy  faith  fail  thee  not,'  &c,  Luke  xxii.  31,  32. 

Paul  had  the  honour  of  being  exalted  as  high  as  heaven,  and  of  seeing 
that  glory  that  could  not  be  expressed  ;  and  yet  he  was  no  sooner  stepped 
out  of  heaven,  but  he  is  buffeted  by  Satan,  '  lest  he  should  be  exalted 
above  measure,'  2  Cor.  xii.  2,  7.  If  these,  that  were  so  really,  so  glo- 
riously, so  eminently  beloved  of  God,  if  these,  that  have  lived  in  heaven, 
and  set  their  feet  upon  the  stars,  have  been  tempted,  let  no  saints  judge 
themselves  not  to  be  beloved,  because  they  are  tempted.  It  is  as  natu- 
ral for  saints  to  be  tempted,  that  are  dearly  beloved,  as  it  is  for  the  sun 
to  shine,  or  a  bird  to  sing.  The  eagle  complains  not  of  her  wings,  nor 
the  peacock  of  his  train,  nor  the  nightingale  of  her  voice,  because  these 
are  natural  to  them  ;  no  more  should  saints  of  their  temptations,  because 
they  are  natural  to  them.  '  For  we  wrestle  not  against  flesh  and  blood, 
but  against  principalities,  against  powers,  against  the  rulers  of  the  dark- 
ness of  this  world,  against  spiritual  wickedness  in  high  places,'  Eph. 
vi.  12. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  all  the  temjrfations  that  befall  the  saints  shall  be  sanc- 
tified to  them  by  a  hand  of  love.  Ah  !  the  choice  experiences  that  the 
saints  get  of  the  power  of  God  supporting  them,  of  the  wisdom  of  God 
directing  them  (so  to  handle  their  spiritual  weapons,  their  graces,  as 
not  only  to  resist,  but  to  overcome),  of  the  mercy  and  goodness  of  the 
Lord  pardoning  and  succouring  of  them.  And  therefore,  saith  Paul, 
'  I  received  the  messenger  of  Satan  for  to  buffet  me,  lest  I  should  be 
exalted,  lest  I  should  be  exalted  above  measure,'  2  Cor.  xii.  7.3     Twice 

1  He  may  so  tempt  as  to  make  a  saint  weary  of  his  life  :  Job  x.  1,  '  My  soul  is  weary 
of  my  life.' 

2  Pirates  do  not  ubg  to  set  upon  poor  empty  vessels — [See  '  Ep.  Dedicatory.' — G.]  ; 
and  beggars  need  not  fear  the  thief.  Those  that  have  most  of  God,  and  are  most  rich 
in  prace,  shall  be  most  set  upon  by  Satan,  who  is  the  greatest  and  wisest  pirate  in  the 
v><  rid. 

3  Vide  Bezaro,  Grotium,  et  Estium  [on  the  passage. — G."]. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  115 

in  that  verse  ;  he  begins  with  it,  and  ends  with  it.  If  he  had  not  been 
buffeted,  who  knows  how  his  heart  would  have  swelled  ;  he  might 
have  been  carried  higher  in  conceit,  than  before  he  was  in  his  ecstasy. 
Temptation  is  God's  school,  wherein  he  gives  his  people  the  clearest  and 
sweetest  discoveries  of  his  love  ;'  a  school  wherein  God  teaches  his 
people  to  be  more  frequent  and  fervent  in  duty.  When  Paul  was  buf- 
feted, then  he  prayed  thrice,  i.  e.  frequently  and  fervently  ;  a  school 
wherein  God  teaches  his  people  to  be  more  tender,  meek,  and  compas- 
sionate to  other  poor,  tempted  souls  than  ever ;  a  school  wherein  God 
teaches  his  people  to  see  a  greater  evil  in  sin  than  ever,  and  a  greater 
emptiness  in  the  creature  than  ever,  and  a  greater  need  of  Christ  and 
free  grace  than  ever  ;  a  school  wherein  God  will  teach  his  people  that 
all  temptations  are  but  his  goldsmiths,  by  which  he  will  try  and  refine, 
and  make  his  people  more  bright  and  glorious.  The  issue  of  all  temp- 
tations shall  be  to  the  good  of  the  saints,  as  you  may  see  by  the  temp- 
tations that  Adam  and  Eve,  and  Christ  and  David,  and  Job  and  Peter 
and  Paul  met  with.  Those  hands  of  power  and  love,  that  bring  light 
out  of  darkness,  good  out  of  evil,  sweet  out  of  bitter,  life  out  of  death, 
heaven  out  of  hell,  will  bring  much  sweet  and  good  to  his  .people,  out  of 
all  the  temptations  that  come  upon  them. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  wisely 
to  consider,  That  no  temptations  do  hurt  or  harm  the  saints,  so  long 
as  they  are  resisted  by  them,  and  prove  the  greatest  afflictions  that  can 
befall  them.  It  is  not  Satan's  tempting,  but  your  assenting  ;  not  his 
enticing,  but  your  yielding,  that  makes  temptations  hurtful  to  your 
soul.  If  the  soul  when  it  is  tempted  resists  temptation,  and  saith  with 
Christ,  '  Get  thee  behind  me,  Satan,'  Mat.  xvi.  23  ;  and  with  that  young 
convert,  '  I  am  not  the  man  I  was/ — ego  non  sum  ego — or  as  Luther 
counsels  all  men  to  answer  all  temptations  with  these  words — Chris- 
tianus  sum — I  am  a  Christian.  If  a  man's  temptation  be  his  greatest 
affliction,  then  is  the  temptation  no  sin  upon  his  soul,  though  it  be  a 
trouble  upon  his  mind.  When  a  soul  can  look  the  Lord  in  the  face, 
and  say,  Ah,  Lord !  I  have  many  outward  troubles  upon  me,  I  have 
lost  such  and  such  a  near  mercy,  and  such  and  such  desirable  mercies  ; 
and  yet  thou  that  knowest  the  heart,  thou  knowest  that  all  my  crosses 
and  losses  do  not  make  so  many  wounds  in  my  soul,  nor  fetch  so  many 
sighs  from  my  heart,  tears  from  my  eyes,  as  those  temptations  do  that 
Satan  follows  my  soul  with  !  When  it  is  thus  with  the  soul,  then 
temptations  are  only  the  soul's  trouble,  they  are  not  the  soul's  sin. 

Satan  is  a  malicious  and  envious  enemy.  As  his  names  are,  so  is  he  ; 
his  names  are  all  names  of  enmity  ;  the  accuser,  the  tempter,  the  de- 
stroyer, the  devourer,  the  envious  man  ;  and  this  malice  and  envy  of  his 
he  shews  sometimes  by  tempting  men  to  such  sins  as  are  quite  contrary 
to  the  temperature  of  their  bodies,  as  he  did  Vespasian  and  Julian,  men 
of  sweet  and  excellent  natures,  to  be  most  bloody  murderers.2  And 
sometimes  he  shews  his  malice  by  tempting  men  to  such  things  as  will 

1  Luther  said,  there  were  three  things  that  made  a  preacher,  meditation,  prayer,  and 

2  Sometimes  he  shews  his  malice  hy  letting  those  things  ahide  by  the  soul,  as  may 
most  vex  and  plague  the  soul,  as  Gregory  observes  in  his  leaving  of  Job's  wife,  which  was 
not  out  of  his  forgetfulness,  carelessness,  or  any  love  or  pity  to  Job,  but  to  vex  and  tor- 
ment him,  and  to  work  him  to  blaspheme  God,  despair,  and  die,  &c. 

116  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

bring  them  no  honour  nor  profit,  &c.  '  Fall  down  and  worship  me,' 
Mat.  iv.  9,  to  blasphemy,  and  atheism,  &c.,  the  thoughts  and  first  motions 
whereof  cause  the  heart  and  flesh  to  tremble.  And  sometimes  he  shews 
his  malice  by  tempting  them  to  those  sins  which  they  have  not  found 
their  natures  prone  to,  and  which  they  abhor  in  others.  Now,  if  the 
soul  resists  these,  and  complains  of  these,  and  groans  and  mourns  under 
these,  and  looks  up  to  the  Lord  Jesus  to  be  delivered  from  these,  then 
shall  they  not  be  put  down  to  the  soul's  account,  but  to  Satan's,  who 
shall  be  so  much  the  more  tormented,  by  how  much  the  more  the  saints 
have  been  by  him  maliciously  tempted,  &c. 

Make  present  and  peremptory  resistance  against  Satan's  temptations, 
bid  defiance  to  the  temptation  at  first  sight.  It  is  safe  to  resist,  it  is 
dangerous  to  dispute.  Eve  lost  herself  and  her  posterity  by  falling 
into  lists1  of  dispute,  when  she  should  have  resisted,  and  stood  upon 
terms  of  defiance  with  Satan.  He  that  would  stand  in  the  hour  of 
temptation  must  plead  with  Christ,  'It  is  written.'  He  that  would 
triumph  over  temptations  must  plead  still,  'It  is  written.2  Satan 
is  bold  and  impudent,  and  if  you  are  not  peremptory  in  your 
resistance,  he  will  give  you  fresh  onsets.  It  is  your  greatest  honour, 
and  your  highest  wisdom,  peremptorily  to  withstand  the  beginnings  of 
a  temptation,  for  an  after- remedy  comes  often  too  late. 

Mrs  Catherine  Bretterege  once,  after  a  great  conflict  with  Satan,  said, 
'  Reason  not  with  me,  I  am  but  a  weak  woman ;  if  thou  hast  anything 
to  say,  say  it  to  my  Christ ;  he  is  my  advocate,  my  strength,  and  my 
redeemer,  and  he  shall  plead  for  me.'3 

Men  must  not  seek  to  resist  Satan's  craft  with  craft,  sed  per  aperturn 
Martemn,  but  by  open  defiance.  He  shoots  with  Satan  in  his  own  bow, 
who  thinks  by  disputing  and  reasoning  to  put  him  off.  As  soon  as  a 
temptation  shews  its  face,  say  to  the  temptation,  as  Ephraim  to  his  idols, 
'  Get  you  hence,  what  have  I  any  more  to  do  with  you  ?'  Hosea  xiv.  8. 
Oh  !  say  to  the  temptation,  as  David  said  to  the  sons  of  Zeruiah,  '  What 
have  I  to  do  with  you  V  2  Sam.  xvi.  10.  You  will  be  too  hard  for  me. 
He  that  doth  thus  resist  temptations,  shall  never  be  undone  by  tempta- 
tions, &c.4 

Make  strong  and  constant  resistance  against  Satan's  temptations. 
Make  resistance  against  temptations  by  arguments  drawn  from  the 
honour  of  God,  the  love  of  God,  your  union  and  communion  with  God; 
and  from  the  blood  of  Christ,  the  death  of  Christ,  the  kindness  of  Christ, 
the  intercession  of  Christ,  and  the  glory  of  Christ ;  and  from  the  voice 
of  the  Spirit,  the  counsel  of  the  Spirit,  the  comforts  of  the  Spirit,  the 
presence  of  the  Spirit,  the  seal  of  the  Spirit,  the  whisperings  of  the 
Spirit,  the  commands  of  the  Spirit,  the  assistance  of  the  Spirit,  the  wit- 
ness of  the  Spirit;  and  from  the  glory  of  heaven,  the  excellency  of  grace, 

1  '  Artifices.'     Cf.  Ilalliwcll,  sub  voce. — G. 

*  Winn  Constantino  the  emperor  was  told  that  there  was  no  means  to  euro  his  lep- 
rosy but  by  bathing  his  body  in  the  blood  of  infants,  lie  presently  answered,  Malo  semper 
wgrolarc  quam  tali  remedio  convalescere,  I  had  rather  not  be  cured  than  use  such  a  remedy. 

*  See  '  Two  Funeral  Sermons  for  Mrs  Catherine  Bretterege;'  the  one  by  W.  Harrison, 
the  other  by  W.  Legh.     lf>05.'— G. 

4  1  have  road  of  one,  who,  being  tempted  with  offers  of  money  to  desert  Christ,  gave 
this  excellent  answer  :  Let  nut  any  man  think  that  he  will  embrace  other  men's  goods 
to  forsake  Christ,  who  hath  forsaken  his  own  proper  goods  to  follow  Christ. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  117 

the  beauty  of  holiness,  the  worth  of  the  soul,  and  the  vileness  or  bitter- 
ness and  evil  of  sin — the  least  sin  being  a  greater  evil  than  the  greatest 
temptation  in  the  world. 

And  look  that  you  make  constant  resistance,  as  well  as  strong  resist- 
ance ;  be  constant  in  arms.  Satan  will  come  on  with  new  temptations 
when  old  ones  are  too  weak.1  In  a  calm  prepare  for  a  storm.  The 
tempter  is  restless,  impudent,  and  subtle  ;  he  will  suit  his  temptations 
to  your  constitutions  and  inclinations.  Satan  loves  to  sail  with  the 
wind.  If  your  knowledge  be  weak,  he  will  tempt  you  to  error  ;  if  your 
conscience  be  tender,  he  will  tempt  you  to  scrupulosity  and  too  much 
preciseness,  as  to  do  nothing  but  hear,  pray,  read,  &c.  ;  if  your  con- 
sciences be  wide  and  large,  he  will  tempt  you  to  carnal  security  ;  if 
you  are  bold-spirited,  he  will  tempt  you  to  presumption ;  if  timorous, 
to  desperation  ;  if  flexible,  to  inconstancy  ;  if  proud  and  stiff,  to  gross 
folly  ;  therefore  still  fit  for  fresh  assaults,  make  one  victory  a  step  to 
another.  When  you  have  overcome  a  temptation,  take  heed  of  unbend- 
ing your  bow,  and  look  well  to  it,  that  your  bow  be  always  bent,  and 
that  it  remains  in  strength.  When  you  have  overcome  one  temptation, 
you  must  be  ready  to  enter  the  list2  with  another.  As  distrust  in  some 
sense  is  the  mother  of  safety,  so  security  is  the  gate  of  danger.  A  man 
had  need  to  fear  this  most  of  all,  that  he  fears  not  at  all.  If  Satan  be 
always  roaring,  we  should  be  always  a-watching  and  resisting  of  him. 
And  certainly  he  that  makes  strong  and  constant  resistance  of  Satan's 
temptations,  shall  in  the  end  get  above  his  temptations,  and  for  the 
present  is  secure  enough  from  being  ruined  by  his  temptations,  &c. 

For  a  close  of  this,  remember,  that  it  is  dangerous  to  yield  to  the  least 
sin  to  be  rid  of  the  greatest  temptation.  To  take  this  course  were  as  if 
a  man  should  think  to  wash  himself  clean  in  ink,  or  as  if  a  man  should 
exchange  a  light  cross,  made  of  paper,  for  an  iron  cross,  which  is  heavy, 
toilsome,  and  bloody.  The  least  sin  set  home  upon  the  conscience,  will 
more  wound,  vex,  and  oppress  the  soul,  than  all  the  temptations  in  the 
world  can  ;  therefore  never  yield  to  the  least  sin  to  be  rid  of  the  great- 
est temptation.3  Sidonius  Apollinarius  relateth  how  a  certain  man 
named  Maximus,  arriving  at  the  top  of  honour  by  indirect  means,  was 
the  first  day  very  much  wearied,  and  fetching  a  deep  sigh,  said,  '  Oh, 
Damocles  !  how  happy  do  I  esteem  of  thee,  for  having  been  a  king  but 
the  space  of  a  dinner !  I  have  been  one  whole  day,  and  can  bear  it  no 
longer/  *     I  will  leave  you  to  make  the  application. 

IV.  The  fourth  thing  to  be  shewed  is, 

The  several  ways  and  devices  that  tSatan  hath  to  destroy  and  en- 
snare all  sorts  and  ranks  of  men  in  the  world. 

I  shall  begin  with  the  honourable  and  the  great,  and  shew  you  the 
devices  that  Satan  hath  to  destroy  them.  I  will  only  instance  in  those 
that  are  most  considerable. 

Device  (1).  His  first  device  to  destroy  the  great  and  honourable  of 

1  Luke  iv.  13,  '  And  when  the  devil  had  ended  all  the  temptation,  he  departed  from 
him  for  a  season.'  Christ  had  no  rest  until  he  was  exactly  tried  with  all  kinds  of  temp- 
tations.    [Calvin  in  loc.—G  ]  2  '  Course.' — G. 

3  He  that  will  yield  to  sin  to  be  rid  of  temptation,  will  be  so  much  the  more  tempted, 
and  the  less  able  to  withstand  temptations. 

4  Opera:  Sidonius  C.  S.  Apollinaris,  sub  nomine  (Paris,  1652,  by  Sirmond).— G. 

118  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

the  earth  is,  By  worhmg  them  to  make  it  /heir  business  to  seek  them- 
selves, to  seek  hotr  in  r/reat&n  themselves,  to  raise  themselves,  to  enrich 
themselves,  to  secure  themselves,  &c.,  as  you  may  see  in  Pharaoh,  Ahab, 
Rehoboam,  Jeroboam,  Absalom,  Joab,  Hainan,  &C.1  But  were  the 
Scripture  silent,  our  own  experiences  do  abundantly  evidence  this  way 
and  method  of  Satan  to  destroy  the  great  and  the  honourable  ;  to 
bury  their  Dames  in  the  dust,  and  their  souls  in  hell,  by  drawing  them 
wholly  to  mind  themselves,  and  only  to  mind  themselves,  and  in  all 
things  to  mind  themselves,  and  always  to  mind  themselves.  'All,' 
saith  the  apostle,  '  mind  themselves/  Philip,  ii.  21.  All  comparatively, 
in  respect  of  the  paucity  of  others,  that  let  fall  their  private  interests, 
and  drown  all  self-respects  in  the  glory  of  God  and  the  public  good,  &c. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these, 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  self -.seel  in  <j  is  a  sin  thai  will  put  men  wpon  a  xvorbl 
of  sins,  upon  sins  not  only  against  the  law  of  God,  the  rules  of  the 
gospel,  but  that  are  against  the  very  laivs  of  nature,  that  are  so  much 
darkened  by  the  fall  of  man.2  It  puts  the  Pharisees  upon  opposing 
Christ,  and  Judas  upon  betraying  Christ,  and  Pilate  upon  condemning 
Christ.  It  puts  Gehazi  upon  lying,  and  Balaam  upon  cursing,  and 
Saul  and  Absalom  upon  plotting  David's  ruin.  It  put  Pharaoh  and 
Hainan  upon  contriving  ways  to  destroy  those  Jews  that  God  did  pur- 
pose to  save  by  his  mighty  arm.  It  puts  men  upon  using  wicked 
balances,  and  the  bag  of  deceitful  weights.  It  puts  men  upon  ways  of 
oppression,  and  '  selling  the  righteous  for  silver,  and  the  poor  for  a  pair 
of  shoes,'  &c,  Amos  ii.  6.  I  know  not  any  sin  in  the  world  but  this  sin 
of  self-seekmg  will  put  men  upon  it,  though  it  be  their  eternal  loss. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  self-seeking  doth  exceedingly  abase  a  man. 
It  strips  him  of  all  his  royalty  and  glory.  Of  a  lord  it  makes  a  man 
become  a  servant  to  the  creature,  ay,  often  to  the  worst  of  creatures ; 
yea,  a  slave  to  slaves,  as  you  may  see  in  Judas,  Demas,  Balaam,  and 
the  Scribes  and  Pharisees.3  Self-seekers  bow  down  to  the  creatures,  as 
Gideon's  many  thousands  bowed  down  to  the  waters.  Self-seeking 
will  make  a  man  say  anything,  do  anything,  and  be  anything,  to  please 
the  lusts  of  others,  and  to  get  advantages  upon  others.  Self-seeking 
transforms  a  man  into  all  shapes  aud  forms  ;  now  it  makes  a  man  ap- 
pear as  an  angel  of  light,  anon  as  an  angel  of  darkness.4  Mow  self- 
seekers  are  seemingly  for  God,  anon  they  are  openly  against  God  ;  now 
you  shall  have  them  crying,  '  Hosanna  in  the  highest,'  and  anon, 
'  Crucify  him,  crucify  him  ;'  now  you  shall  have  them  build  with  the 
saints,  and  anon  you  shall  have  them  plotting  the  overthrow  of  the 
saints,  as  those  self-seekers  did  in  Ezra  and  Nehemiah's  time.  Self- 
seekers  are  the  basest  of  all  persons.     There  is  no  service  so  base,  so 

1  Self-seeking,  like  the  deluge,  overthrows  the  whole  world. 

2  Self-love  is  the  root  of  the  hatred  of  others,  2  Tim.  iii.  2.  First,  lovers  of  themselves, 
niul  then  fierce,  &c.  The  naturalists  observe,  that  those  beasts  which  are  most  cruel  to 
others  are  most  loving  to  their  own. 

3  A  self-seeker  is  a  Cato  without,  hut  a  Nero  within.  Domitian  would  seem  to  love 
them  beet  whom  he  willed  least  should  live,  and  that  is  the  very  temper  of  self-seekers. 

4  It  was  death  in  Moses'  rites  to  counterfeit  that  ceremonial  and  figurative  ointment, 
Ex.  xxx.     What  shall  it  then  be  to  counterfeit  the  spirit  of  life  and  holiness  ! 

2  Cor.  II.  11. J  against  satan's  devices.  119 

poor,  so  low,  but  they  will  bow  to  it.  They  cannot  look  neither  above, 
nor  beyond  their  own  lusts,  and  the  enjoyment  of  the  creature,  Rom. 
i.  25.     These  are  the  prime  and  ultimate  objects  of  their  intendments. 

It  is  said  of  Tiberius,  '  that  whilst  Augustus  ruled,  he  was  no  way 
tainted  in  his  reputation,  and  that  while  Drusus  and  Germanicus  were 
alive,  he  feigned  those  virtues  which  he  had  not,  to  maintain  a  good 
opinion  of  himself  in  the  hearts  of  the  people ;  but  after  he  had  got 
himself  out  of  the  reach  of  contradiction  and  controlment,  there  was  no 
fact  in  which  he  was  not  faulty,  no  crime  to  which  he  was  not  acces- 
sory.' My  prayer  shall  be,  that  Tiberius  his  spirit  may  not  be  found 
in  any  of  our  rulers,  lest  it  prove  their  ruin,  as  it  did  his  ;  and  that 
wherever  it  is,  it  may  be  detected,  loathed,  and  ejected,  that  so  neither 
the  state  nor  souls  may  be  ruined  by  it,  &c. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  To  dwell  upon  those  dreadful  curses  and  woes  that  are  from 
heaven  denounced  against  self -seeker,' .  '  Woe  unto  them  that  join 
house  to  house,  that  lay  field  to  field,  till  there  be  no  place,  that  they 
may  be  placed  alone  in  the  midst  of  the  earth,'  Isa.  v.  8.  So  Ha- 
bakkuk,  ii.  6,  9-12,  s  Woe  to  him  that  increaseth  that  which  is  not  his, 
and  to  him  that  ladeth  himself  with  thick  clay  !'  '  Woe  to  him  that 
coveteth  an  evil  covetousness  to  his  house,  that  he  may  set  his  nest  on 
high,  that  he  may  be  delivered  from  the  power  of  evil !  Thou  hast 
consulted  shame  to  thy  house  by  cutting  off  many  people,  and  hast 
sinned  against  thy  soul.  For  the  stone  shall  cry  out  of  the  wall,  and 
the  beam  out  of  the  timber  shall  answer  it.  Woe  to  him  that  buildeth 
a  town  with  blood,  and  establisheth  a  city  by  iniquity  !'  The  materials 
of  the  house  built  up  by  oppression  shall  come  as  joint  witnesses.  The 
stones  of  the  wall  shall  cry,  '  Lord,  we  were  built  up  by  blood  and 
violence  ;  and  the  beam  shall  answer,  True,  Lord,  even  so  it  is.'  The 
stones  shall  cry,  Vengeance,  Lord  !  upon  these  self-seekers  !  and  the 
beam  shall  answer,  Woe  to  him,  because  he  built  his  house  with  blood  ! ' 
So  Isaiah,  '  Woe  unto  them  that  decree  unrighteous  decrees,  and  that 
write  grievousness  which  they  have  prescribed  ;  to  turn  aside  the 
needy  from  judgment,  and  to  take  away  the  right  from  the  poor  of  my 
people,  that  widows  may  be  their  prey,  and  that  they  may  rob  the 
fatherless,'  Isa.  x.  1,  2.  So  Amos,  'Woe  unto  them  that  are  at  ease  in 
Zion,  and  trust  in  the  mountain  of  Samaria,  which  are  named  chief  of 
the  nations,  to  whom  the  house  of  Israel  came  ;  that  put  far  away  the 
evil  day,  and  cause  the  seat  of  violence  to  come  near  ;  that  lie  upon 
beds  of  ivory,  and  stretch  themselves  upon  their  couches,  and  eat  the 
lambs  out  of  the  flock,  and  the  calves  out  of  the  middle  of  the  stall ; 
that  drink  wine  in  bowls,  and  anoint  themselves  with  the  chief  oint- 
ments :  but  they  are  not  grieved  for  the  afflictions  of  Joseph,'  Amos  vi. 
1,  3-6.  So  Micah,  '  Woe  to  them  that  devise  iniquity,  and  work  evil 
upon  their  beds  !  when  the  morning  is  light,  they  practise  it,  because 

1  Crassus,  a  very  rich  Roman,  and  a  great  self-seeker,  for  greedy  desire  of  gold,  he 
managed  war  against  the  Parthians,  by  whom  both  he  and  thirty  thousand  Romans  were 
slain.  And  bpcause  the  barbarians  conjectured  that  he  made  this  assault  upon  them  for 
their  gold,  therefore  they  melted  gold,  and  poured  it  into  his  dead  body,  saying,  Satura 
te  auro,  Satisfy  thyself  with  gold.  [The  above  was  done  by  Orodes,  who  said,  '  Sate  thy- 
self now  with  that  metal  of  which  in  life  thou  wert  so  greedy. ' — Dion.  Cass.  xl.  27 ; 
Florus,  iii.  11.— G.] 

120  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

it  is  in  the  power  of  their  hand.  And  they  covet  fields,  and  take  them 
by  violence,  and  houses,  and  take  them  away.  So  they  oppress  a  man 
and  his  house,  even  a  man  and  his  heritage,'  Micah  ii.  1,  2. 

By  these  scriptures,  you  see  that  self-seekers  labour  like  a  woman 
in  travail,  but  their  birth  proves  their  death,  their  pleasure  their  pain, 
their  comforts  their  torment,  their  glory  their  shame,  their  exaltation 
their  desolation.  Loss,  disgrace,  trouble  and  shame,  vexation  and  con- 
fusion, will  be  the  certain  portion  of  self-seekers. 

When  the  Tartarians  had  taken  in  battle  the  Duke  of  Muscovia,  they 
made  a  cup  of  his  skull,  with  this  inscription,  'All  covet,  all  lose.'1 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  self-seekers  are  self -losers  and  self -destroyers. 
Absalom  and  Judas  seek  themselves,  and  hang  themselves.  Saul  seeks 
himself,  and  kills  himself.  Ahab  seeks  himself,  and  loses  himself,  his 
crown  and  kingdom.  Pharaoh  seeks  himself,  and  overthrows  him- 
self and  his  mighty  army  in  the  Red  Sea.  Cain  sought  himself,  and 
slew  two  at  once,  his  brother  and  his  own  soul.  Gehazi  sought  change 
of  raiment,  but  God  changed  his  raiment  into  a  leprous  skin.  Haman 
sought  himself,  and  lost  himself.  The  princes  and  presidents  sought 
themselves,  in  the  ruin  of  Daniel,  but  ruined  themselves,  their  wives 
and  children.  That  which  self-seekers  think  should  be  a  staff  to  sup- 
port them,  becomes  by  the  hand  of  justice  an  iron  rod  to  break  them  ; 
tiiat  which  they  would  have  as  springs  to  refresh  them,  becomes  a  gulf 
utterly  to  consume  them.  The  crosses  of  self  seekers  shall  always 
exceed  their  mercies  :  their  pain  their  pleasure ;  their  torments  their 
comforts.  Every  self-seeker  is  a  self-tormentor,  a  self-destroyer ;  he 
carries  a  hell,  an  executioner,  in  his  own  bosom,  &c.2 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  much  upon  the  famous  examples  of  those  worthy  saints  that 
have  denied  themselves  and  preferred  the  public  good  before  their  own 
particular  advantage.'6  As  Moses,  '  And  the  Lord  said  unto  Moses, 
Let  me  alone,  that  I  may  destroy  them,  and  blot  out  their  name  from 
under  heaven :  and  I  will  make  of  thee  a  nation  mightier  and  greater 
than  they,'  Deut.  ix.  14.  Oh  !  but  this  offer  would  not  take  with  Moses, 
he  being  a  man  of  a  brave  public  spirit.  It  is  hot  in  his  desires  and 
prayers  that  the  people  might  be  spared  and  pardoned  ;  saith  he,  '  Par- 
don, I  beseech  thee,  the  iniquity  of  this  people,  unto  the  greatness  of 
thy  mercy,  and  as  thou  hast  forgiven  this  people  from  Egypt  until  now. 
And  the  Lord  said,  I  have  pardoned  according  to  thy  word,'  ix.  26,  et 
seq.  Ah  !  should  God  make  such  an  offer  to  many  that  write  themselves 
Moses,  and  are  called  by  many,  Moses,  I  am  afraid  they  would  prefer 
their  own  advantage  above  the  public  good  ;  they  would  not  care  what 
become  of  the  people,  so  they  and  theirs  might  be  made  great  and 

1  Tacitus  the  Roman  emperor's  word  was,  Sibi  bonus,  aliis  malus,  He  that  is  too  much 
for  himself,  fails  to  be  good  to  others. 

*  Adam  seeks  himself,  and  loses  himself,  paradise,  and  that  blessed  image  that  God 
had  stamped  upon  him.  Lot  seeks  himself,  Gen.  xiii.  10,  11,  and  loses  himself  and  his 
goods.  Peter  seeks  to  save  himself,  and  miserably  loses  himself.  Hezekiah,  in  the  busi- 
ness of  the  ambassadors,  seeks  himself,  and  lost  himself  and  his  life  too,  had  not  God 
saved  him  by  a  miracle. 

3  It  is  good  to  be  of  his  opinion  and  mind,  who  was  rather  willing  to  beautify  Italy 
than  his  own  house.  The  ancients  were  wont  to  place  the  statues  of  their  princes  by 
their  fountains,  intimating  they  were  (or  at  least  should  be)  fountains  of  the  public  good. 

2  COR.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  121 

glorious  in  the  world  ;  they  would  not  care  so  they  might  have  a  Babel 
built  for  them,  though  it  was  upon  the  ashes  and  ruin  of  the  people. 
Baser  spirits  than  these  are  not  in  hell ;  no,  not  in  hell ;  and  I  am  sure 
there  are  no  such  spirits  in  heaven.  Such  men's  hearts  and  principles 
must  be  changed,  or  they  will  be  undone  for  ever.  Nehemiah  was  a 
choice  soul,  a  man  of  a  brave  public  spirit,  a  man  that  spent  his  time, 
his  strength,  and  his  estate,  for  the  good  and  ease  of  his  people. 
'Moreover,'  saith  he,  'from  the  time  that  I  was  appointed  to  be  their 
governor  in  the  land  of  Judah,  from  the  twentieth  year  even  unto  the 
two  and  thirtieth  year  of  Artaxerxes  the  king,  that  is,  twelve  years,  I 
and  my  brethren  have  not  eaten  the  bread  of  the  governor.  Yea,  also 
I  continued  in  the  work  of  this  wall:  and  all  my  servants  were  gathered 
hither  unto  the  work.  Moreover,  there  were  at  my  table  an  hundred 
and  fifty  of  the  Jews  and  rulers,  besides  those  that  came  unto  us  from 
among  the  heathen  that  are  about  us.  Now,  that  which  was  prepared 
for  me  daily  was  one  ox,  and  six  choice  sheep;  also  fowls  were  prepared 
for  me,  and  once  in  ten  days  store  of  all  sorts  of  wine :  yet  for  all  this 
required  I  not  the  bread  of  the  governor,  because  the  bondage  was 
heavy  upon  the  people.  Think  upon  me,  O  my  God,  for  good,  accord- 
ing to  all  that  I  have  done  for  this  people,'  Neh.  v.  14-19.  So  Daniel 
was  a  man  of  a  brave  public  spirit:  'Then  the  presidents  and  princes 
sought  to  find  occasion  against  Daniel  concerning  the  kingdom  ;  but 
they  could  find  no  occasion  nor  fault ;  forasmuch  as  he  was  faithful, 
neither  was  there  any  error  or  fault  found  in  him.  Then  said  these 
men,  We  shall  not  find  any  occasion  against  this  Daniel,  except  we 
find  it  against  him  concerning  the  law  of  his  God,'  Daniel  vi.  4,  5.1 

Christ  had  a  public  spirit,  he  laid  out  himself,  and  laid  down  himself 
for  a  public  good.  Oh  !  never  leave  looking  and  meditating  upon  these 
precious  and  sweet  examples  till  your  souls  are  quickened  and  raised 
up,  to  act  for  the  public  good,  more  than  for  your  own  particular 
advantage.     Many  heathens  have  been  excellent  at  this.2 

Macrobius  writes  of  Augustus  Csesar,  in  whose  time  Christ  was  born, 
that  he  carried  such  an  entire  and  fatherly  affection  to  the  common- 
wealth, that  he  called  it  filiam  suam,  his  own  daughter ;  and  therefore 
refused  to  be  called  Dominus,  the  lord  or  master  of  his  country,  and 
would  only  be  called  Pater  patriae,  father  of  his  country,  because  he 
governed  it  not  by  fear,  per  timorem,  sed  per  amorem,  but  by  love  ; 
the  senate  and  the  people  of  Borne  jointly  saluting  him  by  the  name  of 
Pater  patriot,  father  of  his  country.  The  people  very  much  lamented 
his  death,  using  that  speech,  '  Would  he  had  never  been  born,  or  never 

So  Marcus  Begulus,  to  save  his  country  from  ruin,  exposed  himself 
to  the  greatest  sufferings  that  the  malice  and  rage  of  his  enemies  could 

So  Titus  and  Aristides,  and  many  others,  have  been  famous  for  their 
preferring  the  public  good  above  their  own  advantage.     My  prayer  is, 

1  A  certain  great  emperor  coming  into  Egypt,  to  shew  the  zeal  he  had  for  the  public 
good,  saith  to  tho  Egyptians,  Draw  from  me  as  from  your  river  Nilus.  The  Counsellor 
saith,  a  statesman  should  be  thus  tripartited :  his  will  to  God,  his  love  to  his  master,  his 
heart  to  his  country,  his  secret  to  his  friend,  his  time  to  business. 

2  Solomon's  tribunal  was  underpropped  with  lions,  to  shew  what  spirit  and  metal  a 
magistrate  should  be  made  of.  8  Utinam  aut  non  nasceretur,  aut  [nori]  morerctur. 

122  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

and  shall  be,  that  all  our  rulers  may  be  so  spirited  by  God,  that  they 
may  be  willing  to  be  anything,  to  be  nothing,  to  deny  themselves,  and 
to  tram])!.'  their  sinful  selves  under  feet,  in  order  to  the  honour  of  God, 
and  a  public  good  ;  that  so  neither  saints  nor  heathens  may  be  wit- 
nesses against  them  in  that  day,  wherein  the  hearts  and  practices  of  all 
the  rulers  in  the  world  shall  be  open  and  bare  before  him  that  judges 
the  world  in  righteousness  and  judgment. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seriously 
to  consider,  That  self is  a  great  let  to  divine  things,-  therefore  the  pro- 
phets 'fm/  apostles  were  usually  ca/rried  out  of  themselves,  when  they 
had  the  clearest,  choicest,  highest,  and  most  glorious  visions.  Self- 
seeking  blinds  the  soul  that  it  cannot  see  a  beauty  in  Christ,  nor  an 
excellency  in  holiness  ;  it  distempers  the  palate  that  a  man  cannot  taste 
sweetness  in  the  word  of  God,  nor  in  the  ways  of  God,  nor  in  the  society 
of  the  people  of  God.  It  shuts  the  hand  against  all  the  soul-enriching 
offers  of  Christ ;  it  hardens  the  heart  against  all  the  knocks  and  en- 
treaties of  Christ ;  it  makes  the  soul  as  an  empty  vine,  and  as  a  barren 
wilderness  :  '  Israel  is  an  empty  vine,  he  bringeth  forth  fruit  to  himself,' 
Hosea  x.  1.  There  is  nothing  that  speaks  a  man  to  be  more  empty  and 
void  of  God,  Christ,  and  grace,  than  self-seeking.  The  Pharisees  were 
great  self-seekers,  and  great  undervalues  of  Christ,  his  word  and  Spirit. 
There  is  not  a  greater  hindrance  to  all  the  duties  of  piety  than  self- 
seeking.  Oh  !  this  is  that  that  keeps  many  a  soul  from  looking  after 
God  and  the  precious  things  of  eternity.  They  cannot  wait  on  God,  nor 
act  for  God,  nor  abide  in  those  ways  wherein  they  might  meet  with  God, 
by  reason  of  self.  Self-seeking  is  that  which  puts  many  a  man  upon 
neglecting  and  slighting  the  things  of  his  peace.  Self-seekers  will 
neither  go  into  heaven  themselves,  nor  suffer  others  to  enter,  that  are 
ready  to  take  the  kingdom  by  violence,  as  you  may  see  in  the  Scribes 
aud  Pharisees.  Oh  !  but  a  gracious  spirit  is  acted  quite  other  ways,  as 
you  may  see  in  that  sweet  scripture,  Cant.  vii.  13,  'At  our  gates  are 
all  manner  of  pleasant  fruits,  new  and  old,  which  I  have  laid  up  for  thee, 
O  beloved.'  All  the  church  hath  and  is,  is  only  for  him.  Let  others 
bear  fruit  to  themselves,  and  lay  up  for  themselves,  gracious  spirits  will 
hide  for  Christ  and  lay  up  for  Christ.1  All  the  divine  endeavours  and 
productions  of  saints  fall  into  God's  bosom,  and  empty  themselves  into 
his  lap.  As  Christ  lays  up  his  merits  for  them,  his  graces  for  them,  his 
comforts  for  them,  his  crown  for  them,  so  they  lay  up  all  their  fruits, 
and  all  their  loves,  all  their  graces,  and  all  their  experiences,  and  all 
their  services,  only  for  him  who  is  the  soul  of  their  comforts,  and  the 
crown  and  top  of  all  their  royalty  and  glory,  &c. 

The  second  device  that  Satan  hath  to  ensnare  and  destroy  the  great 
and  honourable  of  the  earth  is, 

Device  (2).  By  engaging  them  against  the  people  of  the  Most  High, 
again  t  those  that  are  lew  jewels,  his  pleasant  'portion,  the  delight  of  h  is 
eye  and  the  joy  of  his  heart  Thus  he  drew  Pharaoh  to  engage  against 
the  children  of  Israel,  and  that  was  his  overthrow,  Exod.  xiv.     So  he 

1  Self-seekers,  with  Esau,  prefer  a  mess  of  pottage  above  their  birthright,  aud  with  the 
men  of  Shecheru,  esteem  the  bramble  above  the  vine,  the  olive,  and  the  lig-treo,  yea,  empty 
things  above  a  full  Christ,  and  base  things  above  a  glorious  Christ.  The  saints'  motto  is, 
]' ropier  te,  Dominc,  propter  te.     The  saints'  motto  is,  iYo/j  nobis,  Domine. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  123 

engaged  Hainan  against  the  Jews,  and  so  brought  him  to  hang  upon 
that  gallows  that  he  had  made  for  Mordecai,  Esther  vii.  So  he  engaged 
those  princes  and  presidents  against  Daniel,  which  was  the  utter  ruin 
of  them  and  their  relations,  Dan.  vi.  So  in  Rev.  xx.  7-9,  '  And  when 
the  thousand  years  are  expired,  Satan  shall  be  loosed  out  of  his  prison. 
And  he  shall  go  out  to  deceive  the  nations  which  are  in  the  four  quarters 
of  the  earth,  Gog  and  Magog,  to  gather  them  together  to  battle,  whose 
number  is  as  the  sand  of  the  sea.  And  they  went  up  upon  the  breadth 
of  the  earth,  and  compassed  the  camp  of  the  saints  about,  and  the 
beloved  city  ;  and  fire  came  down  from  heaven  and  consumed  them.' 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  none  have  engaged  against  the  saints,  but  have  been 
ruined  by  the  God  of  saints.  Divine  justice  hath  been  too  hard  for  all 
that  have  opposed  and  engaged  against  the  saints,  as  is  evident  in  Saul, 
Pharaoh,  Hainan,  &c  :  '  He  reproved  kings  for  their  sakes,  saying,  Touch 
not  mine  anointed,  nor  do  my  prophets  no  harm,'  Ps.  cv.  15.  When 
men  of  Balaam  spirits  and  principles  have  been  engaged  against  the 
saints,  how  hath  the  angel  of  the  Lord  met  them  in  the  way, and  justled 
their  bones  against  the  wall !  how  hath  he  broke  their  backs  and  necks, 
and  by  his  drawn  sword  cut  them  off  in  the  prime  of  their  days,  and  in 
the  height  of  their  sins  I1  Ah !  what  a  harvest  hath  hell  had  in  our  days,  of 
those  who  have  engaged  against  the  Lamb,  and  those  that  are  called 
chosen  and  faithful!  Ah!  how  hath  divine  justice  poured  out  their 
blood  as  water  upon  the  ground !  how  hath  he  laid  their  honour  and 
glory  in  the  dust,  who,  in  the  pride  and  madness  of  their  hearts,  said, 
as  Pharaoh,  '  We  will  pursue,  we  will  overtake,  we  will  divide  the  spoil, 
our  lusts  shall  be  satisfied  upon  them.  We  will  draw  our  sword,  our 
hand  shall  destroy  them/  Exod.  xv.  9.  In  the  things  wherein  they  have 
spoken  and  done  proudly,  justice  hath  been  above  them.  History 
abounds  in  nothing  more  than  in  instances  of  this  kind,  &c. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  some  time  every  morning  upon  the  following  scriptures,  wherein 
God  hath  engaged  himself  to  stand  by  his  people  and  for  his  people, 
and  to  make  them  victorious  over  the  greatest  and  wisest  of  their 
enemies.2  Associate  yourselves,  saith  the  Lord  by  the  prophet,  '  O  ye 
people,  and  ye  shall  be  broken  in  pieces  ;  and  give  ear,  all  ye  of  far 
countries  :  gird  yourselves,  and  ye  shall  be  broken  in  pieces.  Take 
counsel  together,  and  it  shall  come  to  nought ;  speak  the  word,  and  it 
shall  not  stand :  for  God  is  with  us.'  '  Fear  not,  thou  worm  Jacob, 
and  ye  men  of  Israel :  I  will  help  thee,  saith  the  Lord,  and  thy  Re- 
deemer, the  holy  One  of  Israel.  Behold,  I  will  make  thee  a  new  sharp 
threshing  instrument  having  teeth  :  thou  shalt  thresh  the  mountains, 
and  beat  them  small,  and  shalt  make  the  hills  as  chaff.  Thou  shalt 
fan  them,  and  the  wind  shall  carry  them  away,  and  the  whirlwind  shall 
scatter  them,  and  thou  shalt  rejoice  in  the  Lord,  and  shalt  glory  in  the 
holy  One  of  Israel/     '  No  weapon  that  is  formed  against  thee  shall 

1  As  they  said  once  of  the  Grecians  in  the  epigram,  whom  they  thought  invulnerable, 
"We  shoot  at  them,  but  they  fall  not  down  ;  wo  wound  them,  and  not  kill  them,  &c. 
Tanto  plus  glorice  referemus,  quoniam  eo  plures  superabimus.  The  number  of  opposers 
makes  the  Christian's  conquest  the  more  illustrious,  said  Pedarelus  in  Erasmus. 

8  Ucciai poterunl,  sed  vinci  non poterant,  said  Cyprian  of  the  Christians  in  his  time. 

1 24?  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

prosper,  and  every  tongue  that  shall  rise  against  thee  in  judgment  thou 
shalt  condemn.  This  is  the  heritage  of  the  servants  of  the  Lord,  and  their 
righteousness  is  of  me,  saith  the  Lord.'  '  Now  also  many  nations  are 
gathered  together  against  thee  that  say,  Let  us  be  defiled,  and  let  our 
eye  look  upon  Sion.  But  they  know  not  the  thoughts  of  the  Lord, 
neither  understand  they  his  counsel  ;  for  he  shall  gather  them  as  sheaves 
into  the  floor.  Arise  and  thresh,  0  daughter  of  Sion  :  I  will  make  thy 
horn  iron,  and  I  will  make  thy  hoof  brass,  and  thou  shalt  beat  in  pieces 
many  people,  and  I  will  consecrate  their  gain  unto  the  Lord,  and  their 
substance  unto  the  Lord  of  the  whole  earth/  'Behold,  I  will  make 
Jerusalem  a  cup  of  trembling  unto  all  the  people  round  about,  when 
they  shall  be  in  the  siege,  both  against  Judab  and  against  Jerusalem. 
And  in  that  day  will  I  make  Jerusalem  a  burdensome  stone  for  all 
people  :  all  that  burden  themselves  with  it  shall  be  cut  in  pieces,  though 
all  the  people  of  the  earth  be  gathered  together  against  it/1 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to  con- 
sider, That  you  cannot  engage  against  the  saints,  but  you  must  engage 
against  God  liimself  by  reason  of '  that  near  and  blessed  union  that  is 
between  God  and  them.  You  cannot  be  fighters  against  the  saints,  but 
you  will  be  found  in  the  casting  up  of  the  account  to  be  fighters  against 
God  himself.2  And  what  greater  madness  than  for  weakness  itself  to 
engage  against  an  almighty  strength  !  The  near  union  that  is  between 
the  Lord  and  believers,  is  set  forth  by  that  near  union  that  is  betwixt 
a  husband  and  his  wife.  '  They  two  shall  be  one  flesh.  This  is  a  great 
mystery  :  but  I  speak  concerning  Christ  and  the  church  ;  we  are  mem- 
bers of  his  body,  of  his  flesh,  and  of  his  bones,'  saith  the  apostle,  Eph. 
v.  32.  This  near  union  is  set  forth  by  that  union  that  is  between  the 
head  and  the  members,  which  make  up  one  body,  and  by  that  union 
that  is  betwixt  the  graff  and  the  stock,  which  are  made  one  by  insition.3 
The  union  between  the  Lord  and  a  believer  is  so  near,  that  you  cannot 
strike  a  believer,  but  the  Lord  is  sensible  of  it,  and  takes  it  as  done  to 
himself.  '  Saul,  Saul,  why  persecutest  thou  me  V  Acts  ix.  4  ;  and  '  in 
all  their  afflictions  he  was  afflicted,'  &c,  Isa.  lxiii.  9.  Ah.  souls !  who 
ever  engaged  against  God  and  prospered  ?  who  ever  took  up  the  sword 
against  him  but  perished  by  it  ?  God  can  speak  you  to  bell  and  nod 
you  to  hell  at  pleasure.  It  is  your  greatest  concernment  to  lay  down 
your  weapons  at  his  feet,  and  to  '  Kiss  the  Son,  lest  he  be  angry,  and 
you  perish  in  the  midway/  Ps.  ii.  12. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  you  are  much  engaged  to  the  saints,  as 
vtistruments  for  the  mercies  that  you  do  enjoy,  and  for  the  preventing 
and  removing  of  many  a  judgment  that  othenvise  might  have  been 
your  rain  before  tJris  day.  Were  it  not  for  the  saints'  sake,  God  would 
quickly  make  the  heavens  to  be  as  brass  and  the  earth  as  iron  ;  God 
would  quickly  strip  thee  of  thy  robes  and  glory,  and  set  thee  upon  the 
dunghill  with  Job.  They  are  the  props  that  bear  the  world  from  falling 
about  thy  cars,  and  that  keep  the  iron  rod  from  breaking  of  thy  bones. 
1  Isa.  viii  9,  10  ;  xli.  14, 15,  and  liv.  17  ;  Micah  iv.  11-13  ;  Zecli.  xii.  2,  3.— G. 
*  Acts-v.  39.  It  seems  to  bo  drawn  from  the  fable  of  the  giants,  which  were  said  to 
make  war  with  the  gods. 

3  The  soul's  happiness  consists  not  in  anything,  but  in  its  union  with  God;  nor  iti 
misery  lies  uot  so  much  in  anything,  as  in  its  disuuiou  from  God. 

2  Cor.  II  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  125 

'  Therefore  he  said  that  he  would  destroy  them,  had  not  Moses  his  chosen 
stood  before  him  in  the  breach,  to  turn  away  his  wrath,  lest  he  should 
destroy  them/  Ps.  cvi.  23. 

Ah  !  had  not  the  saints  many  a  time  cast  themselves  into  the  breach 
betwixt  God's  wrath  and  you,  you  had  been  cut  off  from  the  land  of  the 
living,  and  had  had  your  portion  with  those  whose  names  are  written 
in  the  dust.1  Many  a  nation,  many  a  city,  and  many  a  family,  is  sur- 
rounded with  blessings  for  the  Josephs'  sakes  that  live  therein,  and  are 
preserved  from  many  calamities  and  miseries  for  the  Moseses',  the 
Daniels',  the  Noahs',  and  the  Jobs'  sakes,  that  dwell  amongst  them. 
That  is  a  sweet  word,  Prov.  x.  25,  '  As  the  whirlwind  passeth,  so  is  the 
wicked  no  more  :  but  the  righteous  is  an  everlasting  foundation,  or  is 
the  foundation  of  the  world.'2  The  righteous  is  the  foundation  of  the 
world,  which  but  for  their  sakes  would  soon  shatter  and  fall  to  ruin.  So 
the  psalmist :  Ps.  lxxv.  3,  '  The  earth  and  all  the  inhabitants  thereof 
are  dissolved  :  I  bear  up  the  pillars  of  it.     Selah/ 

The  emperor  Marcus  Antoninus  being  in  Almany3  with  his  army,  was 
enclosed  in  a  dry  country  by  his  enemies,  who  so  stopped  all  the  pas- 
sages that  he  and  his  ariny  were  like  to  perish  for  want  of  water.  The 
emperor's  lieutenant  seeing  him  so  distressed,  told  him  that  he  had 
heard  that  the  Christians  could  obtain  any  thing  of  their  God  by  their 
prayers,  whereupon  the  emperor,  having  a  legion  of  Christians  in  his 
army,  desired  them  to  pray  to  their  God  for  his  and  the  army's  delivery 
out  of  that  danger,  which  they  presently  did,  and  presently  a  great 
thunder  fell  amongst  the  enemies,  and  abundance  of  water  upon  the 
Romans,  whereby  their  thirst  was  quenched,  and  the  enemies  overthrown 
without  any  fight.4  5  I  shall  close  up  this  last  remedy  with  those  sweet 
words  of  the  psalmist :  '  In  Judah  is  God  known  ;  his  name  is  great  in 
Israel.  In  Salem  also  is  his  tabernacle,  and  his  dwelling-place  in  Zion. 
There  brake  he  the  arrows  of  the  bow,  the  shield,  and  the  sword,  and 
the  battle.     Selah,'  Ps.  lxxvi.  1-3. 

Secondly,  Satan  hath  his  devices  to  ensnare  and  destroy  the  learned 
and  the  wise,  and  that  sometimes  by  working  them  to  pride  themselves 
in  their  parts  and  abilities  ;  and  sometimes  by  drawing  them  to  rest 
upon  their  parts  and  abilities;  and  sometimes  by  causing  them  to 
make  light  and  slight  of  those  that  want  their  parts  and  abilities, 
though  they  excel  them  in  grace  and  holiness;  and  sometimes  by 
drawing  them  to  engage  their  parts  and  abilities  in  those  ways  and 
things  that  make  against  the  honour  of  Christ,  the  joy  of  the  Spirit, 
the  advancement  of  the  gospel,  and  the  liberty  of  the  saints,  <&c.6  7 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these. 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seriously 
to  consider,  That  you  have  nothing  but  what  you  have  received,  Christ 

1  Hie  homo  pot u it  apud  Deum  quod  volnit,  said  one  concerning  Luther.  He  could  have 
what  he  would  of  God.  Prayer  is  Porta  cozli,  clavis  paradisi,  the  gate  of  heaven,  a  key  to 
let  us  into  paradise.  When  the  danger  is  over,  the  saint  is  forgotten,  is  a  French  pro- 
verb, and  that  which  many  saints  in  England  have  found  by  experience. 

B  Q^y  TiD"1  Js°dh  Gnolam  from  Jasedh.  3  Germany. — G. 

4  The  famous  mythical  '  Thundering  Legion.'— G. 

8  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  that  was  mother  to  King  James,  was  wont  to  say,  That  she 
feared  Mr  Knox's  prayers  more  than  an  army  of  ten  thousand  men. 

6  John  v.  44  ;  1  Kings  xxii.  22-25  :  1  Cor.  i.  18-29. 

7  The  truth  of  this  you  may  see  in  the  learned  Scribes  and  Pharisees. 

12G  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

being  as  well  lie  fountain  of  common  gifts  as  of  saving  grace.  *  What 
hast  thou/  saith  the  apostle,  '  that  thou  hast  not  received  ?  And  if 
thou  hast  received  it,  why  dost  thou  glory  as  though  thou  hadst  not 
received  it  ?'  1  Cor.  iv.  7.1  There  are  those  that  would  hammer  out 
their  own  happiness,  like  the  spider  climbing  up  by  the  thread  of  her 
own  weaving.  Of  all  the  parts  and  abilities  that  be  in  you,  you  may 
well  say  as  the  young  man  did  of  his  hatchet,  '  Alas,  master  !  it  was  but 
borrowed,'  2  Kings  vi.  5.  Alas,  Lord  !  all  I  have  is  but  borrowed  from 
that  fountain  that  fills  all  the  vessels  in  heaven  and  on  earth,  and  it 
overflows.  My  gifts  are  not  so  much  mine  as  thine  :  '  Of  thine  own 
have  we  offered  unto  thee/  said  that  princely  prophet,  &c,  1  Chron. 
xxix.  14. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  men's  leaning  and  trusting  to  their  own 
wits,  parts,  and  abilities,  have  been  their  utter  overthrow  and  ruin ; 
as  you  may  see  in  Ahithophel,  and  those  presidents  and  princes  that 
engaged  against  Daniel,  and  in  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees.  God  loves 
to  confute  men  in  their  confidences.2  He  that  stands  upon  his  parts 
and  abilities,  doth  but  stand  upon  a  quicksand  that  will  certainly  fail 
him.  There  is  nothing  in  the  world  that  provokes  God  more  to  with- 
draw from  the  soul  than  this  ;  and  how  can  the  soul  stand,  when  his 
strength  is  departed  from  him  ?  Everything  that  a  man  leans  upon  but 
God,  will  be  a  dart  that  will  certainly  pierce  his  heart  through  and 
through.  Ah  !  how  many  in  these  days  have  lost  their  estates,  their 
friends,  their  lives,  their  souls,  by  leaning  upon  their  admired  parts 
and  abilities  !  The  saints  are  described  by  their  leaning  upon  their 
beloved,  the  Lord  Jesus,  Cant.  viii.  5.  He  that  leans  only  upon  the 
bosom  of  Christ,  lives  the  highest,  choicest,  safest,  and  sweetest  life. 
Miseries  always  lie  at  that  man's  door  that  leans  upon  anything  below 
the  precious  bosom  of  Christ ;  such  a  man  is  most  in  danger,  and  this 
is  none  of  his  least  plagues,  that  he  thinks  himself  secure.  It  is  the 
greatest  wisdom  in  the  world  to  take  the  wise  man's  counsel :  '  Trust 
in  the  Lord  with  all  thine  heart,  and  lean  not  to  thine  own  understand- 
ing,' Prov.  iii.  5. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  you  do  not  transcend  others  more  in  parts  a  ml  abilities, 
than  tliey  do  you  in  grace  and  holiness.  There  may  be,  and  often  is, 
great  parts  and  abilities,  where  there  is  but  little  grace,  yea,  no  grace ; 
and  there  may  be,  and  often  is,  a  great  deal  of  grace,  where  there  is  but 
weak  parts  and  abilities.3  You  may  be  higher  than  others  in  gifts  of 
knowledge,  utterance,  learning,  &c.  and  those  very  souls  may  be  higher 
than  you  in  their  communion  with  God,  in  their  delighting  in  God,  in 
their  dependence  upon  God,  in  their  affections  to  God,  and  in  their 
humble,  holy,  and  unblameable  walking  before  God.4  Is  it  folly  and 
madness  in  a  man,  to  make  light  and  slight  of  another,  because  he  is 

1  Qm'cqttid  es  dehes  creanli ;  quicquid  poles  debes  redimenti,  said  Bernard.  Whatso- 
ever thou  art,  thou  owest  to  him  that  made  thee  ;  and  whatsoever  thou  hast,  thou  owest 
to  him  that  redeemed  thee. 

-  (Miieral  councils  were  seldom  successful,  because  men  came  with  confidence,  leaning 
to  their  own  understanding,  and  seeking  for  victory  rather  than  verity,  saith  one. 

3  Judas  and  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees  had  great  parts,  but  no  prace.  The  disciples 
had  grace,  but  weak  parts.  *  Luke  xi.  ]  ;  xxiv.  19-28. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  127 

not  so  rich  in  lead  or  iron  as  he,  when  he  is  a  thousand  thousand  times 
richer  in  silver  and  gold,  in  jewels  and  in  pearls,  than  he  ?  And  is  it 
not  madness  and  folly  with  a  witness,  in  those  that  have  greater  parts 
and  abilities  than  others,  to  slight  them  upon  that  account,  when  that 
those  very  persons  that  they  make  light  and  slight  of  have  a  thousand 
times  more  grace  than  they  ?  And  yet,  ah  !  how  doth  this  evil  spirit 
prevail  in  the  world  ! 

It  was  the  sad  complaint  of  Austin  in  his  time  :  '  The  unlearned,' 
saith  he,  '  rise  up  and  take  heaven  by  violence,  and  we  with  all  our 
learning  are  thrust  down  to  hell.'1  It  is  sad  to  see  how  many  of  the 
rabbis  of  these  times  do  make  an  idol  of  their  parts  and  abilities,  and 
with  what  an  eye  of  pride,  scorn,  and  contempt  do  they  look  upon  those 
that  want  their  parts,  and  that  do  not  worship  the  idol  that  they  have 
set  up  in  their  own  hearts.  Paul,  who  was  the  great  doctor  of  the 
Gentiles,  did  wonderfully  transcend  in  all  parts  and  abilities  the  doctors 
and  rabbis  of  our  times,  and  yet,  ah  !  how  humbly,  how  tenderly,  how 
sweetly,  doth  he  carry  himself  towards  the  meanest  and  the  weakest  ! 
'  To  the  weak  I  became  as  weak,  that  I  might  win  the  weak  :  I  am 
made  all  things  to  all  men,  that  I  might  by  all  means  save  some,'  1  Cor. 
ix  22.  '  Who  is  weak,  and  I  am  not  weak  ?  Who  is  offended,  and  I 
burn  not  ?  Wherefore,  if  meat  make  my  brother  to  offend,  I  will  eat 
no  flesh  while  the  world  standeth,  lest  I  make  my  brother  to  offend,' 
1  Cor.  viii.  13.  But,  ah  !  how  little  of  this  sweet  spirit  is  to  be  found 
in  the  doctors  of  our  age,  who  look  sourly  and  speak  bitterly  against 
those  that  do  not  see  as  they  see,  nor  cannot  speak  as  they  speak.  Sirs  ! 
the  Spirit  of  the  Lord,  even  in  despised  saints,  will  be  too  hard  for  you, 
and  his  appearance  in  them,  in  these  latter  days,  will  be  so  full  of  spi- 
ritual beauty  and  glory,  as  that  they  will  darken  that,  that  you  are  too 
apt  to  count  and  call  your  glory.  The  Spirit  of  the  Lord  will  not  suffer 
his  choicest  jewel  grace  to  be  always  buried  under  the  straw  and  stubble 
of  parts  and  gifts,  Isa.  Ix.  1 3-1 7. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  there  is  no  such  way  for  men  to  have  their  gifts  and 
parts  blasted  and  withered,  as  to  pride  themselves  in  them,  as  to  rest 
upon  them,  as  to  make  light  and  slight  of  those  that  want  them,  as  to 
engage  them  against  those  persons,  tvays,  and  things,  that  Jesus  Christ 
hath  set  his  heart  upon.  Ah  !  how  hath  God  blasted  and  withered  the 
parts  and  abilities  of  many  among  us,  that  have  once  been  famous  shin- 
ing lights  !2  How  is  their  sun  darkened,  and  their  glory  clouded  ! 
'  How  is  the  sword  of  the  Lord  upon  their  arm,  and  upon  their  ri»ht 
eye !  how  is  their  arm  clean  dried  up,  and  their  right  eye  utterly 
darkened  1'  as  the  prophet  speaks,  Zech.  xi.  17.  This  is  matter  of 
humiliation  and  lamentation.  Many  precious  discerning  saints  do  see 
this,  and  in  secret  mourn  for  it ;  and  oh  !  that  they  were  kindly  sensible 
of  God's  withdrawing  from  them,  that  they  may  repent,  keep  humble, 
and  carry  it  sweetly  towards  God's  jewels,  and  lean  only  upon  the  Lord, 

1  Surguntindocti  et  rapiunt  coelum,  et  nos  cum  doctrina  nostra  detrudimur  in  gehennam. 
[More  accurately  as  follows  :  '  Surgunt  indocti  et  coelum  rapiunt,  et  nos  cum  doctrinia 
nostris  sine  corde,  ecce  ubi  volutamur  in  came  et  sanguine.'     Confess.  1.  viii.  c.  8. — G.l 

a  Becanus  saith,  that  the  tree  of  knowledge  bears  many  leaves,  and  little  fruit.  Ah  ! 
that  it  were  not  so  with  many  in  these  days,  who  once  did  outshine  the  stais,  &c. 

128  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

and  not  upon  their  parts  and  understanding,  that  so  the  Lord  may  de- 
light  to  visit  them  with  his  grace  at  such  a  rate  as  that  their  faces  may 
shine  more  gloriously  than  ever,  and  that  they  may  be  more  serviceable 
to  the  honour  of  Christ,  and  the  faith  of  the  saints,  than  formerly  they 
have  been,  &c. 

Thirdly,  Satan  hath  his  devices  to  destroy  the  saints ;  and  one  great 
device  that  he  hath  to  destroy  the  saints  is, 

By  working  them  first  to  be  strange,  and  tJien  to  divide,  and  then 
to  be  bitter  and  jealous,  and  then  '  to  bite  and  devour  one  another,' 
Gal.  v.  15.  Our  own  woful  experience  is  too  great  a  proof  of  this. 
The  Israelites  in  Egypt  did  not  more  vex  one  another  than  Christians 
in  these  days  have  done,  which  occasioned  a  deadly  consumption  to  fall 
upon  some.1 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  more  upon  one  another s  graces  than  upon  one  another  s  wealc- 
nesses  and  infirmities.  It  is  sad  to  consider  that  saints  should  have 
many  eyes  to  behold  one  another's  infirmities,  and  not  one  eye  to  see 
each  other's  graces,  that  they  should  use  spectacles  to  behold  one 
another's  weaknesses,  rather  than  looking-glasses  to  behold  one  another's 
graces. 2 

Erasmus  tells  of  one  who  collected  all  the  lame  and  defective  verses 
in  Homer's  works,  but  passed  over  all  that  was  excellent.  Ah  !  that  this 
were  not  the  practice  of  many  t'hat  shall  at  last  meet  in  heaven,  that 
they  were  not  careful  and  skilful  to  collect  all  the  weaknesses  of  others, 
and  to  pass  over  all  those  things  that  are  excellent  in  them.  The  Co- 
rinthians did  eye  more  the  incestuous  person's  sin  than  his  sorrow,  which 
was  like  to  have  drowned  him  in  sorrow. 

Tell  me,  saints,  is  it  not  a  more  sweet,  comfortable,  and  delightful 
thing  to  look  more  upon  one  another's  graces  than  upon  one  another's 
infirmities  1  Tell  me  what  pleasure,  what  delight,  what  comfort  is  there 
in  looking  upon  the  enemies,  the  wounds,  the  sores,  the  sickness,  the 
diseases,  the  nakedness  of  our  friends?  Now  sin,  you  know,  is  the  soul's 
enemy,  the  soul's  wound,  the  soul's  sores,  the  soul's  sickness,  the  soul's 
disease,  the  soul's  nakedness  ;  and  ah  !  what  a  heart  hath  that  man  that 
loves  thus  to  look  !  Grace  is  the  choicest  flower  in  all  a  Christian's 
garden  ;  it  is  the  richest  jewel  in  all  his  crown  ;  it  is  his  princely  robes; 
it  is  the  top  of  royalty  ;  and  therefore  must  needs  be  the  most  pleasing, 
sweet,  and  delightful  object  for  a  gracious  eye  to  be  fixed  upon.  Sin  is 
darkness,  grace  is  light ;  sin  is  hell,  grace  is  heaven ;  and  what  madness 
is  it  to  luok  more  at  darkness  than  at  light,  more  at  hell  than  at 
heaven ! 3 

Tell  me,  saints,  doth  not  God  look  more  upon  his  people's  graces  than 
upon  their  weaknesses  ?  Surely  he  doth.  He  looks  more  at  David's 
and  Asaph's  uprightness  than  upon  their  infirmities,  though  they  were 
great  and  many.     He  eyes  more  Job's  patience  than  his  passion.     '  Re- 

1  If  we  knock,  we  break.     Dissolution  is  the  daughter  of  dissension. 

2  Flavius  Vespasian,  the  emperor,  was  more  ready  to  conceal  the  vices  of  his  friends 
than  their  virtues.  Can  you  think  seriously  of  this.  Christians,  that  a  heathen  should 
excel  you,  and  not  blush  ? 

3  Aon  gens,  sed  mens,  non  genus  sed  genius,  Not  race  or  place,  but  grace  truly  sets  forth 
a  man. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  129 

member  the  patience  of  Job,'  not  a  word  of  his  impatience,  James  v. 
11.  He  that  drew  Alexander  whilst  he  had  a  scar  upon  his  face,  drew 
him  with  his  finger  upon  the  scar.  God  puts  his  fingers  upon  his 
people's  scars,  that  no  blemish  may  appear.  Ah !  saints,  that  you  would 
make  it  the  top  of  your  glory  in  this,  to  be  like  your  heavenly  Father. 
By  so  doing,  much  sin  would  be  prevented,  the  designs  of  wicked  men 
frustrated,  Satan  outwitted,  many  wounds  healed,  many  sad  hearts 
cheered,  and  God  more  abundantly  honoured,  &C.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  love  and  union  makes  most  for  your  own 
safety  and  security.  We  shall  be  insuperabiles  if  we  be  insepara- 
bles, invincible  if  we  be  inseparable.  The  world  may  frown  upon 
you,  and  plot  against  you,  but  they  cannot  hurt  you.  Unity  is  the  best 
bond  of  safety  in  every  church  and  commonwealth.2 

And  this  did  that  Scythian  king  in  Plutarch  represent  lively  to  his 
eighty  sons,  who,  being  ready  to  die,  he  commanded  a  bundle  of  arrows 
fast  bound  together  to  be  given  to  his  sons  to  break  ;  they  all  tried  to 
break  them,  but,  being  bound  fast  together,  they  could  not ;  then  he 
caused  the  band  to  be  cut,  and  then  they  broke  them  with  ease.  He 
applied  it  thus  :  '  My  sons,  so  long  as  you  keep  together,  you  will  be 
invincible  ;  but  if  the  band  of  union  be  broke  betwixt  you,  you  will 
easily  be  broken  in  pieces/3 

Pliny  writes  of  a  stone  in  the  island  of  Scyros,  that  if  it  be  whole, 
though  a  large  and  heavy  one,  it  swims  above  water,  but  being  broken, 
it  sinks.4  So  long  as  saints  keep  whole,  nothing  shall  sink  them  ;  but 
if  they  break,  they  are  in  danger  of  sinking  and  drowning,  &c. 

Hemedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  upon  those  commands  of  God  that  do  require  you  to  love  one 
another.  Oh !  when  your  hearts  begin  to  rise  against  each  other, 
charge  the  commands  of  God  upon  your  hearts,  and  say  to  your  souls, 
O  our  souls  !  hath  not  the  eternal  God  commanded  you  to  love  them 
that  love  the  Lord  ?  And  is  it  not  life  to  obey,  and  death  to  rebel  ?5 
Therefore  look  that  you  fulfil  the  commands  of  the  Lord,  for  his  com- 
mands are  not  like  those  that  are  easily  reversed  ;  but  they  are  like 
those  of  the  Medes,  that  cannot  be  changed.  Oh  !  be  much  in  pon- 
dering upon  these  commands  of  God.  '  A  new  commandment  I  give 
unto  you,  that  ye  love  one  another,  as  I  have  loved  you,  that  ye 
also  love  one  another,'  John  xiii.  34.  It  is  called  a  new  commandment, 
because  it  is  renewed  in  the  gospel,  and  set  home  by  Christ's  example, 
and  because  it  is  rare,  choice,  special,  and  remarkable  above  all  others.0 

1  Sin  is  Satan's  work,  grace  is  God's  work ;  and  is  it  not  most  meet  that  the  child 
should  eye  most  and  mind  most  his  father's  work  '? 

2  There  was  a  temple  of  Concord  amongst  the  heathens;  and  shall  it  not  be  found  among 
Christians,  that  are  temples  of  the  Holy  Ghost? 

3  Pancirollus  [Guy]  saith,  that  the  most  precious  pearl  among  the  Romans  was  called 
unio,  union. 

4  Lib.  xxxvi.  c.  26,  and  elsewhere  :  no  doubt  a  volcanic,  porous  product. — G. 

5  To  act,  or  run  cross  to  God's  express  command,  though  under  pretence  of  revelation 
from  God,  is  as  much  as  a  man's  life  is  worth,  as  you  may  see  in  that  sad  story,  1  Kings 
xiii.  24. 

6  Some  conceive  it  to  be  an  Hebraism,  in  which  language  new,  rare,  and  excellent,  are- 

VOL.  I.  I 

130  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

'  This  is  my  commandment,  That  ye  love  one  another,  as  I  have  loved 
you.'  'These  things  I  command  you,  that  ye  love  one  another.'  'Owe 
hip  man  any  thing,  but  love  one  another:  for  he  that  lovcth  another, 
hath  fulfilled  the  law.'  '  Let  brotherly  love  continue.'  '  Love  one  an- 
other,  for  love  is  of  God,  and  every  one  that  loveth  is  born  of  God,  and 
knoweth  God.'  '  See  that  ye  love  one  another  with  a  pure  heart  fer- 
vently.' '  Finally,  be  ye  all  of  one  mind,  having  compassion  one  of 
another.  Love  as  brethren,  be  pitiful,  be  courteous.'  'For  this  is  the 
age  that  ye  heard  from  the  beginning,  that  we  should  love  one  an- 
other.' '  And  this  is  his  commandment,  that  we  should  believe  on  the 
name  of  his  Son  Jesus  Christ,  and  love  one  another,  as  he  gave  us  com- 
mandment.' 'Beloved,  if  God  so  loved  us,  we  ought  to  love  one  an- 
other.'1 Oh  !  dwell  much  upon  these  precious  commands,  that  your 
love  may  be  inflamed  one  to  another. 

In  the  primitive  times,  it  was  much  taken  notice  of  b}rthe  heathens, 
that  in  the  depth  of  misery,  when  fathers  and  mothers  forsook  their 
children,  Christians,  otherwise  strangers,  stuck  one  to  another,  whose 
love  of  religion  proved  firmer  than  that  of  nature.  Ah  !  that  there 
were  more  of  that  spirit  among  the  saints  in  these  days.  The  world 
■was  once  destroyed  with  water  for  the  heat  of  lusts,  and  it  is  thought 
it  will  be  again  destroyed  with  fire  for  the  coldness  of  love.2 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  more  upon  these  choice  and  svjeet  tilings  wherein  you  agree, 
than  upon  those  things  wherein  you  differ.  Ah  !  did  you  but  thus, 
how  would  sinful  heats  be  abated,  and  your  love  raised,  and  your  spi- 
rits sweetened  one  to  another.  You  agree  in  most,  you  differ  but 
in  a  few ;  you  agree  in  the  greatest  and  weightiest,  as  concerning  God, 
Christ,  the  Spirit,  the  Scripture,  &c.  You  differ  only  in  those  points  that 
have  been  long  disputable  amongst  men  of  greatest  piety  and  parts. 
You  agree  to  own  the  Scripture,  to  hold  to  Christ  the  head,  and  to  walk 
according  to  the  law  of  the  new  creature.3  Shall  Herod  and  Pilate 
agree  ?  Shall  Turks  and  pagans  agree  ?  Shall  bears  and  lions,  tigers 
and  wolves,  yea,  shall  a  legion  of  devils,  agree  in  one  body  ?  And  shall 
not  saints  agree,  who  differ  only  in  such  things  as  have  least  of  the 
heart  of  God  in  them,  and  that  shall  never  hinder  your  meeting  in 
heaven  ?  &c. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  solemnly 
to  consider,  That  God  delights  to  be  styled  Dons  pacis,  the  God  of  peace; 
and  Christ  to  be  styled  Princeps  pacis,  the  Prince  of  peace,  and  King 
of  Salem,  that  is,  King  of  peace;  and  the  Spi/rU  is  </  Spirit  of  peace. 
'  The  fruit  of  the  Spirit  is  love,  joy,  peace/  Gal.  v  22.  Oh  !  why  then 
should  not  the  saints  be  children  of  peace  ?  Certainly,  men  of  froward, 
unqui.t,  fiery  spirits,  cannot  have  that  sweet  evidence  of  their  interest 
in  the  God  of  peace,  and  in  the  Prince  of  peace,  and  in  the  Spirit  of 

1  John  xv.  12,  17  ;  Rom.  xiii.  8  ;  Heb.  xiii.  1  ;  1  John  iv.  7  ;  1  Teter  i.  22,  and  iii.  8  ; 
1  John  iii    11,  23;  iv.  11.— G. 

2  The  ancients  us,:  to  say  commonly,  that  Alexander  and  Ephestion  [i.  e.  Hephaestion] 
had  but  one  soul  in  two  distinct  bodies,  because  their  joy  and  Borrow,  glory  ami  disgrace, 

was  mutual  in  tin  m  both.  [Cf.  .Note  on  above  frequently  recurring  saving, 'in  Sibbes,  Vol. 
II..  page  l!il :  where  the  reference  is  misprinted  to  page  35  for  page  37.— G.]. 

■  What  a  Bad  thing  was  it  thai  a  heathen  should  say,  No  beasts  are  so  mischievous  to 
men  as  Christians  are  one  to  another. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  131 

peace,  as  those  precious  souls  have  that  follow  after  the  things  that 
make  for  love  and  peace.  The  very  name  of  peace  is  sweet  and  com- 
fortable ;  the  fruit  and  effect  thereof  pleasant  and  profitable,  more  to 
be  desired  than  innumerable  triumphs  ;  it  is  a  blessing  that  ushers  in 
a  multitude  of  other  blessings,1  2  Cor.  xiii.  11  ;  Isa.  ix.  6. 

The  ancients  were  wont  to  paint  peace  in  the  form  of  a  woman,  with 
a  horn  of  plenty  in  her  hand.2  Ah  !  peace  and  love  among  the  saints, 
is  that  which  will  secure  them  and  their  mercies  at  home;  yea,  it  will 
multiply  their  mercies  ;  it  will  engage  the  God  of  mercy  to  crown  them 
with  the  choicest  mercies  ;  and  it  is  that  that  will  render  them  must 
terrible,  invincible,  and  successful  abroad.  Love  and  peace  among  the 
saints  is  that  which  puts  the  counsels  of  their  enemies  to  a  stand,  and 
renders  all  their  enterprises  abortive  ;  it  is  that  which  doth  most 
weaken  their  hands,  wound  their  hopes,  and  kill  their  hearts,  &c. 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
make  more  care  and  conscience  of  keeping  up  your  peace  with  God. 
Ah  !  Christians,  I  am  afraid  that  your  remissness  herein  is  that  which 
hath  occasioned  much  of  that  sourness,  bitterness,  and  divisions  that  be 
among  you.3  Ah  !  you  have  not,  as  you  should,  kept  up  your  peace  with 
God,  and  therefore  it  is  that  you  do  so  dreadfully  break  the  peace 
among  yourselves.  The  Lord  hath  promised,  '  That  when  a  man's  ways 
please  him,  he  will  make  his  enemies  to  be  at  peace  with  him/  Prov. 
xvi.  7.  Ah  !  how  much  more  then  would  God  make  the  children  of 
peace  to  keep  the  peace  among  themselves,  if  their  ways  do  but  please 
him  !  All  creatures  are  at  his  beck  and  check.  Laban  followed  Jacob 
with  one  troop.  Esau  met  him  with  another,  both  with  hostile  inten- 
tions ;  but  Jacob's  ways  pleasing  the  Lord,  God  by  his  mighty  power 
so  works  that  Laban  leaves  him  with  a  kiss,  and  Esau  met  him  with  a 
kiss  ;  he  hath  an  oath  of  one,  tears  of  the  other,  peace  with  both.  If 
we  make  it  our  business  to  keep  up  our  league  with  God,  God  will 
make  it  his  work  and  his  glory  to  maintain  our  peace  with  men  ;  but 
if  men  make  light  of  keeping  up  their  peace  with  God,  it  is  just  with 
God  to  leave  them  to  a  spirit  of  pride,  envy,  passion,  contention,  divi- 
sion, and  confusion,  to  leave  them  '  to  bite  and  devour  one  another,  till 
they  be  consumed  one  of  another,'4  &c. 

Iiemedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  much  upon  that  near  relation  and  union  that  is  between  you. 
This  consideration  had  a  sweet  influence  upon  Abraham's  heart :  '  And 
Abraham  said  unto  Lot,  Let  there  be  no  strife,  I  pray  thee,  between  me 
and  thee,  and  between  my  herdsmen  and  thy  herdsmen  ;  for  we  are 
brethren,'  Gen.  xiii.  8.5  That  is  a  sweet  word  in  the  psalmist,  '  Behold, 
how  good  and  how  pleasant  it  is  for  brethren  to  live  together  in  unity,' 

1  Vbipax  ibi  Christus,  quia  Christus  pax,  where  peace  is,  there  is  Christ,  because  Christ 
is  peace.     Dulce  nomen  2iacis,  said  the  orator. 

"  The  Grecians  had  the  statue  of  Peace,  with  Pluto,  the  god  of  riches,  in  her  arms. 

3  There  is  no  fear  of  knowing  too  much,  but  there  is  much  fear  in  practising  too  little. 

4  Pharnaces  sent  a  crown  to  Caesar  at  the  same  time  he  rebelled  against  him  ;  but  ho 
returned  the  crown  and  this  message  back,  Faceret  imperata  prius,  let  him  return  to  his 
obedience  first.  There  is  no  sound  peace  to  be  had  with  God  or  man,  but  in  a  way  of 
obedience.  [Pharnaces  II.  Appian,  Mithr.  120  ;  Dion.  Cass.  xiii.  45-48  ;  Plutarch,  Ccesar, 
50  ;  Suet.  Jul.  35.— G.] 

5  rO^Di  0n  !  let  ttere  be  no  bitterness  between  us,  for  we  are  brethren. 

132  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  CoR.  II.  11. 

Ps.  cxxxiii.  1.  It  is  not  good  and  not  pleasairit,  or  pleasant  and  not  good, 
but  good  and  pleasant.  There  be  some  things  that  be  bona  Bed  non 
jucunda,  good  and  not  pleasant,  as  patience  and  discipline;  and  there 
be  some  things  that  are  pleasant  but  not  good,  as  carnal  pleasures, 
voluptuousness,  &C.  And  there  are  some  things  that  are  neither  good 
aor  pleasant,  as  malice,  envy,  worldly  sorrow,  &c.  ;  and  there  are  some 
things  that  are  both  good  and  pleasant,  as  piety,  charity,  peace,  and 
union  among  brethren  ;  and  oh  !  that  we  could  see  more  of  this  among 
those  that  shall  one  day  meet  in  their  Fathers  kingdom  and  never 
part.  And  as  they  are  brethren,  so  they  are  all  fellow-members  :  '  Now 
ye  are  the  body  of  Christ,  and  members  in  particular,'  1  Cor.  xii.  -~i. 
And  again :  '  We  are  members  of  his  body,  of  his  flesh,  and  of  his  bones,' 
Eph.  v.  30.  Shall  the  members  of  the  natural  body  be  serviceable  and 
useful  to  one  another,  and  shall  the  members  of  this  spiritual  body  cut 
and  destroy  one  another  ?  Is  it  against  the  law  of  nature  for  the  natural 
members  to  cut  and  slash  one  another?1  And  is  it  not  much  more 
against  the  law  of  nature  and  of  grace  for  the  members  of  Christ's  glo- 
rious body  to  do  so  ?  And  as  you  are  all  fellow-members,  so  you  are 
fellow-soldiers  under  the  same  Captain  of  salvation,  the  Lord  Jesus, 
fighting  against  the  world,  the  flesh,  and  the  devil.  And  as  you  are 
all  fellow-soldiers,  so  you  are  all  fellow-sufferers  under  the  same  enemies, 
the  devil  and  the  world.  And  as  you  are  all  fellow-sufferers,  so  are 
yen  fellow-travellers  towards  the  land  of  Canaan,  'the  new  Jerusalem 
that  is  above.'  '  Here  we  have  no  abiding  city,  but  we  look  for  one  to 
come/  The  heirs  of  heaven  are  strangers  on  earth.  And  as  you  are 
all  fellow-travellers,  so  are  you  all  fellow-heirs  of  the  same  crown  and 

Remedy  (8).  The  eighth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  To 
dwell  upon  the  miseries  of  discord.  Dissolution  is  the  daughter  of 
dissension.  Ah  !  how  doth  the  name  of  Christ,  and  the  way  of  Christ, 
suffer  by  the  discord  of  saints  !  How  are  many  that  are  entering  upon 
the  ways  of  God  hindered  and  sadded,  and  the  mouths  of  the  wicked 
opened,  and  their  hearts  hardened  against  God  and  his  ways,  by  the 
discord  of  his  people  !  Remember  this,  the  disagreement  of  Christians 
is  the  devil's  triumph  ;  and  what  a  sad  thing  is  this,  that  Christians 
should  give  Satan  cause  to  triumph  !3 

It  was  a  notable  saying  of  one,  '  Take  away  strife,  and  call  back  peace, 
lest  thou  lose  a  man,  thy  friend  ;  and  the  devil,  an  enemy,  joy  over  you 
both,'  &c. 

Remedy  (9).  The  ninth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seri- 
ously to  consider,  That  it  is  no  disparagement  to  you  to  be  jvrst  in 
seeking  and  reconcilement,  but  rati  lev  an  honour  to  you,  that 
you  have  beyn  n  to  seek  peace,  Abraham  was  the  elder,  and  more  worthy 
than  Lot,  both  in  respect  of  grace  and  nature  also,  for  he  was  uncle 
unto  Lot,  and  yet  he  first  seeks  peace  of  his  inferior,  which  God  hath 

1  The  parti-coloured  coats  were  characters  of  the  king's  children  :  so  is  following  after 
peace  now. 

-  Rev.  xii.  7,  8;  Ileh.  ii.  10;  Rev.  ii.  10;  John  xv.  19,20;  Heb.  xii.  14,  xiii.  4; 
Bom.  viii.  15-17. 

1  Our  dissensions  are  one  of  the  Jews'  greatest  stumbling-blocks.  Can  you  think  of  it, 
aud  your  hearts  uot  bleed  ? 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  133 

recorded  as  his  honour.1  Ah  !  how  doth  the  God  of  peace,  by  his  Spirit 
and  messengers,  pursue  after  peace  with  poor  creatures.  God  first 
makes  offer  of  peace  to  us  :>  '  Now  then  we  are  ambassadors  for  Christ, 
as  though  God  did  beseech  you  by  us  :  we  pray  you  in  Christ's  stead, 
be  ye  reconciled  to  God,'  2  Cor.  v.  20.  God's  grace  first  kneels  to  us, 
and  who  can  turn  their  backs  upon  such  blessed  and  bleeding  embrace- 
ments,  but  souls  in  whom  Satan  the  god  of  this  world  kings  it?  God 
is  the  party  wronged,  and  yet  he  sues  for  peace  with  us  at  first :  '  I 
said,  Behold  me,  behold  me,  unto  a  nation  that  was  not  called  by  my 
name/  Isa.  lxv.  I.2  Ah  !  how  doth  the  sweetness,  the  freeness,  and  the 
riches  of  his  grace  break  forth  and  shine  upon  poor  souls.  When  a  man 
goes  from  the  sun,  yet  the  sunbeams  follow  him ;  so  when  we  go  from 
the  Sun  of  righteousness,  yet  then  the  beams  of  his  love  and  mercy 
follow  us.  Christ  first  sent  to  Peter  that  had  denied  him,  and  the  rest 
that  had  forsaken  him  :  '  Go  your  ways,  and  tell  his  disciples  and  Peter, 
that  he  goeth  before  you  into  Galilee  :  there  shall  ye  see  him,  as  he 
said  unto  you/  Mark  xvi.  7.  Ah  !  souls,  it  is  not  a  base,  low  thing,  but 
a  God-like  thing,  though  we  are  wronged  by  others,  yet  to  be  the  first 
in  seeking  after  peace.  Such  actings  will  speak  out  much  of  God  with 
a  man's  spirit,  &c. 

Christians,  it  is  not  matter  of  liberty  whether  you  will  or  you  will 
not  pursue  after  peace,  but  it  is  matter  of  duty  that  lies  upon  you  ; 
you  are  bound  by  express  precept  to  follow  after  peace  ;  and  though  it 
may  seem  to  fly  from  you,  yet  you  must  pursue  after  it :  '  Follow  peace 
with  all  men,  and  holiness,  without  which  no  man  can  see  the  Lord,' 
Heb.  xii.  14.3  Peace  and  holiness  are  to  be  pursued  after  with  the 
greatest  eagerness  that  can  be  imagined.  So  the  psalmist :  '  Depart 
from  evil,  and  do  good  ;  seek  peace  and  pursue  it,'  Ps.  xxxiv.  14. 
The  Hebrew  word  that  is  here  rendered  seek,  is  in  Piel,  and  it 
signifies  to  seek  earnestly,  vehemently,  affectionately,  studiously, 
industriously.  '  And  pursue  it/  That  Hebrew  word  signifies  earnestly 
to  pursue,  being  a  metaphor  taken  from  the  eagerness  of  wild  beasts  or 
ravenous  fowls,  which  will  run  or  fly  both  fast  and  far  rather  than  be 
disappointed  of  their  prey.  So  the  apostle  presses  the  same  duty  upon 
the  Romans  :  '  Let  us  follow  after  the  things  that  make  for  peace,  and 
things  wherein  one  may  edify  another,'  Eom.  xiv.  19.  Ah  !  you  froward, 
sour,  dogged  Christians,  can  you  look  upon  these  commands  of  God 
without  tears  and  blushing  ? 

Ihave  read  a  remarkable  story  of  Aristippus.  though  but  a  heathen,  who 
went  of  his  own  accord  to  iEschines  his  enemy,  and  said,  '  Shall  we  never 
be  reconciled  till  we  become  a  table-talk  to  all  the  country  ?'  and  when 
iEschines  answered  he  would  most  gladly  be  at  peace  with  him,  '  Remem- 
ber, then,  said  Aristippus,  that  though  I  were  the  elder  and  better  man,  yet 
I  sought  first  unto  thee.'  Thou  art  indeed,  said  iEschines,  a  far  better  man 
than  I,  for  I  began  the  quarrel,  but  thou  the  reconcilement.4     My  prayer 

1  They  shall  both  have  the  name  and  the  note,  the  comfort  and  the  credit,  of  being 
most  like  unto  God,  who  first  begin  to  pursue  after  peace- 

2  Behold  me  !  behold  me  !  It  is  geminated  [doubled]  to  shew  God's  exceeding  forward- 
ness to  shew  favour  and  mercy  to  them. 

3  a^kste,  It  signifies  to  follow  after  peace,  as  the  persecutor  doth  him  whom  he  per- 

4  Plutarch.     [Cf.  Diogenes  Lao'rtius,  ii.  65  ;  also  Horace,  Ep.  i.  1.  18,  and  i.  17,  23.— G.] 

134  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

shall  be  thai  this  licit  hen  may  not  rise  in  judgment  against  the  flourish- 
in-  professors  of  our  times:  '  Who  whet  their  tongues  like  a  sword,  and 
bend  their  hows  i<>  shoot  their  arrows,  even  .bitter  words/  Ps.  lxiv.  3. 

/i'  -  dy  LO).  The  tenth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  For 
savnts  to  joim  together  and  walk  together  in  the  ways  of  grace,  and 
holiness  so  far  as  they  do  agree,  making  the  word  their  only  touch- 
stone and  judge  of their  actions.  That  is  sweet  advice  that  the  apostle 
rives  :  '  I  press  toward  the  mark  for  the  prize  of  the  high  calling  of 
God  in  Christ  Jesus,' Philip,  iii.  14-16.  '  Let  us  therefore,  as  many  as  be 
perfect, — comparatively  or  conceitedly1  so, — be  thus  minded.  And  if 
in  anything  ye  be  otherwise  minded,  God  shall  reveal  even  this  unto 
you.  Nevertheless,  whereto  we  have  already  attained,  let  us  walk  by 
the  same  rule,  let  us  mind  the  same  thing.'  Ah  !  Christians,  God  loses 
much,  and  you  lose  much,  and  Satan  gains  much  by  this,  that  you  do 
not,  that  you  will  not,  walk  lovingly  together  so  far  as  your  ways  lie 
together.  It  is  your  sin  and  shame  that  you  do  not,  that  you  will  not, 
pray  together,  and  hear  together,  and  confer  together,  and  mourn 
together,  &c,  because  that  in  some  far  lesser  things  you  are  not  agreed 
together.  What  folly  and  madness  is  it  in  those  whose  way  of  a  hundred 
miles  lies  fourscore  and  nineteen  together,  yet  will  not  walk  so  far 
together,  because  that  they  cannot  go  the  other  mile  together  ;  yet  such 
is  the  folly  and  madness  of  many  Christians  in  these  days,  who  will  not 
do  many  things  they  may  do,  because  they  cannot  do  everything  they 
should  do.2  I  fear  God  will  whip  them  into  a  better  temper  before  he 
hath  done  with  them.  He  will  break  their  bones,  and  pierce  their  hearts, 
but  he  will  cure  them  of  this  malady,  &c. 

And  be  sure  you  make  the  word  the  only  touchstone  and  judge  of  all 
persons  and  actions  :  '  To  the  law  and  to  the  testimony,  if  they  speak 
not  according  to  this  word,  it  is  because  there  is  no  light  in  them/  Isa. 
viii.  20.  It  is  best  and  safest  to  make  that  to  be  the  judge  of  all  men 
and  things  now  that  all  shall  be  judged  by  in  the  latter  day :  '  The 
word,  saith  Christ,  that  I  have  spoken,  the  same  shall  judge  him  in  the 
last  day/  John  xii.  48.  Make  not  your  dim  light,  your  notions,  yonr 
fancies,  your  opinions,  the  judge  of  men's  action,  but  still  judge  by  rule, 
and  plead,  '  It  is  written.' 

When  a  vain  importunate  soul  cried  out  in  contest  with  a  holy  man, 
'  Hear  me,  hear  me/  the  holy  man  answered,  'Neither  hear  me,  nor  I 
thee,  but  let  us  both  hear  the  apostle.'3 

Constantine,  in  all  the  disputes  before  him  with  the  Arians,  would 
still  call  for  the  word  of  God  as  the  only  way,  if  not  to  convert,  yet  to 
stop  their  mouths,  &c. 

Remedy  (1 1).  The  eleventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  he  much  in  a  If-judging  :  'Judge  yourselves,  and  you  shall  not  be 
judged  of  the  Lord/  1  Cor.  xi.  31.  Ah!  were  Christians'  hearts  more 
taken  up  in  judging  themselves  and  condemning  themselves,  they  would 
not  be  so  apt  to  judge  and  censure  others,  and  to  carry  it  sourly  and 

1  Those  who  have  reason  to  conceive  themselves  '  perfect.'— G. 

-  (in  at  is  the  power  of  joint  prayer.  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  that  was  mother  of  king 
James,  was  wont  to  Bay  that  she  feared  Master  Knox's  prayer  more  than  an  army  of 
ten  thousand  men.    [Already  used  in  this  treatise:  of.  page  126.— G.] 

*  Nee  ejo  (e,  rue  lu  me,  zed  umbo  audiamus  Aj/oslvlum. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  135 

bitterly  towards  others  that  differ  from  them.1  There  are  no  souls  in 
the  world  that  are  so  fearful  to  judge  others  as  those  that  do  most  judge 
themselves,  nor  so  careful  to  make  a  righteous  judgment  of  men  or 
thing's  as  those  that  are  most  careful  to  judge. themselves.  There  are 
none  in  the  world  that  tremble  to  think  evil  of  others,  to  speak  evil  of 
others,  or  to  do  evil  to  others,  as  those  that  make  it  their  business  to 
judge  themselves.  There  are  none  that  make  such  sweet  constructions 
and  charitable  interpretations  of  men  and  things,  as  those  that  are  best 
and  most  in  judging  themselves.2  One  request  I  have  to  you  that  are 
much  in  judging  others  and  little  in  judging  yourselves,  to  you  that 
are  so  apt  and  prone  to  judge  rashly,  falsely,  and  unrighteously,  and 
that  is,  that  you  will  every  morning  dwell  a  little  upon  these  scriptures  : 

'  Judge  not,  that  ye  be  not  judged  ;  for  with  what  judgment  ye  judge, 
ye  shall  be  judged  ;  and  with  what  measure  ye  mete,  it  shall  be  mea- 
sured to  you  again/  Mat.  vii.  1,  2.  '  Judge  not  according  to  appearance, 
but  judge  righteous  judgment,'  John  vii.  24  '  Let  not  him  that  eateth 
not  judge  him  that  eateth,  for  God  hath  received  him.  Why  dost  thou 
judge  thy  brother  ?  or  why  dost  thou  set  at  nought  thy  brother  V  Rom. 
xiv.  3,  10,  13.  '  We  shall  all  stand  before  the  judgment-seat  of  Christ. 
Let  us  not  judge  one  another  any  more,  but  judge  this  rather,  that  no 
man  put  a  stumbling-block  or  an  occasion  to  fall  in  his  brother's  way.' 
'  Judge  nothing  before  the  time,  until  the  Lord  come,  who  both  will 
bring  to  light  the  hidden  things  of  darkness,  and  will  manifest  the 
counsels  of  the  heart,  and  then  shall  every  man  have  praise  of  God,' 
1  Cor.  iv.  5.  '  Speak  not  evil  one  of  another,  brethren  :  he  that  speaketh 
evil  of  his  brother,  and  judgeth  his  brother,  speaketh  evil  of  the  law, 
and  judgeth  the  law  ;  but  if  thou  judgest  the  law,  thou  art  not  a  doer 
of  the  law,  but  a  judge.  There  is  one  lawgiver,  who  is  able  to  save  and 
to  destroy/  James  iv.  11,  12.  '  Who  art  thou  that  judgest  another 
man's  servant?  to  his  own  master  he  standeth  or  falleth ;  _  yea,  he  shall 
be  holden  up,  for  God  is  able  to  make  him  stand,'  Rom.  xiv.  4. 

One  Delphidius  accusing  another  before  Julian  about  that  which  he 
could  not  prove,  the  party  denying  the  fact,  Delphidius  answers,  If  it 
be  sufficient  to  deny  what  is  laid  to  one's  charge,  who  shall  be  found 
guilty  ?  Julian  answers,  And  if  it  be  sufficient  to  be  accused,  who  can 
be  innocent '(     You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it. 

Remedy  (12).  The  twelfth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is 
this,  above  all,  Labour  to  be  clothed  with  humility.  Humility  makes 
a  man  peaceable  among  brethren,  fruitful  in  well-doing,  cheerful  in 
suffering,  and  constant  in  holy  walking,  1  Pet.  v.  5.  Humility  fits  lor 
the  highest  services  we  owe  to  Christ,  and  yet  will  not  neglect  the 
lowest  service  to  the  meanest  saint,  John  xiii.  5.  Humility  can  feed 
upon  the  -meanest  dish,  and  yet  it  is  maintained  by  the  choicest  deli- 
cates,  as  God,  Christ,  and  glory.  Humility  will  make  a  man  bless  him 
that  curses  him,  and  pray  for  those  that  persecute  him.  An  humble 
heart  is  an  habitation  for  God,  a  scholar  for  Christ,  a  companion  of 
angels,  a  preserver  of  grace,  and  a  fitter  for  glory.  Humility  is  the 
nurse  of  our  graces,  the  preserver  of  our  mercies,  and  the  great  pro- 

1  It  is  storied  of  Nero,  himself  being  unchaste,  he  did  think  there  was  no  man  chaste. 

2  In  the  Olympic  games,  the  wrestlers  did  not  put  their  crowns  upon  their  own  heads, 
but  upon  the  heads  of  others.     It  is  just  so  with  souls  that  are  good  at  self-judging. 

136  PBECZOXJS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

moter  of  holy  duties.  Humility  cannot  find  three  things  on  this  side 
heaven:  it  cannot  find  fulness  in  the  creature,  nor  sweetness  in  sin, 
nor  life  in  an  ordinance  without  Christ.  An  humble  soul  always  finds 
three  things  on  this  side  heaven  :  the  soul  to  be  empty,  Christ  to  be 
full,  and  every  mercy  and  duty  to  be  sweet  wherein  God  is  enjoyed.1 
Humility  can  weep  over  other  men's  weaknesses,  and  joy  and  rejoice 
over  their  graces.  Humility  will  make  a  man  quiet  and  contented  in 
the  meanest  condition,  and  it  will  preserve  a  man  from  envying  other 
nun's  prosperous  condition,  1  Thes.  i.  2,  3.  Humility  honours  those 
that  are  strong  in  grace,  and  puts  two  hands  under  those  that  arc  weak 
in  grace,  Eph.  iii.  8.  Humility  makes  a  man  richer  than  other  men, 
and  it  makes  a  man  judge  himself  the  poorest  among  men.  Humility 
will  see  much  good  abroad,  when  it  can  see  but  little  at  home.  Ah, 
Christian  !  though  faith  be  the  champion  of  grace,  and  love  the  nurse 
of  grace,  yet  humility  is  the  beautifier  of  grace  ;  it  casts  a  general  glory 
upon  all  the  graces  in  the  soul.  Ah  !  did  Christians  more  abound  in 
humility,  they  would  be  less  bitter,  froward,  and  sour,  and  they  would 
be  more  gentle,  meek,  and  sweet  in  their  spirits  and  practices.  Humi- 
lity will  make  a  man  have  high  thoughts  of  others  and  low  thoughts  of 
a  man's  self;  it  will  make  a  man  see  much  glory  and  excellency  in 
others,  and  much  baseness  and  sinfulness  in  a  man's  self;  it  will  make 
a  man  see  others  rich,  and  himself  poor ;  others  strong,  and  himself 
weak  ;  -others  wise,  and  himself  foolish.2  Humility  will  make  a  man 
excellent  at  covering  others'  infirmities,  and  at  recording  their  gracious 
services,  and  at  delighting  in  their  graces;  it  makes  a  man  joy  in  every 
light  that  outshines  his  own,  and  every  wind  that  blows  others  good. 
Humility  is  better  at  believing  than  it  is  at  questioning  other  men's 
happiness.  I  judge,  saith  an  humble  soul,  it  is  well  with  these  Chris- 
tians now,  but  it  will  be  far  better  with  them  hereafter.  They  are  now 
upon  the  borders  of  the  New  Jerusalem,  and  it  will  be  but  as  a  day 
before  they  slide  into  Jerusalem.  An  humble  soul  is  willinger  to  say, 
Heaven  is  that  man's,  than  mine  ;  and  Christ  is  that  Christian's,  than 
mine  ;  and  God  is  their  God  in  covenant,  than  mine.  Ah !  were  Chris- 
tians more  humble,  there  would  be  less  fire  and  more  love  among  them 
than  now  is,  &c. 

Fourthly,  As  Satan  hath  his  device  to  destroy  gracious  souls,  so  he 
hath  his  devices  to  destroy  %>oor  ignora/nt  so  tils,  and  that  sometimes, 

By  drawing  them  to  affect  ignorance,  and  to  neglect,  slight,  and 
despise  the  means  of  knowledge.  Ignorance  is  the  mother  of  mistake, 
the  cause  of  trouble,  error,  and  of  terror  ;  it  is  the  highway  to  hell,  and 
it  makes  a  man  both  a  prisoner  and  a  slave  to  the  devil  at  once.3  Ig- 
Qorance  unmans  a  man  ;  it  makes  a  man  a  beast,  yea,  makes  him  more 
miserable  than  the  beast  that  perisheth.4  There  are  none  so  easily  nor 
so  frequently  taken  in  Satan's  snares  as  ignorant  souls.  They  arc  easily 
drawn  to  dance  with  the  devil  all  day,  and  to  dream  of  supping  with 
Christ  at  night,  &c. 

1  Humility  is  conservatrix  virtutum,  said  Bernard,  that  which  keeps  all  graces  together. 

1  The  humble  soul  is  like  the  violet,  which  grows  low,  hangs  the  head  downwards, 
and  hides  itself  with  its  own  leaves  ;  and  were  it  not  that  tho  fragrant  smell  of  his  many 
virtues  discovered  him  to  the  world,  he  would  choose  to  live  and  die  in  his  self-content- 
ing seen  rv.  8  Ilosea  iv.  (i,  Mat.  xxii.  29. 

4  Ignorants  have  this  advantage,  id  mitius  ardeant,  they  have  a  cooler  hell. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  137 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seriously 
to  consider,  That  an  ignorant  heart  is  an  evil  heart.  *  Without  know- 
ledge the  mind  is  not  good/  Prov.  xix.  2.  As  an  ignorant  heart  is  a 
naughty  heart,  it  is  a  heart  in  the  dark  ;  and  no  good  can  come  into  a 
dark  heart,  but  it  must  pass  through  the  understanding  :  '  And  if  the 
eye  be  dark,  all  the  body  is  dark,'  Mat.  vi.  22.  A  leprous  head  and  a 
leprous  heart  are  inseparable  companions.  Ignorant  hearts  are  so  evil 
that  they  let  fly  on  all  hands,  and  spare  not  to  spit  their  venom  in  the 
very  face  of  God,  as  Pharaoh  did  when  thick  darkness  was  upon  him.1 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  ignorance  is  the  deformity  of  the  sold.  As  blindness  is 
the  deformity  of  the  face,  so  is  ignorance  the  deformity  of  the  soul.  As 
the  want  of  fleshly  eyes  spoils  the  beauty  of  the  face,  so  the  want  of 
spiritual  eyes  spoils  the  beauty  of  the  soul.  A  man  without  knowledge 
is  as  a  workman  without  his  hands,  as  a  painter  without  his  eyes,  as  a 
traveller  without  his  legs,  or  as  a  ship  without  sails,  or  a  bird  without 
wings,  or  like  a  body  without  a  soul. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  ignorance  makes  men  the  objects  of  God's 
hatred  and  wroth.  '  It  is  a  people  that  do  err  in  their  hearts,  and  have 
not  known  my  ways.  Wherefore  I  sware  in  my  wrath,  they  should 
never  enter  into  my  rest/  Heb.  iii.  10,  11.  '  My  people  are  a  people  of 
no  understanding,  therefore  he  that  made  them  will  have  no  mercy  on 
them,'  Isa.  xxvii.  11.  Christ  hath  said,  '  That  he  will  come  in  flaming 
fire,  to  render  vengeance  on  them  that  know  not  Go^/  2  Thes.  i.  8. 
Ignorance  will  end  in  vengeance.  When  you  see  a  poor  blind  man 
here,  you  do  not  loathe  him,  nor  hate  him,  but  you  pity  him.  Oh  !  but 
soul-blindness  makes  you  abominable  in  the  sight  of  God.  God  hath 
sworn  that  ignorant  persons  shall  never  come  into  heaven.  Heaven 
itself  would  be  a  hell  to  ignorant  souls.2 

'  My  people  are  destroyed  for  want  of  knowledge  ;  because  thou  hast 
rejected  knowledge,  I  will  reject  thee,'  Hosea,  iv.  6  ;  ["1NDXDX,  cut  off  J. 

Chilo,  one  of  the  seven  sages,  being  asked  what  God  had  done, 
answered,  'He  exalted  humble  men,  and  suppressed  proud  ignorant 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  ignorance  is  a  sin  that  leads  to  all  sins.  All  sins  are 
seminal  ly  in  ignorance.  'You  do  err,  not  knowing  the  Scriptures,' 
Mat.  xxii.  29.  It  puts  men  upon  hating  and  persecuting  the  saints. 
'  They  shall  hate  you,  and  put  you  out  of  the  synagogues  :  yea,  the 
time  cometh,  that  whosoever  killeth  you  will  think  that  he  doth  God 
service.  And  these  things  will  they  do  unto  you,  because  they  have 
not  known  the  Father,  nor  me/  John  xvi.  2,  3.  Paul  thanks  his 
ignorance  for  all  his  cruelties  to  Christians.  '  I  was  a  blasphemer,  and 
a  persecutor,  and  injurious :   but  I  obtained  mercy,  because  I  did  it 

1  Ignorat  sane  improbus  omnis,  saith  Aristotle. 

2  They  must  needs  err  that  know  not  God's  ways,  yet  cannot  they  wander  so  wide  as 
to  miss  of  hell. 

• 3  Rome  saith,  ignorance  is  the  mother  of  devotion,  hut  the  Scripture  saith,  it  is  the 
mother  of  destruction. 

138  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR  II  11. 

ignorantly,'  I  Tim.  i.  13.1  It  was  ignorance  that  put  the  Jews  upcn 
crucifying  Chrisl  :  '  Father,  forgive  them,'  saith  Christ  of  his  murderers, 

'  for  tiny  know  not  what  they  do,'  Luke  xxiii.  34  :  'for  if  the  princes 
of  this  world  had  known,  they  would  not  have  crucified  the  Lord  of 
glory,'  1  Cor.  ii.  <S.2  Sin  at  first  was  the  cause  of  ignorance,  but  now 
ignorance  is  the  cause  of  all  sin.  ' Swearing,  and  lying,  and  killing, 
and  stealing,  and  whoring  abound,'  saith  the  prophet,  'because  there 
is  no  knowledge  of  God  in  the  land.'  There  are  none  so  frequent,  and 
so  impudent  in  the  ways  of  sin,  as  ignorant  souls  ;  they  care  not,  nor 
mind  not  what  they  do,  nor  what  they  say  against  God,  Christ,  heaven, 
holiness,  and  their  own  souls.  'Our  tongues  are  our  own,  who  shall 
control  us  ?  They  are  corrupt,  and  speak  wickedly  concerning  oppres- 
sion :  they  speak  loftily.  They  set  their  mouth  against  the  heavens  ; 
and  their  tongue  walketh  through  the  earth.  Have  all  the  workers  of 
iniquity  no  knowledge?  who  eat  up  my  people  as  they  eat  bread,  and 
call  not  upon  the  Lord  ?'3  4 

1  It  seems  right  to  note  that  the  apostle  does  not  allege  his  ignorance,  for  which  he  was 
responsible,  as  the  ground  of  the  'mercy'  shewn  him,  but  only  as  the  source  and  explanation 
of  his  sin  and  violence  The  clause,  '  but  I  obtained  mercy,'  is  parenthetic,  and  it  is  of 
importance  to  note  this. — G. 

2  Aristotle  makes  ignorance  the  mother  of  all  the  misrule  in  the  world. 
8  Ps.  xiv.  4;  lxxiii.  8,  9. 

4  They  did  like  CEdipus,  who  killed  his  father  Laius,  king  of  Thebes,  and  thought  he 
killed  his  enemy.     [Euripides,  Phoen.  '69. — G.] 

2  COK.  II.  11. J  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  139 



Whereby  he  keepeth  poor  souls  from  believing  in  Christ,  from  receiving 
of  Christ,  from  embracing  of  Christ,  from  resting,  leaning,  or 
relying  upon  Christ,  for  everlasting  happiness  and  blessedness, 
according  to  the  gospel ;  and  remedies  against  these  devices. 

His  first  device  to  keep  the  soul  from  believing  in  Christ  is, 
Device  (1).  By  suggesting  to  the  soul  the  greatness  and  vileness  of 
his  sins.  What!  saith  Satan,  dost  thou  think  that  thou  shalt  ever 
obtain  mercy  by  Christ,  that  hast  sinned  with  so  high  a  hand  against 
Christ  ?  that  hast  slighted  the  tenders1  of  grace  ?  that  hast  grieved  the 
Spirit  of  grace?  that  hast  despised  the  word  of  grace?  that  hast  trampled 
under  feet  the  blood  of  the  covenant,  by  which  thou  mightest  have  been 
pardoned,  purged,  justified,  and  saved  ?  that  hast  spoken  and  done  all 
the  evil  that  thou  couldest  ?  No  !  no  !  saith  Satan,  he  hath  mercy  for 
others,  but  not  for  thee;  pardon  for  others,  but  not  for  thee;  righteous- 
ness for  others,  but  not  for  thee,  &c,  therefore  it  is  in  vain  for  thee  to 
think  of  believing  in  Christ,  or  resting  and  leaning  thy  guilty  soul  upon 
Christ,  Jer.  iii.  5. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : — 
Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  tlie  greater  your  sins  are,  the  more  you  stand  in  need 
of  a  Saviour.  The  greater  your  burden  is,  the  more  you  stand  in  need 
of  one  to  help  to  bear  it.  The  deeper  the  wound  is,  the  more  need 
there  is  of  the  chirurgeon ;  the  more  dangerous  the  disease  is,  the  more 
need  there  is  of  the  physician.  Who  but  madmen  will  argue  thus  :  My 
burden  is  great,  therefore  I  will  not  call  out  for  help  ;  my  wound  is 
deep,  therefore  I  will  not  call  out  for  balm  ;  my  disease  is  dangerous, 
therefore  I  will  not  go  to  the  physician.  Ah  !  it  is  spiritual  madness, 
it  is  the  devil's  logic  to  argue  thus  :  My  sins  are  great,  therefore  I  will 
not  go  to  Christ,  I  dare  not  rest  nor  lean  on  Christ,  &c. ;  whereas  the  soul 
should  reason  thus:  The  greater  my  sins  are,  the  more  I  stand  in  need  of 
mercy,  of  pardon,  and  therefore  I  will  go  to  Christ,  who  delights  in  mercy, 

1  '  Offers.'— G. 

14-0  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

who  pardons  sin  for  his  own  name's  sake,  who  is  as  able  and  as  willing 
to  forgive  pounds  as  pence,  thousands  as  hundreds,  Micah  vii.  18,  Isa. 
xliii.  -"). 

R  medy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  llmt  thepromise  o/'u race  and  mercy  is  to  return- 
ing souls.  And,  therefore,  though  thou  art  never  so  wicked,  yet  if  thou 
wilt  return,  God  will  be  thine,  and  mercy  shall  be  thine,  and  pardon 
shall  he  thine  :  2  Chron.  xxx.  9,  'For  if  you  turn  again  unto  the  Lord, 
your  brethren  and  your  children  shall  find  compassion  before  them  that 
Lad  them  captive,  so  that  they  shall  come  again  into  this  land:  for  the 
Lord  our  God  is  gracious  and  merciful,  and  will  not  turn  away  his  face 
from  you,  if  ye  return  unto  him.'  So  Jer.  iii.  12,  'Go  and  proclaim 
these  words  towards  the  north,  and  say,  Return,  thou  backsliding  Israel, 
saith  the  Lord,  and  I  will  not  cause  my  anger  to  fall  upon  you :  for  I 
am  merciful,  saith  the  Lord,  and  I  will  not  keep  anger  for  ever.'  So 
Joel  ii.  13,  'And  rend  your  hearts,  and  not  your  garments,  and  turn 
unto  the  Lord  your  God :  for  he  is  gracious  and  merciful,  slow  to  anger, 
and  of  great  kindness,  and  repenteth  him  of  the  evil.'  So  Isa.  lv.  7, 
'  Let  the  wicked  forsake  his  ways,  and  the  unrighteous  man  his 
thoughts :  and  let  him  return  unto  the  Lord,  and  he  will  have  mercy 
upon  him  ;  and  to  our  God,  for  he  will  abundantly  pardon/  or,  as  the 
Hebrew  reads  it,  '  He  will  multiply  pardon :'  so  Ezek.  xviii. 

Ah  !  sinner,  it  is  not  thy  great  transgressions  that  shall  exclude  thee 
from  mercy,  if  thou  wilt  break  off  thy  sins  by  repentance  and  return  to 
the  fountain  of  mercy.  Christ's  heart,  Christ's  arms,  are  wide  open  to 
embrace  the  returning  prodigal.  It  is  not  simply  the  greatest1  of  thy 
sins,  but  thy  peremptory  persisting  in  sin,  that  will  be  thy  eternal 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  the  greatest  sinners  have  obtai/ned  mercy, 
and  therefore  all  the  angels  im  heaven,  all  the  men  on  earth,  and  all 
tl i e  devils  in  hell  cannot  tell  to  the  contrary,  but  that  thou  mayest 
obtai/n  mercy.  Manasseh  was  a  notorious  sinner;  he  erected  altars  for 
Baal,  he  worshipped  and  served  all  the  host  of  heaven  ;  he  caused  his 
sons  to  pass  through  the  fire;  he  gave  himself  to  witchcraft  and  sorcery; 
he  made  Judah  to  sin  more  wickedly  than  the  heathen  did,  whom  the 
Lord  destroyed  before  the  children  of  Israel ;  he  caused  the  streets  of 
Jerusalem  to  run  down  with  innocent  blood,  2  Kings  xxi.  Ah  !  what  a 
devil  incarnate  was  he  in  his  actings  !  Yet  when  he  humbled  himself, 
and  sought  the  Lord,  the  Lord  was  entreated  of  him  and  heard  his 
supplication,  and  brought  him  to  Jerusalem,  and  made  himself  known 
unto  him,  and  crowned  him  with  mercy  and  loving-kindness,  as  you 
may  sec  in  2  Chron.  xxxiii.'-  So  Paul  was  once  a  blasphemer,  a  perse- 
cutor and  injurious,  yet  he  obtained  mercy,  1  Tim.  i.  13.  So  Mary 
Magdalene  was  a  notorious  strumpet,  a  common  whore,  out  of  whom 
Christ  cast  seveu  devils,  yet  she  is  pardoned  by  Christ,  and  dearly  be- 
loved of  Christ,  Luke  vii.  37,  38.  So  Mark  xvi.  J),  'Now,  when  Jesus 
was  risen  early  the  first  day  of  the  week,  he  appeared  first  to  Mary 
Magdalene,  out  of  whom  he  had  cast  seven  devils.'3 

1  Qu.  '  greatness  '  ? — G. 

2  The  Hebrew  doctors  writ  thai  lie  slew  Itsaiah  the  prophet,  who  was  his  father-in-law. 

3  See  footnote  on  page  100. — G. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  1-il 

Jansenius  on  the  place  saith,it  is  very  observable  that  our  Saviour  after 
his  resurrection  first  appeared  to  Mary  Magdalene  and  Peter,  that  had 
been  grievous  sinners  ;  that  even  the  worst  of  sinners  may  be  comforted 
and  encouraged  to  come  to  Christ,  to  believe  in  Christ,  to  rest  and  stay 
their  souls  upon  Christ,  for  mercy  here  and  glory  hereafter.  That  is  a 
very  precious  word  for  the  worst  of  sinners  to  hang  upon,  Ps.  lxviii.  18. 
The  psalmist  speaking  of  Christ  saith,  '  Thou  hast  ascended  on  high, 
thou  hast  led  captivity  captive  ;  thou  hast  received  gifts  for  men  ;  yea, 
for  the  rebellious  also,  that  the  Lord  might  dwell  amongst  them.' 

What  though  thou  art  a  rebellious  child,  or  a  rebellious  servant  ! 
What  though  thou  art  a  rebellious  swearer,  a  rebellkms  drunkard,  a 
rebellious  Sabbath  breaker  !  Yet  Christ  hath  received  gifts  for  thee, 
1  even  for  the  rebellious  also.'  He  hath  received  the  gift  of  pardon, 
the  gift  of  righteousness,  yea,  all  the  gifts  of  the  Spirit  for  thee,  that 
thy  heart  may  be  made  a  delightful  house  for  God  to  dwell  in. 

Bodin1  hath  a  story  concerning  a  great  rebel  that  had  made  a  strong 
party  against  a  Roman  emperor.  The  emperor  makes  proclamation, 
that  whoever  could  bring  the  rebel  dead  or  alive,  he  should  have  such 
a  great  sum  of  money.  The  rebel  hearing  of  this,  comes  and  presents 
himself  before  the  emperor,  and  demands  the  sum  of  money.  Now, 
saith  the  emperor,  if  I  should  put  him  to  death,  the  world  would  say  I 
did  it  to  save  my  money.  And  so  he  pardons  the  rebel,  and  gives  him 
the  money. 

Ah,  sinners  !  Shall  a  heathen  do  this,  that  had  but  a  drop  of  mercy 
and  compassion  in  him  :  and  will  not  Christ  do  much  more,  that  hath 
all  fulness  of  grace,  mercy,  and  glory  in  himself  ?  Surely  his  bowels 
do  yearn  towards  the  worst  of  rebels.  Ah  !  if  you  still  but  come  in,  you 
will  find  him  ready  to  pardon,  yea,  one  made  up  of  pardoning  mercy. 
Oh  !  the  readiness  and  willingness  of  Jesus  Christ  to  receive  to  favour 
the  greatest  rebels  !  The  father  of  mercies  did  meet,  embrace,  and 
kiss  that  prodigal  mouth  which  came  from  feeding  with  swine  and 
kissing  of  harlots,  Col.  i.  19,  ii  3,  4.2 

Ephraim  had  committed  idolatry,  and  was  backslidden  from  God  ; 
he  was  guilty  of  lukewarmness  and  unbelief,  &c,  yet  saith  God, 
'  Ephraim  is  my  dear  son,  he  is  a  pleasant  child,  my  bowels  are  troubled 
for  him,  I  will  have  mercy,'  or  rather  as  it  is  in  the  original, '  I  will 
have  mercy,  mercy  upon  him,  saith  the  Lord,'3 

Well !  saith  God,  though  Ephraim  be  guilty  of  crimson  sins,  yet  he 
is  a  son,  a  dear  son,  a  precious  son,  a  pleasant  child  ;  though  he  be 
black  with  filth,  and  red  with  guilt,  yet  my  bowels  are  troubled  for 
him  ;  I  will  have  mercy,  mercy  upon  him.  Ah  sinners,  if  these  bowels 
of  mercy  do  not  melt,  win,  and  draw  you,  justice  will  be  a  swift  witness 
against  you,  and  make  you  lie  down  in  eternal  misery  for  kicking 
against  the  bowels  of  mercy. 

Christ  hangs  out  still,  as  once  that  warlike  Scythian  did,  a  white  flag 
of  grace  and  mercy  to  returning  sinners  that  humble  themselves  at  his 
feet  for  favour  ;  but  if  sinners  stand  out,  Christ  will  put  forth  his  red 

1  John  Bodin  died  1596  :  for  above  see  Universce  Naturce  Theatrum,  &c,  &c,  1579;  and 
Les  six  Livres  de  la  Republique,  &c,  1593. — G. 

2  Neb.,  ix.  15,  Hebrew,  But  thou  a  God  of  pardons. 

3  Hosea  iv.  17  ;  v.  3  ;  vi.  8,  11  ;  xii.  12,  14 ;  xiii.  12.      Vide  Jer.  xxxi.  20. 

142  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

flag,  his  bloody  flag,  and  they  shall  die  for  ever  by  a  hand  of  justice. 
Sinners  !  there  is  no  way  to  avoid  perishing  by  Christ's  iron  rod,  but  by 
kissing  his  golden  sceptre. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  Jesus  Christ  liallt  novhere  in  all  the  tier! /tin re  excepted 
against  the  worst  of  sinners  that  are  willing  to  receive  him,  to  believe 
in  him,  to  rest  upon  hvm  for  happiness  amd  blessedness.  Ah  !  sinners, 
why  should  you  be  more  cruel  and  unmerciful  to  your  own  souls  than 
Christ  is  ?  Christ  bath  not  excluded  you  from  mercy,  why  should  you 
exclude  your  i  >\\  n  souls  from  mercy  ?  Oh  that  you  would  dwell  often  upon 
that  choice  Scripture,  John  vi.  o7,  '  All  that  the  Father  giveth  me,  shall 
come  to  me  ;  and  him  that  cometh  to  me  I  will  in  no  wise  cast  out,'  or 
as  the  original  hath  it,  '  I  will  not  not  cast  out.'  Well!  saith  Christ,  if  any 
man  will  come,  or  is  coming  to  me,  let  him  be  more  sinful  or  less;  more 
unworthy  or  less;  let  him  be  never  so  guilty,  never  so  filthy,  never  so 
rebellious,  never  so  leprous,  &c,  yet  if  he  will  but  come,  I  will  not  not 
cast  him  off.  So  much  is  held  forth  in  1  Cor.  vi.  9-11,  'Know  ye 
not  that  the  unrighteous  shall  not  inherit  the  kingdom  of  God  ?  Be 
not  deceived  :  neither  fornicators,  nor  idolaters,  nor  adulterers,  nor 
effeminate,  nor  abusers  of  themselves  with  mankind,  nor  thieves,  nor 
covetous,  nor  drunkards,  nor  revilers,  nor  extortioners,  shall  inherit  the 
kingdom  of  God.  And  such  were  some  of  you  :  but  ye  are  washed,  but 
ye  are  sanctified,  but  ye  are  justified  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus, 
and  by  the  Spirit  of  our  God.' 

Ah  !  sinners,  do  not  think  that  he  that  hath  received  such  notorious 
sinners  to  mercy  will  reject  you.  '  He  is  yesterday,  and  to-day,  and  the 
same  for  ever,'  Heb.  xiii.  8.  Christ  was  born  in  an  inn,  to  shew  that  he 
receives  all  comers  ;  his  garments  were  divided  into  four  parts,  to  shew 
that  out  of  what  part  of  the  world  soever  we  come,  we  shall  be  received. 
If  we  be  naked,  Christ  hath  robes  to  clothe  us  ;  if  we  be  harbourless, 
Christ  hath  room  to  lodge  us.  That  is  a  choice  scripture,  Acts  x.  34, 
35,  '  Then  Peter  opened  his  mouth  and  said,  Of  a  truth  I  perceive  that 
God  is  no  respecter  of  persons.  But  in  every  nation,  he  that  feareth 
him,  and  worketh  righteousness,  is  accepted  with  him.' 

The  three  tongues  that  were  written  upon  the  cross,  Greek,  Latin, 
and  Hebrew,  John  xix.  19,  20,  to  witness  Christ  to  be  the  king  of  the 
Jews,  do  each  of  them  in  their  several  idiom  avouch  this  singular  axiom, 
that  Christ  is  an  all-sufficient  Saviour;  and  '  a  threefold  cord  is  not 
easily  broken.'  The  apostle  puts  this  out  of  doubt:  Heb.  vii.  25, 
'  Wherefore  he  is  able  also  to  save  them  to  the  uttermost  that  come 
unto  God  by  him,  seeing  he  ever  liveth  to  make  intercession  for  them/ 
Now,  he  were  not  an  all-sufficient  Saviour  if  he  were  not  able  to  save 
the  greatest,  as  [well  as]  the  least  of  sinners.  Ah  !  sinners,  tell  Jesus 
Christ  thai  be  hath  not  excluded  you  from  mercy,  and  therefore  you 
are  resolved  that  yon  will  sit,  wait,  weep,  and  knock  at  the  door  of 
mercy,  till  he  shall  say,  Souls,  be  of  good  cheer,  your  sins  are  forgiven, 
your  persons  are  justified,  and  your  souls  shall  be  saved. 

Remedy  (5).  The  fifth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to  con- 
sider, That  the  greater  aim  ner  thou  art,  the  dearer  iJtou  wilt  be  to  Christ, 
when  he  shall  behold  thee  <ts  the  travail  of  his  soid  :  Isa.  liii.  11,  '  He 
shall  see  of  the  travail  of  his  soul,  and  be  satisfied.'     The  dearer  we  pay 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  143 

for  anything,  the  dearer  that  thing  is  to  us.  Christ  hath  paid  most,  and 
prayed  most,  and  sighed  most,  and  wept  most,  and  bled  most  for  the 
greatest  sinners,  and  therefore  they  are  dearer  to  Christ  than  others 
that  are  less  sinful.  Rachel  was  dearer  to  Jacob  than  Leah,  because 
she  cost  him  more  ;  he  obeyed,  endured,  and  suffered  more  by  day  and 
night  for  her  than  for  Leah.  Ah  !  sinners,  the  greatness  of  your  sins 
does  but  set  off  the  freeness  and  riches  of  Christ's  grace,  and  the  fine- 
ness of  his  love.  This  maketh  heaven  and  earth  to  ring  of  his  praise, 
that  he  loves  those  that  are  most  unlovely,  that  he  shews  most  favour 
to  them  that  have  sinned  most  highly  against  him,  as  might  be  shev/ed 
by  several  instances  in  Scripture,  as  Paul,  Mary  Magdalene,  and  others. 
Who  sinned  more  against  Christ  than  these  ?  And  who  had  sweeter 
and  choicer  manifestations  of  divine  love  and  favour  than  these  ? 

Remedy  (6).  The  sixth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  longer  you  keep  off  from  Christ,  the 
greater  and  stronger  your  sins  will  grow.  All  divine  power  and 
strength  against  sin  flows  from  the  soul's  union  and  communion  with 
Christ,  Rom.  viii.  1 0,  1  John  i.  6,  7.  While  you  keep  off  from  Christ, 
you  keep  off  from  that  strength  and  power  which  is  only  able  to  make 
you  trample  down  strength,  lead  captivity  captive,  and  slay  the  Goliaths 
that  bid  defiance  to  Christ.  It  is  only  faith  in  Christ  that  makes  a  man 
triumph  over  sin,  Satan,  hell,  and  the  world,  1  John  v.  4.  It  is  only 
faith  in  Christ  that  binds  the -strong  man's  hand  and  foot,  that  stops 
the  issue  of  blood,  that  makes  a  man  strong  in  resisting,  and  happy  in 
conquering,  Mat.  v.  15  to  35.  Sin  always  dies  most  where  faith  lives 
most.  The  most  believing  soul  is  the  most  mortified  soul.  Ah  !  sinner, 
remember  this,  there  is  no  way  on  earth  effectually  to  be  rid  of  the 
guilt,  filth,  and  power  of  sin,  but  by  believing  in  a  Saviour.  It  is  not 
resolving,  it  is  not  complaining,  it  is  not  mourning,  but  believing,  that 
will  make  thee  divinely  victorious  over  that  body  of  sin  that  to  this  day 
is  too  strong  for  thee,  and  that  will  certainly  be  thy  ruin,  if  it  be  not 
ruined  by  a  hand  of  faith. 

Remedy  (7).  The  seventh  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
wisely  to  consider,  That  as  there  is  nothing  in  Christ  to  discourage 
the  greatest  sinners  from  believing  in  him,  so  there  is  everything  in 
Christ  that  may  encourage  the  greatest  sinners  to  believe  on  him,  to 
rest  and  lean  upon  him  for  all  happiness  and  blessedness,  Cant.  i.  3. 
If  you  look  upon  his  nature,  his  disposition,  his  names,  his  titles,  his 
offices  as  king,  priest,  and  prophet,  you  will  find  nothing  to  discourage 
the  greatest  sinners  from  believing  in  him,  but  many  things  to  encour- 
age the  greatest  sinners  to  receive  him,  to  believe  on  him.1  Christ  is 
the  greatest  good,  the  choicest  good,  the  chiefest  good,  the  most  suitable 
good,  the  most  necessary  good.  He  is  a  pure  good,  a  real  good,  a  total 
good,  an  eternal  good,  and  a  soul-satisfying  good,  Rev.  iii.  17,  18. 
Sinners,  are  you  poor?  Christ  hath  gold  to  enrich  you.  Are  you 
naked  ?  Christ  hath  royal  robes,  he  hath  white  raiment  to  clothe  you. 
Are  you  blind  ?  Christ  hath  eye-salve  to  enlighten  you.  Are  you 
hungry  ?  Christ  will  be  manna  to  feed  you.  Are  you  thirsty  ?  He  will 
be  a  well  of  living  water  to  refresh  you.  Are  you  wounded  ?  He  hath 
a  balm  under  his  wings  to  heal  you.  Are  you  sick  ?  He  is  a  physician 
1  Col.  i.  19,  ii.  3,  Cant,  v.  10. 

144  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

to  cure  you.  Are  you  prisoners?  He  hath  laid  down  a  ransom  for  you. 
Ah,  sinners  !  tell  me,  tell  me,  is  there  anything  in  Christ  to  keep  you 
off  from  believing  ?  No.  Is  there  not  everything  in  Christ  that  may 
encourage  you  to  believe  in  him?  Yes.  Oh,  then,  believe  in  him,  and 
then,  '  Though  your  sins  be  as  scarlet,  they  shall  be  as  white  as  snow, 
though  they  be  red  like  crimson,  they  shall  be  as  wool,'  Isa.  i.  18. 
Nay,  then,  your  iniquities  shall  bo  forgotten  as  well  as  forgiven,  they 
shall  bo  remembered  no  more.  God  will  cast  them  behind  his  back,  he 
will  throw  them  into  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  Isa,  xliii.  25,  xxxviii.  17, 
Micah  vii.  19. 

Remedy  (8).  The  eighth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  TJte  absolute  necessity  of  believing  in  Christ. 
Heaven  is  too  holy  and  too  hot  to  hold  unbelievers  ;  their  lodging  is 
prepared  in  hell :  Rev.  xxi.  8,  '  But  the  fearful  and  unbelieving.  &a, 
shall  have  their  part  in  the  lake  which  burnetii  with  fire  and  brim- 
stone, which  is  the  second  death.'  '  If  ye  believe  not  that  I  am  he,' 
saith  Christ,  '  you  shall  die  in  your  sins,'  John  viii.  2 1.  And  he  that 
dies  in  his  sins  must  to  judgment  and  to  hell  in  his  sins.  Every  un- 
believer is  a  condemned  man :  '  He  that  believeth  not,'  saith  John,  '  i 
condemned  alread}^  because  he  hath  not  believed  in  the  name  of  th 
only  begotten  Son  of  God.  And  he  that  believeth  not  the  Son,  shall 
not  see  life,  but  the  wrath  of  God  abideth  on  him,'  John  iii.  18,  36. 
Ah,  sinners  !  the  law,  the  gospel,  and  your  own  consciences,  have  passed 
the  sentence  of  condemnation  upon  you,  and  there  is  no  way  to  reverse 
the  sentence  but  by  believing  in  Christ.  And  therefore  my  counsel  is 
this,  Stir  up  yourselves  to  lay  hold  on  the  Lord  Jesus,  and  look  up  to 
him,  and  wait  on  him,  from  whom  every  good  and  perfect  gift  comes, 
and  give  him  no  rest  till  he  hath  given  thee  that  jewel  faith,  that  is 
more  worth  than  heaven  and  earth,  and  that  will  make  thee  happy  in 
life,  joyful  in  death,  and  glorious  in  the  day  of  Christ,  Isa.  lxiv.  7, 
James  i.  17,  Isa.  lxii.  7. 

And  thus  much  for  the  remedies  against  this  first  device  of  Satan, 
whereby  he  keeps  off  thousands  from  believing  in  Christ. 

The  second  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  sinners  from  be- 
lieving, from  closing  with  a  Saviour,  is, 

Device  (2).  By  suggesting  to  them  their  unworthincss.  Ah!  saith 
Satan,  as  thou  art  worthy  of  the  greatest  misery,  so  thou  art  un- 
worthy of  the  least  crumb  of  mercy.  What!  dost  thou  think,  saith 
Satan,  that  ever  Christ  will  own,  receive,  or  embrace  such  an  unworthy 
wretch  as  thou  art?  No,  no;  if  there  were  any  worthiness  in  thee, 
then,  indeed,  Christ  might  be  willing  to  be  entertained  by  thee.  Thou 
art  unworthy  to  entertain  Christ  into  thy  house,  how  much  more  un- 
worthy art  thou  to  ontertain  Christ  into  thy  heart,  &c. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these. 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  God  hath  nowhere  in  the  Scripture  required 
any  ivorthincss  in  lite  creature  before  believing  in  Christ.  If  you 
make  a  diligent  search  through  all  the  scripture,  you  shall  not  find, 
from  the  fust  line  in  Genesis  to  the  last  line  in  the  Revelations,  one 
word  that  speaks  out  God's  requiring  any  worthiness  in  the  creature 
before  the  soul's  believing  in  Christ,  before  the  soul's  leaning  and  rest- 

2  Cor.  II.  11.}  against  satan's  devices.  145 

ing  upon  Christ  for  happiness  and  blessedness  ;  and  why,  then,  should 
that  be  a  bar  and  hindrance  to  thy  faith,  which  God  doth  nowhere 
require  of  thee  before  thou  comest  to  Christ,  that  thou  mayest  have 
life  ?  Mat.  xix.  8,  John  v.  29.  Ah,  sinners !  remember  Satan  objects 
your  unworthiness  against  you  only  out  of  a  design  to  keep  Christ  and 
your  souls  asunder  for  ever  ;  and  therefore,  in  the  face  of  all  your  un- 
worthiness, rest  upon  Christ,  come  to  Christ,  believe  in  Christ,  and  you 
are  happy  for  ever,  John  vi.  40,  47. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
wisely  to  consider,  That  none  ever  received  Christ,  embraced  Christ, 
and  obtained  mercy  and  pardon  from  Christ,  but  unworthy  sotds. 
Pray,  what  worthiness  was  in  Matthew,  Zaccheus,  Mary  Magdalene, 
Manasseh,  Paul,  and  Lydia,  before  their  coming  to  Christ,  before  their 
faith  in  Christ  ?  Surely  none.  Ah,  sinners  !  you  should  reason  thus  : 
Christ  hath  bestowed  the  choicest  mercies,  the  greatest  favours,  the 
highest  dignities,  the  sweetest  privileges,  upon  unworthy  sinners,  and 
therefore,  O  our  souls,  do  not  you  faint,  do  not  you  despair,  but  patiently 
and  quietly  wait  for  the  salvation  of  the  Lord.  Who  can  tell  but  that 
free  grace  and  mercy  may  shine  forth  upon  us,  though  we  are  unworthy, 
and  give  us  a  portion  among  those  worthies  that  are  now  triumphing 
in  heaven. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  That 
if  the  soul  will  keep  off  from  Christ  till  it  be  worthy,  it  will  never 
close  with  Christ,  it  will  never  embrace  Christ.  It  will  never  be  one 
with  Christ,  it  must  lie  down  in  everlasting  sorrow,  Isa.  1.  11.  God 
hath  laid  up  all  worthiness  in  Christ,  that  the  creature  may  know  where 
to  find  it,  and  may  make  out  after  it.  There  is  no  way  on  earth  to 
make  unworthy  souls  worthy,  but  by  believing  in  Christ,  James  ii.  23. 
Believing  in  Christ,  of  slaves,  it  will  make  you  worthy  sons;  of  enemies, 
it  will  make  you  worthy  friends.  God  will  count  none  worthy,  nor 
call  none  worthy,  nor  carry  it  towards  none  as  worthy,  but  believers, 
who  are  made  worthy  by  the  worthiness  of  Christ's  person,  righteous- 
ness, satisfaction,  and  intercession,  &c,  Rev.  iii.  4. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  if  you  make  a  diligent  search  into  your 
own  hearts,  you  shall  find  that  it  is  the  pride  and  folly  of  your  oivn 
hearts  that  puts  you  upon  bringing  of  a  tvorthiness  to  Christ.  Oh  !  you 
would  fain  bring  something  to  Christ  that  might  render  you  acceptable 
to  him  ;  you  are  loath  to  come  empty-handed.  The  Lord  cries  out,  '  Ho, 
every  one  that  thirsteth,  come  ye  to  the  waters,  and  he  that  hath  no 
money  :  come  ye,  buy  and  eat ;  yea,  come,  buy  wine  and  milk  without 
money,  and  without  price.  Wherefore  do  ye  spend  your  money  upon 
that  which  is  not  bread,  and  your  labour  for  that  which  satisfieth  not  f 
Isa.  lv.  1,  2.  Here  the  Lord  calls  upon  moneyless,  upon  penniless 
souls,  upon  unworthy  souls,  to  come  and  partake  of  his  precious  favours 
freely.  But  sinners  are  proud  and  foolish,  and  because  they  have  no 
money,  no  worthiness  to  bring,  they  will  not  come,  though  he  sweetly 
invites  them.  Ah,  sinners!  what  is  more  just  than  that  you  should 
perish  for  ever,  that  prefer  husks  among  swine  before  the  milk  and 
wine,  the  sweet  and  precious  things  of  the  gospel,  that  are  freely  and 

VOL.  I.  K 

146  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11.' 

sweetly  offered  to  you,  &c.  Well,  sinners  !  remember  this,  it  is  not  so 
much  the  sense  of  your  unworthiness,  as  your  pride,  that  keeps  you  off 
from  a  blessed  closing  with  the  Lord  Jesus. 

The  third  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  sinners  from  believ- 
ing, from  closing  with  a  Saviour,  is, 

Device  (3).  By  suggesting  to  them  the  want  of  such  and  such 'pre- 
parations and  qualifications.  Saith  Satan,  Thou  art  not  prepared  to 
entertain  Christ ;  thou  art  not  thus  and  thus  humbled  and  justified ; 
thou  art  not  heart-sick  of  sin ;  thou  hast  not  been  under  horrors  and 
terrors  as  such  and  such  ;  thou  must  stay  till  thou  art  prepared  and 
qualified  to  receive  the  Lord  Jesus,  &c. 

Now,  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
solemnly  to  consider,  That  such  as  have  not  been  so  and  so  prepared 
and  qualified  as  Satan  suggests,  have  received  Christ,  believed  in 
Christ,  and  been  saved  by  Christ.  Matthew  was  called,  sitting  at  the 
receipt  of  custom,  and  there  was  such  power  went  along  with  Christ's 
call,  that  made  him  to  follow  him,  Mat.  ix.  9.  We  read  not  of  any 
horrors  or  terrors,  &c,  that  he  was  under  before  his  being  called  by 
Christ.  Pray,  what  preparations  and  qualifications  were  found  in 
Zaccheus,  Paul,  the  jailor,  and  Lydia,  before  their  conversion,  Luke 
xix.  9,  Acts  xvi.  14,  seq.  God  brings  in  some  by  the  sweet  and  still 
voice  of  the  gospel,  and  usually  such  that  are  thus  brought  into  Christ 
are  the  sweetest,  humblest,  choicest,  and  fruitfullest  Christians.  God  is 
a  free  agent  to  work  by  law  or  gospel,  by  smiles  or  frowns,  by  present- 
ing hell  or  heaven  to  sinners'  souls.  God  thunders  from  mount  Sinai 
upon  some  souls,  and  conquers  them  by  thundering.  God  speaks  to 
others  in  a  still  voice,  and  by  that  conquers  them.  You  that  are 
brought  to  Christ  by  the  law,  do  not  you  judge  and  condemn  them 
that  are  brought  to  Christ  by  the  gospel ;  and  you  that  are  brought  to 
Christ  by  the  gospel,  do  not  you  despise  those  that  are  brought  to 
Christ  by  the  law.  Some  are  brought  to  Christ  by  fire,  storms,  and 
tempests,  others  by  more  easy  and  gentle  gales  of  the  Spirit.  The 
Spirit  is  free  in  the  works  of  conversion,  and,  as  the  wind,  it  blows 
when,  where,  and  how  it  pleases,  John  iii.  8.  Thrice  happy  are  those 
souls  that  are  brought  to  Christ,  whether  it  be  in  a  winter's  night  or 
in  a  summer's  day. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
Holemnly  To  dwell  upon  these  following  scriptures,  which  do  clearly 
evidence  that  poor  sinners  which  are  not  so  and  so  prepared  and 
qualified  to  meet  with  Christ,  to  receive  and  embrace  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  may,  notwithstanding  that,  believe  in  Christ;  and  rest  and 
lean  upon  him  for  happiness  and  blessedness,  according  to  the  gospel. 
Read  Prov.  i.  20-33,  and  chap.  viii.  1-11,  and  chap.  ix.  1-6 ;  Ezek.  xvi. 
1-14;  John  iii.  14-18,  36  ;  Rev.  iii.  15-20.  Here  the  Lord  Jesus 
( 'hrist  stands  knocking  at  the  Laodiceans'  door  ;  he  would  fain  have 
them  to  sup  with  him,  and  that  he  might  sup  with  them  ;  that  is,  that 
they  might  have  intimate  communion  and  fellowship  one  with  another. 
Now,  pray  tell  me,  what  preparations  or  qualifications  had  these  Lao- 
diceans to  entertain  Christ  ?  Surely  none  ;  for  they  were  lukewarm, 
they  were  'neither  hot  nor  cold,'  they  were  '  wretched,  and  miserable, 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  147 

and  poor,  and  blind,  and  naked;'  and  yet  Christ,  to  shew  his  free  grace 
and  his  condescending  love,  invites  the  very  worst  of  sinners  to  open  to 
him,  though  they  were  no  ways  so  and  so  prepared  or  qualified  to  enter- 
tain him. 

Remedy  (3).  The  third  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
seriously  to  consider,  That  the  Lord  does  not  in  all  the  Scripture  re- 
quire such  and  such  preparations  and  qualifications  before  men  come 
to  Christ,  before  they  believe  in  Christ,  or  entertain,  or  embrace  the 
Lord  Jesus.  Believing  in  Christ  is  the  great  thing  that  God  presses 
upon  sinners  throughout  the  Scripture,  as  all  know  that  know  anything 
of  Scripture. 

Obj.  But  does  not  Christ  say,  '  Come  unto  me  all  ye  that  labour  and 
are  heavy  laden,  and  I  will  give  you  rest '  ?  Mat.  xi.  28. 

To  this  I  shall  give  these  three  answers : 

(1.)  That  though  the  invitation  be  to  such  that  'labour  and  are- 
heavy  laden,'  yet  the  promise  of  giving  rest,  it  is  made  over  to  '  coming,' 
to  'believing/ 

(2.)  I  answer,  that  all  this  scripture  proves  and  shews  is,  that  such 
as  labour  under  sin  as  under  a  heavy  burden,  and  that  are  laden  with 
the  guilt  of  sin  and  sense  of  God's  displeasure,  ought  to  come  to  Christ  for 
rest  ;  but  it  doth  not  prove  that  only  such  must  come  to  Christ,  nor 
that  all  men  must  be  thus  burdened  and  laden  with  the  sense  of  their 
sins  and  the  wrath  of  God,  before  they  come  to  Christ. 

Poor  sinners,  when  they  are  under  the  sense  of  sin  and  wrath  of 
God,  they  are  prone  to  run  from  creature  to  creature,  and  from  duty  to 
duty,  and  from  ordinance  to  ordinance,  to  find  rest  ;  and  if  they  could 
find  it  in  any  thing  or  creature,  Christ  should  never  hear  of  them  ;  but 
here  the  Lord  sweetly  invites  them  :  and  to  encourage  them,  he  engages 
himself  to  give  them  rest :  '  Come/  saith  Christ,  '  and  I  will  give  you 
rest.'  I  will  not  shew  you  rest,  nor  barely  tell  you  of  rest,  but  '  I  will 
give  you  rest.'  I  am  faithfulness  itself,  and  cannot  lie,  '  I  will  give 
you  rest.'  I  that  have  the  greatest  power  to  give  it,  the  greatest  will 
to  give  it,  the  greatest  right  to  give  it,  '  Come,  laden  sinners,  and  I 
will  give  you  rest.'  Rest  is  the  most  desirable  good,  the  most  suitable 
good,  and  to  you  the  greatest  good.  '  Come,'  saith  Christ,  that  is,  '  be- 
lieve in  me,  and  I  will  give  you  rest ;'  I  will  give  you  peace  with  God, 
and  peace  with  conscience  ;  I  will  turn  your  storm  into  an  everlasting 
calm ;  T  will  give  you  such  rest,  that  the  world  can  neither  give  to  you 
nor  take  from  you. 

(3.)  I  answer,  No  one  scripture  speaks  out  the  whole  mind  of  God  ; 
therefore  do  but  compare  this  one  scripture  with  those  several  scriptures 
that  are  laid  down  in  the  second  remedy  last  mentioned,  and  it  will 
clearly  appear,  that  though  men  are  thus  and  thus  burdened  and  laden 
with  their  sins  and  filled  with  horror  and  terror,  if  they  may  come  to 
Christ,  they  may  receive  and  embrace  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

Remedy  (4).  The  fourth  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  to 
consider,  That  all  that  trouble  for  sin,  all  that  sorrow,  shame,  and 
mourning  which  is  acceptable  to  God,  and  delightful  to  God,  and  'pre- 
valent with  God,  floivs  from  faith  in  Christ,  as  the  stream  doth  from 
the  fountain,  as  the  branch  doth  from  the  root,  as  the  effect  doth  from 
the  cause.     Zech.  xii.  10,  '  They  shall  look  on  him  whom  they  have 

148  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II  11. 

pierced,  and  they  shall  mourn  for  him.'  All  gospel  mourning  flows 
from  believing  ;  they  shall  first  look,  and  then  mourn.  All  that  know 
anything  know  this,  that  '  whatever  is  not  of  faith  is  sin/  Rom. 
xiv  33.  Till  men  have  faith  in  Christ,  their  best  services  are  but 
glorious  sins. 

The  fourth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  sinners  from  believ- 
ing, from  closing  with  a  Saviour,  is, 

Device  (4).  By  suggesting  to  a  sinner  Christ 's  unwillingness  to  save. 
It  is  true,  saith  Satan,  Christ  is  able  to  save  thee,  but  is  he  willing  ? 
Surely,  though  he  is  able,  yet  he  is  not  willing  to  save  such  a  wretch  as 
thou  ait,  that  has  trampled  his  blood  under  thy  feet,  and  that  has  been 
in  open  rebellion  against  him  all  thy  days,  &c. 

The  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  briefly  to  consider  these 
few  things. 

Remedy  (1).  First,  The  great  journey  that  he  hath  taken,  from 
heaven  to  earth,  on  purpose  to  save  sinners,  doth  strongly  demonstrate 
his  willingness  to  save  them.  Mat.  ix.  13,  'I  came  not  to  call  the 
righteous,  but  sinners  to  repentance.'  1  Tim.  i.  15,  '  This  is  a  faithful 
saying,  and  worthy  of  all  acceptation,  that  Jesus  Christ  came  into  the 
world  to  save  sinners,  of  whom  I  am  chief.' 

Secondly,  His  divesting  himself  of  his  glory  in  order  to  sinners'  sal- 
vation, speaks  out  his  willingness  to  save  them.  He  leaves  his  Father's 
bosom,  he  puts  off  his  glorious  robes,  and  lays  aside  his  glorious  crown, 
and  bids  adieu  to  his  glistering  courtiers  the  angels  ;  and  all  this  he 
doth,  that  he  may  accomplish  sinners'  salvation.1 

Thirdly,  That  sea  of  sin,  that  sea  of  wrath,  that  sea  of  trouble,  that 
sea  of  blood  that  Jesus  Christ  waded  through,  that  sinners  might  be 
pardoned,  justified,  reconciled,  and  saved,  doth  strongly  evidence  his 
willingness  to  save  sinners,  1  Cor.  v.  19,  20. 

Fourthly,  His  sending  his  ambassadors,  early  and  late,  to  woo  and 
entreat  sinners  to  be  reconciled  to  him,  doth  with  open  mouth  shew  his 
readiness  and  willingness  to  save  sinners. 

Fifthly,  His  complaints  against  such  as  refuse  him,  and  that  turn 
their  backs  upon  him,  and  that  will  not  be  saved  by  him,  doth  strongly 
declare  his  willingness  to  save  them  :  John  i.  11,  'He  came  to  his  own, 
and  his  own  received  him  not.'  So  in  John  v.  40,  '  But  ye  will  not  come 
to  me,  that  ye  may  have  life/ 

Sixthly,  The  joy  and  delight  that  he  takes  at  the  conversion  of  sin- 
ners, doth  demonstrate  his  willingness  that  they  should  be  saved  :  Luke 
xv.  7,  '  I  say  unto  you,  That  likewise  joy  shall  be  in  heaven  over  one 
sinner  that  repenteth,  more  than  over  ninety  and  nine  just  persons  that 
need  no  repentance.'  God  the  Father  rejoiceth  at  the  return  of  his 
prodigal  son  ;  Christ  rejoices  to  see  the  travail  of  his  soul ;  the  Spirit 
rejoices  that  he  hath  another  temple  to  dwell  in  ;  and  the  angels  rejoice 
that  they  have  another  brother  to  delight  in,  &c,  Isa.  liii.  11. 

The  fifth  device  that  Satan  hath  to  keep  poor  sinners  from  believing, 
from  closing  with  a  Saviour,  is, 

Device  (5).  By  working  a  sinner  to  mind  more  the  secret  decrees 
and  counsels  of  God,  than  his  own  duty.    What  ncedest  thou  to  busy 
thyself  about  receiving,  embracing,  and  entertaining  of  Christ  ?  saith 
1  From  the  cradle  to  the  cross,  his  whole  life  was  a  life  of  sufferings. 

2  Cor.  II.  ll.J  against  satan's  devices.  149 

Satan ;  if  thou  art  elected,  thou  shalt  be  saved  ;  if  not,  all  that  thou 
canst  do  will  do  thee  no  good.  Nay,  he  will  work  the  soul  not  only  to 
doubt  of  its  election,  but  to  conclude  that  he  is  not  elected,  and  there- 
fore let  him  do  what  he  can,  he  shall  never  be  saved. 

Now  the  remedies  against  this  device  are  these  : 

Remedy  (1).  The  first  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is,  seriously 
to  consider,  That  all  the  angels  in  heaven,  nor  all  the  men  on  earth, 
nor  all  the  devils  in  hell,  cannot  tell  to  the  contrary,  but  that  thou 
mayest  be  an  elect  person,  a  chosen  vessel.  Thou  mayest  be  confident 
of  this,  that  God  never  made  Satan  one  of  his  privy  council,  God  never 
acquainted  him  with  the  names  or  persons  of  such  that  he  hath  set  his 
love  upon  to  eternity,  &c. 

Remedy  (2).  The  second  remedy  against  this  device  of  Satan  is, 
To  meddle  with  that  which  thou  hast  to  do.  '  Secret  things  belong  to 
the  Lord,  but  revealed  things  belong  to  thee/  Deut.  xxix.  29.  Thy 
work,  sinner,  is,  to  be  peremptory  in  believing,  and  in  returning  to  the 
Lord  ;  thy  work  is  to  cast  thyself  upon  Christ,  lie  at  his  feet,  to  wait 
on  him  in  his  ways,  and  to  give  him  no  rest  till  he  shall  say,  Sinner,  I 
am  thy  portion,  I  am  thy  salvation,  and  nothing  shall  separate  between 
thee  and  me. 

Here  followeth  seven  characters  of  false  teachers,  which  let  me  add 
for  a  close,  viz. : — 

That  Satan  labours  might  and  main,  by  false  teachers,  which  are  his 
messengers  and  ambassadors,  to  deceive,  delude,  and  for  ever  undo  the 
precious  souls  of  men:1  Jer.  xxiii.  13,  'I  have  seen  folly  in  the  pro- 
phets of  Samaria ;  they  prophesied  in  Baal,  and  caused  my  people 
Israel  to  err ;'  Micah  iii.  5,  '  The  prophets  make  my  people  to  err.' 
They  seduce  them,  and  carry  them  out  of  the  right  way  into  by-paths 
and  blind  thickets  of  error,  blasphemy,  and  wickedness,  where  they  are 
lost  for  ever.  'Beware  of  false  prophets,  for  they  come  to  you  in  sheep's 
clothing,  but  inwardly  they  are  ravening  wolves,'  Mat.  vii.  15.  These 
lick  and  suck  the  blood  of  souls  :  Philip,  iii.  2,  '  Beware  of  dogs,  beware 
of  evil  workers,  beware  of  the  concision.'  These  kiss  and  kill ;  these 
cry,  Peace,  peace,  till  souls  fall  into  everlasting  flames,  &c,  Pro  v.  vii. 

Now,  the  best  way  to  deliver  poor  souls  from  being  deluded  and  de- 
stroyed by  these  messengers  of  Satan  is,  to  discover  them  in  their 
colours,  that  so,  being  known,  poor  souls  may  shun  them,  and  fly  from 
them  as  from  hell  itself. 

Now  you  may  know  them  by  these  characters  following  : 

[1.]  The  first  character.  False  teachers  are  men-pleasers.2  They 
preach  more  to  please  the  ear  than  to  profit  the  heart :  Isa.  xxx.  10, 
'  Which  say  to  the  seers,  See  not ;  and  to  the  prophets,  Prophesy  not 
unto  us  right  things  :  speak  to  us  smooth  things  ;  prophesy  deceits.' 
Jer.  v.  30,  31,  '  A  wonderful  and  horrible  thing  is  committed  in  the 
land  :  the  prophets  prophesy  falsely,  and  the  priests  bear  rule  by  their 
means,  and  my  people  love  to  have  it  so.  And  what  will  you  do  in  the 
end  thereof?'  They  handle  holy  things  rather  with  wit  and  dalliance 
than  with  fear  and  reverence.     False  teachers  are  soul-undoers.     They 

1  Acts  xx.  28-30,  2  Cor.  xi.  13-15,  Eph.  iv.  14,  2  Tim.  iii.  4-6,  Titus  i.  II,  12,2  Peter 
ii.  18,  19.  s  But  so  are  not  true  teachers,  Gal.  i.  10,  1  Thes.  ii.  1-4. 

150  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

are  like  evil  chirurgeons,  that  skin  over  the  wound,  but  never  heal  it. 
Flattery  undid  Ahab  and  Herod,  Nero  and  Alexander.  False  teachers 
are  hell's  greatest  enrichers.  Non  acerba,  sed  blanda,  Not  bitter,  but 
flattering  words  do  all  the  mischief,  said  Valerian,  the  Roman  emperor. 
Such  smooth  teachers  are  sweet  soul-poisoners,  &c,  Jer.  xxiii.  16,  17.1 

[2.]  The  second  character.  False  teachers  are  notable  in  casting 
dirt,  scorn,  and  reproach  upon  the  persons,  names,  and  credits  of 
Christ's  most  faithful  ambassadors.  Thus  Korah,  Dathan,  and  Abirain 
charged  Moses  and  Aaron  that  they  took  too  much  upon  them,  seeing 
all  the  congregation  was  holy,  Num.  xvi.  3.  You  take  too  much  state, 
too  much  power,  too  much  honour,  too  much  holiness  upon  you  ;  for 
what  are  you  more  than  others,  that  you  take  so  much  upon  you  ?  And 
so  Ahab's  false  prophets  fell  foul  on  good  Micaiah,  paying  of  him  with 
blows  for  want  of  better  reasons,  1  Kings  xxii.  10-26.  Yea,  Paul,  that 
great  apostle  of  the  Gentiles,  had  his  ministry  undermined  and  his  repu- 
tation blasted  by  false  teachers  :  '  For  his  letters,'  say  they,  '  are  weighty 
and  powerful,  but  his  bodily  presence  is  weak  and  contemptible,'  2  Cor. 
x.  10.  They  rather  contemn  him  than  admire  him  ;  they  look  upon 
him  as  a  dunce  rather  than  a  doctor.  And  the  same  hard  measure  had 
our  Lord  Jesus  from  the  Scribes  and  Pharisees,  who  laboured  as  for  life 
to  build  their  own  credit  upon  the  ruins  of  his  reputation.2  And  never 
did  the  devil  drive  a  more  full  trade  this  way  than  he  does  in  these 
days,  Mat.  xxvii.  63.  Oh !  the  dirt,  the  filth,  the  scorn  that  is  thrown 
upon  those  of  whom  the  world  is  not  worthy.  I  suppose  false  teachers 
mind  not  that  saying  of  Austin,  Quisquis  volens  detrahit  famw,  nolens 
addit  mercedi  mew,  He  that  willingly  takes  from  my  good  name,  un- 
willingly adds  to  my  reward. 

[3.]  The  third  character.  False  teachers  are  venters  of  the  devices 
and  visions  of  their  own  heads  and  hearts.3  Jer.  xiv.  14,  •  Then  the 
Lord  said  unto  me,  The  prophets  prophesy  lies  in  my  name :  I  sent 
them  not,  neither  have  I  commanded  them,  neither  spake  unto  them  : 
they  prophesy  unto  you  a  false  vision  and  divination,  and  a  thing  of 
nought,  and  the  deceit  of  their  heart ;'  chap,  xxiii.  1 6,  '  Thus  saith  the 
Lord  of  hosts,  Hearken  not  unto  the  words  of  the  prophets  that  pro- 
phesy unto  you  ;  they  make  you  vain  :  they  speak  a  vision  of  their  own 
heart,  and  not  out  of  the  mouth  of  the  Lord.'  Are  there  not  multitudes 
in  this  nation  whose  visions  are  but  golden  delusions,  lying  vanities, 
brain-sick  phantasies  ?  These  are  Satan's  great  benefactors,  and  such  as 
divine  justice  will  hang  up  in  hell  as  the  greatest  malefactors,  if  the 
physician  of  souls  do  not  prevent  it,  &c. 

[4.]  The  fourth  character.  False  teachers  easily  pass  over  the  great 
and  weighty  things  both  of  laiv  and  gospel,  and  stand  most  upon  those 
things  that  are  of  the  least  moment  and  concernment  to  the  souls  of 
men*     1  Tim.  i.  5-7,  '  Now  the  end  of  the  commandment  is  charity 

1  Whilst  an  ass  is  stroked  under  the  helly,  you  may  lay  on  his  back  what  burden  you 

2  The  proverb  is,  Oculus  elfama  non  patiuntur  jocos,  a  man's  eye  and  his  good  name  can 
bear  no  jests.   Yea,  and  Lucian,  that  blasphemous  atheist,  termeth  himthe  crucified  cozener. 

8  Mat.  xxiv.  4,  5,  xi.  14,  Titus  i.  10,  Rom.  xvi.  18. 

4  Luther  complained  of  such  in  his  time  as  would  strain  at  a  gnat,  and  swallow  a  camel. 
This  age  is  full  of  such  teachers,  such  monsters.  The  high  priest's  spirit,  Mat.  xxiii.  24, 
lives  and  thrives  in  these  days. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  151 

out  of  a  pure  heart,  and  of  a  good  conscience,  and  of  faith  unfeigned  ; 
from  which  some  having  swerved,  have  turned  aside  unto  vain  jangling, 
desiring  to  be  teachers  of  the  law,  and  understand  neither  what  they 
say  nor  whereof  they  affirm.'  Mat.  xxiii.  2,  3,  '  Woe  unto  you,  scribes 
and  Pharisees,  hypocrites  !  for  ye  pay  tithe  of  mint,  and  anise  and 
cummin,  and  have  omitted  the  weightier  matters  of  the  law,  judgment, 
mercy,  and  faith ;  these  ought  ye  to  have  done,  and  not  to  leave  the 
other  undone.'  False  teachers  are  nice  in  the  lesser  things  of  the  law, 
and  as  negligent  in  the  greater.  1  Tim.  vi.  3-5,  '  If  any  man  teach 
otherwise,  and  consent  not  to  wholesome  words,  even  the  words  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  to  the  doctrine  which  is  according  to  godliness, 
he  is  proud,  knowing  nothing,  but  doting  about  questions  and  strife  of 
words,  whereof  cometh  envy,  strife,  railings,  evil  surmisings,  perverse 
disputings  of  men  of  corrupt  minds,  and  destitute  of  the  truth,  supposing 
that  gain  is  godliness  :  from  such  withdraw  thyself.'  If  such  teachers 
are  not  hypocrites  in  grain,  I  know  nothing,  Rom.  ii.  22.  The  earth 
groans  to  bear  them,  and  hell  is  fitted  for  them,  Mat.  xxiv.  32. 

[5.]  The  fifth  character.  False  teachers  cover  and  colour  their  dan- 
gerous principles  and  soul-impostures  with  very  fair  speeches  and 
plausible  pretences,  with  high  notions  and  golden  expressions.  Many 
in  these  days  are  bewitched  and  deceived  by  the  magnificent  words, 
lofty  strains,  and  stately  terms  of  deceivers,  viz.  illumination,  revelation, 
deification,  fiery  triplicity,  &c.  As  strumpets  paint  their  faces,  and  deck 
and  perfume  their  beds,  the  better  to  allure  and  deceive  simple  souls,1  so 
false  teachers  will  put  a  great  deal  of  paint  and  garnish  upon  their  most 
dangerous  principles  and  blasphemies,  that  they  may  the  better  deceive 
and  delude  poor  ignorant  souls.  They  know  sugared  poison  goes  down 
sweetly  ;  they  wrap  up  their  pernicious,  soul-killing  pills  in  gold. 
Weigh  the  scriptures  in  the  margin.2 

In  the  days  of  Hadrian  the  emperor,  there  was  one  Ben-Cosbi  gathered 
a  multitude  of  Jews  together,  and  called  himself  Ben-cocuba,  the  son  of  a 
star,  applying  that  promise  to  himself,  Num.  xxiv.  17;  but  he  proved 
Bar-chosaba,  the  son  of  a  lie.  And  so  will  all  false  teachers,  for  all  their 
flourishes  prove  at  the  last  the  sons  of  lies. 

[6.]  The  sixth  character.  False  teachers  strive  more  to  win  over  men 
to  their  opinions,  than  to  better  them  in  their  conversations.  Mat. 
xxiv.  ]  7,  '  Woe  unto  you,  scribes  and  Pharisees,  hypocrites  !  for  ye  com- 
pass sea  and  land  to  make  one  proselyte,  and  when  he  is  made,  ye  make 
him  twofold  more  the  child  of  hell  than  yourselves.'  They  busy  them- 
selves most  about  men's  heads.  Their  work  is  not  to  better  men's 
hearts,  and  mend  their  lives  ;  and  in  this  they  are  very  much  like  their 
father  the  devil,  who  will  spare  no  pains  to  gain  proselytes.3 

[7].  The  seventh  character.  False  teachers  make  merchandise  of  their 
followers :  2  Peter  ii.  1-3,  '  But  there  were  false  prophets  also  among 
the  people,  even  as  there  shall  be  false  teachers  among  you,  who  privily 
shall  bring  in  damnable  heresies,  even  denying  the  Lord  that  bought 
them,  and  bring  upon  themselves  swift  destruction.     And  many  shall 

1  Gal.  vi.  12 ;  2  Cor.  xi.  13-15 ;  Rom.  xvi.  17,  18  ;  Mat.  xvi.  6,  11,  12  ;  vii.  16. 

2  See  footnote  supra. — G. 

8  For  shame,  says  Epictetus  to  his  Stoics  ;  either  live  as  Stoics,  or  leave  off  the  name 
of  Stoics.     The  application  is  easy. 

132  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  CoR.  II.  11. 

follow  their  pernicious  ways  ;  by  reason  of  whom  the  way  of  truth  shall 
be  evil  spoken  of.  And  through  covetousness  shall  they  with  feigned 
words  make  merchandise  of  you  :  whose  judgment  now  of  a  longtime 
lingereth  not,  and  their  damnation  slumbereth  not.'  They  eye  your 
goods  more  than  your  good  ;  and  mind  more  the  serving  of  themselves, 
than  the  saving  of  your  souls.  So  they  may  have  your  substance,  they 
care  not  though  Satan  has  your  souls,  Rev.  xviii.  11—13.  That  they 
may  the  better  pick  your  purse,  they  will  hold  forth  such  principles 
as  are  very  indulgent  to  the  flesh.  False  teachers  are  the  great  wor- 
shippers of  the  golden  calf,  Jer.  vi.  13.1 

Now,  by  these  characters  you  may  know  them,  and  so  shun  them, 
and  deliver  your  souls  out  of  their  dangerous  snares ;  which  that  you 
may,  my  prayers  shall  meet  yours  at  the  throne  of  grace. 

And  now,  to  prevent  objections,  I  shall  lay  down  some  propositions 
or  conclusions  concerning  Satan  and  his  devices,  and  then  give  you  the 
reasons  of  the  point,  and  so  come  to  make  some  use  and  application  of 
the  whole  to  ourselves. 

Propositions  concerning  Satan  and  his  devices  : 

Proposition  (1).  The  first  proposition  is  this,  That  though  Satan  hath 
his  devices  to  draw  souls  to  sin,  yet  we  must  be  careful  that  we  do  not 
lay  all  our  temptations  upon  Satan,  that  we  do  not  wrong  the  devil, 
and  father  that  upon  him  that  is  to  be  fathered  upon  our  own  base 
hearts.     I  think  that  oftentimes  men  charge  that  upon  the  devil  that 
is  to  be  charged  upon  their  own  hearts.     '  And  the  Lord  said  unto  the 
woman,  What  is  this  that  thou  hast  done  %  And  the  woman  said,  The 
serpent  beguiled  me,  and  I  did  eat,'  Gen.  iii.  13.     Sin  and  shifting 
came  into  the  world  together.2    This  is  no  small  baseness  of  our  hearts, 
that  they  will  be  naught,  ay,  very  naught,  and  yet  will  father  that 
naughtiness  upon  Satan.      Man  hath  an  evil  root  within  him  ;  that 
were  there  no  devil  to  tempt  him,  nor  no  wicked  men  in  the  world  to 
entice  him,  yet  that  root  of  bitterness,  that  cursed  sinful  nature  that  is 
in  him,  would  draw  him  to  sin,  though  he  knows  beforehand  that  '  the 
wages  of  sin  is  eternal  death,'  Rom.  vi.  23     '  For  out  of  the  heart  pro- 
ceed evil  thoughts,  murders,  adulteries,  fornication,  thefts,  false  wit- 
nesses, blasphemies/  Mat.  xv.  19.     The  whole  frame  of  man  is  out  of 
frame.     The  understanding  is  dark,  the  will  cross,  the  memory  slippery, 
the  affections  crooked,  the  conscience  corrupted,  the  tongue  poisoned, 
and  the  heart  wholly  evil,  only  evil,  and  continually  evil.     Should  God 
chain  up  Satan,  and  give  him  no  liberty  to  tempt  or  entice  the  sons  of 
men  to  vanity  or  folly,  yet  they  would  not,  yet  they  could  not  but  sin 
against  him,  by  reason  of  that  cursed  nature  that  is  in  them,  that  will 
still  be  a-provoking  them  to  those  sins  that  will  provoke  and  stir  up  the 
anger  of  God  against  them,  Jude  1 5,  16.     Satan  hath  only  a  persuading 
sleight,  not  an  enforcing  might.     He  may  tempt  us,  but  without  our- 
selves he  cannot  conquer  us  ;  he  may  entice  us,  but  without  ourselves 

1  Crates  threw  his  money  into  the  sea,  resolving  to  drown  it,  lest  it  should  drown  him. 
But  false  teachers  care  not  who  thoy  diown,  so  they  may  have  their  money.  [It  may  be 
well  to  distinguish  above  among  the  different  persons  of  the  name,  as  Crates  of  Thebes, 
son  of  Ascondus.     Diog.  Laertius,  vi.  85,  93,  96-98.— G.] 

*  Cum  primtjm  nascivivr  in  omni  continito  pravitale  versamur,  We  are  no  sooner  born, 
than  buried  in  a  bog  of  wickedness.— Tully. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  153 

he  cannot  hurt  us.  Our  hearts  carry  the  greatest  stroke  in  every  sin. 
Satan  can  never  undo  a  man  without  himself;  but  a  man  may  easily 
undo  himself  without  Satan.  Satan  can  only  present  the  golden  cup, 
but  he  hath  no  power  to  force  us  to  drink  the  poison  that  is  in  the  cup ; 
he  can  only  present  to  us  the  glory  of  the  world,  he  cannot  force  us  to 
fall  down  and  worship  him,  to  enjoy  the  world  ;  he  can  only  spread  his 
snares,  he  hath  no  power  to  force  us  to  walk  in  the  midst  of  his  snares. 
Therefore  do  the  devil  so  much  right,  as  not  to  excuse  yourselves,  by 
your  accusing  him,  and  laying  the  load  upon  him,  that  you  should  lay 
upon  your  own  hearts.1 

Prop.  (2).  The  second  proposition  is,  That  Satan  hath  a  great  hand 
and  stroke  in  most  sins.  It  was  Satan  that  tempted  our  first  parents 
to  rebellion  ;  it  was  Satan  that  provoked  David  to  number  the  people  ; 
it  was  Satan  that  put  Peter  upon  rebuking  Christ;  therefore  saith 
Christ,  'Get  thee  behind  me,  Satan  ;'  it  was  Satan  that  put  Cain  upon 
murdering  of  righteous  Abel,  therefore  it  is  that  he  is  called  'a  murderer 
from  the  beginning ;'  it  was  Satan  that  put  treason  into  the  heart  of 
Judas  against  Christ,  '  And  supper  being  ended,  the  devil  having  put 
into  the  heart  of  Judas  Iscariot,  Simon  s  son,  to  betray  him ;'  it  was 
Satan  that  put  Ananias  upon  lying,  Peter  said,  '  Ananias,  why  hath 
Satan  filled  thine  heart  to  lie  to  the  Holy  Ghost  P  As  the  hand  of  Joab 
was  in  the  tale  of  the  woman  of  Tekoah,  so  Satan's  hand  is  usually  in 
all  the  sins  that  men  commit.  Such  is  Satan's  malice  against  God,  and 
his  envy  against  man,  that  he  will  have  a  hand  one  way  or  other  in  all 
the  sins,  though  he  knows  that  all  the  sins  he  provokes  others  to  shall 
be  charged  upon  him  to  his  greater  woe,  and  eternal  torment.3 

Ambrose  brings  in  the  devil  boasting  against  Christ  and  challenging 
Judas  as  his  own :  '  He  is  not  thine,  Lord  Jesus,  he  is  mine ;  his  thoughts 
beat  for  me  ;  he  eats  with  thee,  but  is  fed  by  me  ;  he  takes  bread  from 
thee,  but  money  from  me ;  he  drinks  wine  with  thee,  and  sells  thy 
blood  to  me.'  Such  is  his  malice  against  Christ,  and  his  wrath  and  rage 
against  man,  that  he  will  take  all  advantages  to  draw  men  to  that,  that 
may  give  him  advantage  to  triumph  over  Christ  and  men's  souls  for 

Prop.  (3).  The  third  proposition  is,  That  Satan  must  have,  a  double 
leave  before  he  can  do  anything  against  us.  He  must  have  leave  from 
God,  and  leave  from  ourselves,  before  he  can  act  anything  against  our 
happiness.  He  must  have  his  commission  from  God,  as  you  may  see 
in  the  example  of  Job,  Job  i.  11,  12,  ii.  3-5.  Though  the  devil  had 
malice  enough  to  destroy  him.  yet  he  had  not  so  much  as  power  to 
touch  him,  till  God  gave  him  a  commission. 

They  could  not  so  much  as  enter  into  the  swine  without  leave  from 
Christ,  Luke  viii.  32.  Satan  would  fain  have  combated  with  Peter,  but 
this  he  could  not  do  without  leave.  '  Satan  hath  desired  to  have  you, 
to  winnow  you,'  Luke  xxii.  31.  So  Satan  could  never  have  overthrown 
Ahab  and  Saul,  but  by  a  commission  from  God,  1  Kings  xxii.  Ah ! 
what  a  cordial,  what  a  comfort  should  this  be  to  the  saints,  that  their 

1  To  *Ui  *cto  tipZi  Ss  <p\ol  W/3aXat/  jro^asT*,  the  fire  is  our  wood,  though  it  be  the  devil's 
flame. — Nazianzen.  n 

2  Gen.  iii.  1-5  ;  1  Chron.  xxi.  1 ;  Mat.  xvi.  22,  23 ;  John  viii.  44,  xiii.  2 ;  Acts  v.  d.— b. 
*  Diabolus  tentat,  Deus  probat. — Tertullian. 

154-  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  IL  11. 

greatest,  subtlest,  and  watchfullest  enemy  cannot  hurt  nor  harm  them, 
without  leave  from  him  who  is  their  sweetest  Saviour,  their  dearest 
husband,  and  their  choicest  friend. 

And  as  Satan  must  have  leave  from  God,  so  he  must  have  leave  of 
us.  When  he  tempts,  we  must  assent ;  when  he  makes  offers,  we  must 
hearken  ;  when  he  commands,  we  must  obey,  or  else  all  his  labour  and 
temptations  will  be  frustrate,  and  the  evil  that  he  tempts  us  to  shall 
be  put  down  only  to  his  account.1  That  is  a  remarkable  passage  in 
Acts  v.  3,  '  Why  hath  Satan  filled  thy  heart  to  He  to  the  Holy  Ghost  ?' 
He  doth  not  expostulate  the  matter  with  Satan ;  he  doth  not  say,  Satan, 
'  Why  hast  thou  filled  Ananias's  heart  to  make  him  lie  to  the  Holy 
Ghost?'  but  he  expostulates  the  case  with  Ananias;  Peter  said, 
'  Ananias,  why  hath  Satan  filled  thine  heart  to  lie  to  the  Holy  Ghost  V 
Why  hast  thou  given  him  an  advantage  to  fill  thy  heart  with  infidelity, 
hypocrisy,  and  obstinate  audacity,  to  lie  to  the  Holy  Ghost  ?  As  if  he 
had  said,  Satan  could  never  have  done  this  in  thee,  which  will  now  for 
ever  undo  thee,  unless  thou  hadst  given  him  leave.  If,  when  a  tempta- 
tion comes,  a  man  cries  out,  and  saith,  Ah,  Lord  !  here  is  a  temptation 
that  would  force  me,  that  would  deflower  my  soul,  and  I  have  no 
strength  to  withstand  it ;  oh  !  help  !  help  !  for  thy  honour's  sake,  for  thy 
Son's  sake,  for  thy  promise'  sake;  it  is  a  sign  that  Satan  hath  not  gained 
your  consent,  but  committed  a  rape  upon  your  souls,  which  he  shall 
dearly  pay  for.2 

Prop.  (4).  The  fourth  proposition  is,  That  no  weapons  but  spiritual, 
weapons  will  be  useful  and  serviceable  to  the  soul  in  fighting  and 
combating  with  the  devil.  This  the  apostle  shews  :  '  Wherefore  take 
unto  you,'  saith  he,  '  the  whole  armour  of  God,  that  ye  may  be  able  to 
stand  in  the  evil  day,  and  having  done  all,  to  stand,'  Eph.  vi.  1 3.  So 
the  same  apostle  tells  you,  '  That  the  weapons  of  your  warfare  are  not 
carnal,  but  mighty  through  God,  to  the  casting  down  of  strongholds,' 
2  Cor.  x.  4.  You  have  not  to  do  with  a  weak,  but  with  a  mighty 
enemy,  and  therefore  you  had  need  to  look  to  it,  that  your  weapons 
are  mighty,  and  that  they  cannot  be,  unless  they  are  spiritual.  Carnal 
weapons  have  no  might  nor  spirit  in  them  towards  the  making  of  a 
conquest  upon  Satan.3  It  was  not  David's  sling  nor  stone  that  gave 
him  the  honour  and  advantage  of  setting  his  feet  upon  Goliah,  but  his 
faith  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  of  hosts.  '  Thou  comest  to  me  with  a 
sword,  with  a  spear,  and  with  a  shield,  but  I  am  come  to  thee  in  the 
name  of  the  Lord  of  hosts,  the  God  of  the  armies  of  Israel,  whom  thou 
hast  defied,'  1  Sam.  xvii.  45.  He  that  fights  against  Satan,  in  the 
strength  of  his  own  resolutions,  constitution  or  education,  will  certainly 
fly  and  fall  before  him.  Satan  will  be  too  hard  for  such  a  soul,  and 
lead  him  captive  at  his  pleasure.  The  only  way  to  stand,  conquer,  and  ' 
triumph,  is  still  to  plead,  'It  is  written,'  as  Christ  did,  Mat.  iv.  10. 
There  is  no  sword  but  the  two-edged  sword  of  the  Spirit,  that  will  be 

1  Adversaria  potestas  non  habet  vim  cogendi  sed  persuadendi — Isidore. 

*  They  are  the  worst  and  greatest  liars  who  pretend  religion,  and  the  Spirit,  and  yet 
are  acted  only  by  carnal  principles  to  carnal  ends. 

5  We  read  of  many  that,  out  of  greatness  of  spirit,  could  offer  violence  to  nature,  hut 
were  at  a  loss  when  they  came  to  deal  with  a  corruption  or  a  temptation.  Heraclitus 
[Heraclius]  his  motto  was,  A  Deo  victoria,  It  is  God  that  gives  victory;  and  that  should 
be  every  Christian's  motto. 

2  COK.  II.  11.]  AGAINST  SATAN'S  DEVICES.  155 

found  to  be  metal  of  proof  when  a  soul  comes  to  engage  against  Satan  ; 
therefore,  when  you  are  tempted  to  uncleanness,  plead,  '  It  is  written, 
be  ye  holy,  as  I  am  holy/  1  Peter  i.  16  ;  and,  'Let  us  cleanse  ourselves 
from  all  filthiness  of  the  flesh  and  spirit,  perfecting  holiness  in  the 
fear  of  the  Lord,'  2  Cor.  vii  1 .  If  he  tempts  you  to  distrust  God's  pro- 
vidence and  fatherly  care  of  you,  plead,  '  It  is  written,'  '  They  that  fear 
the  Lord  shall  want  nothing  that  is  good,'  Ps.  xxxiv.  9. 

It  is  written,  '  The  Lord  will  give  grace  and  glory,  and  no  good  thing 
will  he  withhold  from  them  that  purely  live/  Ps.  lxxxiv.  11.  If  he 
tempt  you  to  fear,  that  you  shall  faint,  and  fall,  and  never  be  able  to 
run  to  the  end  of  the  race  that  is  set  before  you,  plead,  It  is  written, 
'  The  righteous  shall  hold  on  his  way,  and  he  that  hath  clean  hands 
shall  be  stronger  and  stronger,'  Job  xvii.  9. 

It  is  written,  '  I  will  make  an  everlasting  covenant  with  them,  that 
I  will  not  turn  away  from  them,  to  do  them  good,  but  I  will  put  my 
fear  in  their  hearts,  that  they  may  not  depart  from  me,'  Jer.  xxxii.  40. 

It  is  written,  '  They  that  wait  upon  the  Lord,  they  shall  renew  their 
strength  ;  they  shall  mount  up  with  wings  as  eagles ;  they  shall  run, 
and  not  be  weary;  and  they  shall  walk,  and  not  faint,'  Isa.  xl.  31.  If 
Satan  tempt  you  to  think  that  because  your  sun  for  the  present  is  set 
in  a  cloud,  that  therefore  it  will  rise  no  more,  and  that  the  face  of  God 
will  shine  no  more  upon  you  ;  that  your  best  days  are  now  at  an  end, 
and  that  you  must  spend  all  your  time  in  sorrow  and  sighing;  plead, 
It  is  written,  '  He  will  turn  again,  he  will  have  compassion  upon  us, 
and  cast  all  our  sins  into  the  depth  of  the  sea,'  Micah  vii.  J  9. 

It  is  written,  '  For  a  small  moment  have  I  forsaken  thee,  but  with 
great  mercies  will  I  gather  thee.  In  a  little  wrath  I  hid  my  face  from 
thee  for  a  moment,  but  with  everlasting  kindness  will  I  have  mercy 
on  thee,  saith  the  Lord,  thy  Redeemer,'  Isa.  liv.  7,  8,  J  0. 

It  is  written,  '  The  mountains  shall  depart,  and  the  hills  be  removed, 
but  my  kindness  shall  not  depart  from  thee,  neither  shall  the  covenant 
of  my  peace  be  removed,  saith  the  Lord  that  hath  mercy  on  thee.' 

It  is  written,  '  Can  a  woman  forget  her  sucking  child,  that  she 
should  not  have  compassion  on  the  son  of  her  womb  l.  Yea,  they  may 
forget,  yet  will  not  I  forget  thee.  Behold,  I  have  graven  thee  upon 
the  palms  of  my  hands,  thy  walls  are  continually  before  me/  Isa.  xlix. 
15,  16. 

If  ever  you  would  be  too  hard  for  Satan,  and  after  all  your  assaults, 
have  your  bow  abide  in  strength,  then  take  to  you  the  word  of  God, 
which  is  '  the  two-edged  sword  of  the  Spirit,  and  the  shield  of  faith, 
whereby  you  shall  be  able  to  queuch  the  fiery  darts  of  the  devil/  Eph. 
vi.  17.  It  is  not  spitting  at  Satan's  name,  nor  crossing  yourselves,  nor 
leaning  to  your  own  resolutions,  that  will  get  you  the  victory. 

Luther  reports  of  Staupitius,  a  German  minister,  that  he  acknow- 
ledged himself,  that  before  he  came  to  understand  aright  the  free  and 
powerful  grace  of  God,  that  he  vowed  and  resolved  an  hundred  times 
against  some  particular  sin,  and  never  could  get  power  over  it.  At  last 
he  saw  the  reason  to  be  his  trusting  to  his  own  resolution.  Therefore 
be  skilful  in  the  word  of  righteousness,  and  in  the  actings  of  faith  upon 
Christ  and  his  victory,  and  that  crown  of  glory  that  is  set  before  you, 
and  Satan  will  certainly  fly  from  you,  &c,  James  iv.  7. 

^156  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

Prop.  (o).  The  fifth  proposition  is,  That  we  may  read  much  of 
Satan's  nature  and  disposition  by  the  divers  names  and  epithets  that 
are  given  him  in  the  Scripture.  Sometimes  he  is  called  Behemoth, 
which  is  Briifn,  whereby  the  greatness  and  brutishness  of  the  devil  is 
figured,  Job  xl.  15.  Those  evil  spirits  are  sometimes  called  A/a/3oXo/, 
accusers,  for  their  calumnies  and  slanders  ;  and  Tonjgo/,  evil  ones,  for 
their  malice.  Satan  is  Adversarius,  an  adversary,  that  troubleth  and 
molesteth,  1  Pet.  v.  8.  Abaddon  is  a  destroyer.  They  are  tempters, 
for  their  suggestion  ;  lions,  for  their  devouring ;  dragons,  for  their 
cruolty  ;  and  serpents,  for  their  subtilty,  &c.  As  his  names  are,  so  is 
he ;  as  face  answers  to  face,  so  do  Satan's  names  answer  to  his  nature. 
He  hath  the  worst  names  and  the  worst  nature  of  all  created  crea- 
tures, &c. 

Prop.  (6).  The  sixth  proposition  is,  That  God  will  shortly  tread 
down  Satan  under  the  saints'  feet.  Christ,  our  champion,  hath  already 
won  the  field,  and  will  shortly  set  our  feet  upon  the  necks  of  our 
spiritual  enemies.  Satan  is  a  foiled  adversary.  Christ  hath  led  him 
captive,  and  triumphed  over  him  upon  the  cross.  Christ  hath  already 
overcome  him,  and  put  weapons  into  your  hands,  that  you  may  over- 
come him  also,  and  set  your  feet  upon  his  neck.  Though  Satan  be  a 
roaring  lion,  yet  Christ,  who  is  the  lion  of  the  tribe  of  Judah,  will  make 
Satan  fly  and  fall  before  you.  Let  Satan  do  his  worst,  yet  you  shall 
have  the  honour  and  the  happiness  to  triumph  over  him.1  Cheer  up, 
you  precious  sons  of  Sion,  for  the  certainty  and  sweetness  of  victory 
will  abundantly  recompense  you  for  all  the  pains  you  have  taken  in 
making  resistance  against  Satan's  temptations.  The  broken  horns  of 
Satan  shall  be  trumpets  of  our  triumph  and  the  cornets  of  our  joy,  &c. 

Now  I  shall  come  to  the  reasons  of  the  point,  and  so  draw  to  a  close,  &c. 

Reason  (1).  The  first  reason  is,  That  their  hearts  may  be  kept  in  an 
humble,  praying,  watching  frame.  Oh!  hath  Satan  so  many  devices 
to  ensnare  and  undo  the  souls  of  men  ?  How  should  this  awaken  dull, 
drowsy  souls,  and  make  them  stand  upon  their  watch  !  A  saint  should 
be  like  a  seraphim,  beset  all  over  with  eyes  and  lights,  that  he  may 
avoid  Satan's  snares,  and  stand  fast  in  the  hour  of  temptation. 

The  Lord  hath  in  the  Scripture  discovered  the  several  snares,  plots, 
and  devices  that  the  devil  hath  to  undo  the  souls  of  men,  that  so,  being 
forewarned,  they  may  be  forearmed  ;  that  they  may  be  always  upon 
their  watch-tower,  and  hold  their  weapons  in  their  hands,  as  the  Jews 
did  in  Nehemiah's  time.2 

Reason  (2).  The  second  reason  is,  From  that  malice,  envy,  and  en- 
mity that  is  in  Satan  against  the  souls  of  men.  Satan  is  full  of  envy 
and  enmity,  and  that  makes  him  very  studious  to  suit  his  snares  and 
plots  to  the  tempers,  constitutions,  fancies,  and  callings  of  men,  that  so 
he  may  make  them  as  miserable  as  himself.3 

The  Russians  are  so  malicious,  that  you  shall  have  a  man  hide  some  of 

1  Rom.  xvi.  '20,  ri/vrj/x^u,  from  vvfrpifia.  The  Greek  word  signifies  to  break  or  crush 
a  tiling  to  pieces.  Being  applied  to  the  feet,  it  noteth  that  breaking  or  crushing  which  is 
by  stamping  upon  a  thing. 

s  The  philosopher  had  a  ball  of  brass  in  his  hand,  which,  if  he  chanced  to  sleep  with, 
the  fall  into  a  basin  awaked  him  to  his  studies.     You  are  wise,  and  know  how  to  apply  it. 

8  Malice  cares  not  what  it  saith  or  doth,  so  it  may  kill  or  gall. 


2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  157 

his  own  goods  in  the  house  of  him  whom  he  hateth,  and  then  accuse 
him  for  the  stealth  of  them.1  So  doth  Satan,  out  of  malice  to  the  souls 
of  men,  hide  his  goods,  his  wares,  as  I  may  say,  in  the  souls  of  men, 
and  then  go  and  accuse  them  before  the  Lord  ;  and  a  thousand,  thousand 
other  ways  Satan's  malice,  envy,  and  enmity  puts  him  upon,  eternally 
to  undo  the  precious  souls  of  men,  &c. 

Reason  (3).  The  third  reason  is  drawn  from  that  long  experience 
that  Satan  hath  had.  He  is  a  spirit  of  mighty  abilities  ;  and  his 
abilities  to  lay  snares  before  us  are  mightily  increased  by  that  long 
standing  of  his.  He  is  a  spirit  of  above  five  thousand  years'  standing. 
He  hath  had  time  enough  to  study  all  those  ways  and  methods  which 
tend  most  to  ensnare  and  undo  the  souls  of  men.  And  as  he  hath  time 
enough,  so  he  hath  made  it  his  whole  study,  his  only  study,  his  constant 
study,  to  find  out  snares,  depths,  and  stratagems,  to  entangle  and  over- 
throw the  souls  of  men.  When  he  was  but  a  young  serpent,  he  did 
easily  deceive  and  outwit  our  first  parents,  Gen.  iii. ;  but  now  he  is 
grown  that  '  old  serpent,'  as  John  speaks,  Kev.  xii.  9,  he  is  as  old  as  the 
world,  and  is  grown  very  cunning  by  experience. 

Reason  (4).  The  fourth  reason  is,  In  judgment  to  the  men  of  the 
world,  that  they  may  stumble  and  fall,  and  be  ensnared  for  ever. 
Wicked  men  that  withstand  the  offers  of  mercy,  and  despise  the  Spirit 
of  grace,  that  will  not  open,  though  God  knocks  never  so  hard  by  his 
word  and  rod,  by  his  Spirit  and  conscience,  are  given  up  by  a  hand  of 
justice,  to  be  hardened,  deceived,  and  ensnared  by  Satan,  to  their  ever- 
lasting ruin,  1  Kings  xxii.  23.  And  what  can  be  more  just  than  that 
they  should  be  taken  and  charmed  with  Satan's  wiles,  who  have  fre- 
quently refused  to  be  charmed  by  the  Spirit  of  grace,  though  he  hath 
charmed  never  so  wisely,  and  never  so  sweetly,  &c.  ? 

Reason  (5).  The  fifth  reason  is,  That  the  excellency  and  power  of 
God's  grace  may  be  more  illustrated  and  manifested,  by  making  men 
able  to  grapple  with  this  mighty  adversary,  and  that  notwithstanding 
all  the  plots,  devices,  and  stratagems  of  Satan,  yet  he  will  make  them 
victorious  here,  and  crown  them  with  glory  hereafter.  The  greater 
and  the  subtler  the  enemies  of  the  children  of  Israel  were,  the  more 
did  divine  power,  wisdom,  and  goodness,  sparkle  and  shine  ;  and  that, 
notwithstanding  all  their  power,  plots,  and  stratagems,  &c,  yet  to 
Canaan  he  would  bring  them  at  last.  When  Paul  had  weighed  this, 
he  sits  down  and  glories  in  his  infirmities  and  distresses  and  Satan's 
buffetings,  that  the  power  of  Christ  might  rest  upon  him,  2  Cor. 
xii.  7-9. 

The  use  of  the  point. 

If  Satan  hath  such  a  world  of  devices  and  stratagems  to  ensnare  and 
undo  the  souls  of  men,  then,  instead  of  wondering  that  so  few  are  saved, 
sit  down  and  wonder  that  any  are  saved,  that  any  escape  the  snares  of 
this  cunning  fowler,  who  spreads  his  nets  and  casts  forth  his  baits  in  all 
places,  in  all  cases  and  companies. 

But  this  is  not  the  main  thing  that  I  intend  to  speak  to  ;  my  main 
business  shall  be,  to  set  before  you  some  special  rules  and  helps  against 
all  his  devices. 

1  An  envious  heart  and  plotting  head  are  inseparable  companions. 

158  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  CoR.  II.  11. 

The  first  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  by  any  of  Satan's  devices, 
then  ovalk  by  rule.1  He  that  walks  by  rule,  walks  most  safely  ;  he  that 
walks  by  rule,  walks  most  honourably  ;  he  that  walks  by  rule,  walks  most 
sweetly.  When  men  throw  off  the  word,  then  God  throws  off  them, 
and  then  Satan  takes  them  by  the  hand,  and  leads  them  into  snares  at 
his  pleasure.  He  that  thinks  himself  too  good  to  be  ruled  by  the 
word,  will  be  found  too  bad  to  be  owned  by  God  ;  and  if  God  do  not, 
or  will  not  own  him,  Satan  will  by  his  stratagems  overthrow  him. 
Them  that  keep  to  the  rule,  they  shall  be  kept  in  the  hour  of  tempta- 
tion. '  Because  thou  hast  kept  the  word  of  my  patience,  I  also  will 
keep  thee  from  the  hour  of  temptation,  which  shall  come  upon  all  the 
world,  to  try  them  that  dwell  upon  the  earth,'  Rev.  iii.  10. 

The  second  Itelp.  As  you  would  not  be  taken  with  any  of  Satan's 
devices,  take  heed  of  vexing  and  grieving  the  Holy  Spirit  of  God.2  It 
is  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  that  is  best  able  to  discover 
Satan's  snares  against  us  ;  it  is  only  he  that  can  point  out  all  his  plots, 
and  discover  all  his  methods,  and  enable  men  to  escape  those  pits  that 
he  hath  digged  for  their  precious  souls.  Ah  !  if  you  set  that  sweet  and 
blessed  Spirit  a-mourning,  that  alone  can  secure  you  from  Satan's 
depths,  by  whom  will  you  be  secured  ?  Man  is  a  weak  creature,  and 
no  way  able  to  discover  Satan's  snares,  nor  to  avoid  them,  unless  the 
Spirit  of  the  Lord  gives  skill  and  power  ;  therefore,  whoever  be  grieved, 
be  sure  the  Spirit  be  not  grieved  by  your  enormities,  nor  by  your  refu- 
sing the  cordials  and  comforts  that  he  sets  before  you,  nor  by  slighting 
and  despising  his  gracious  actings  in  others,  nor  by  calling  sincerity 
hypocrisy,  faith  fancy,  &c,  nor  by  fathering  those  things  upon  the  Spirit, 
that  are  the  brats  and  fruits  of  your  own  hearts.3  The  Spirit  of 
the  Lord  is  your  counsellor,  your  comforter,  your  upholder,  your 
strengthener.  It  is  only  the  Spirit  that  makes  a  man  too  great  for 
Satan  to  conquer.  '  Greater  is  he  that  is  in  you,  than  he  that  is  in  the 
world,'  1  John  iv.  4. 

The  third  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  with  any  of  Satan's 
devices,  then  labour  for  more  heavenly  ivisdom*  Ah,  souls  !  you  are 
much  in  the  dark,  you  have  but  a  little  to  that  others  have,  and  to  that 
you  might  have  had,  had  you  not  been  wanting  to  yourselves.  There 
are  many  knowing  souls,  but  there  are  but  a  few  wise  souls.  There  is 
oftentimes  a  great  deal  of  knowledge,  where  there  is  but  a  little  wis- 
dom to  improve  that  knowledge.  Knowledge  without  wisdom  is  like 
mettle  in  a  blind  horse,  which  often  is  an  occasion  of  the  rider's  fall, 
and  of  his  bones  being  jostled  against  the  walls.5  It  is  not  the  most 
knowing  Christian,  but  the  most  wise  Christian,  that  sees,  avoids,  and 
escapes  Satan's  snares.  '  The  way  of  life  is  above  to  the  wise,'  saith 
Solomon, '  that  he  may  depart  from  hell  beneath,'  Prov.  xv.  24«.  Heavenly 
wisdom  makes  a  man  delight  to  fly  high  ;  and  the  higher  any  man 
flies,  the  more  ho  is  out  of  the  reach  of  Satan's  snares.6    Ah,  souls  !  you 

1  Prov.  xii.  24;  Gal.  vi.  16. 

2  Spiritus  sanclus  est  res  delicata,  the  Divine  Spirit  is  a  very  tender  thing  :  if  you  grieve 
him,  he  will  certainly  grieve  and  vex  your  precious  souls,  Lam.  i.  16. 

3  Isa.  lxiii.  10  ;  Ps.  lxxiii.  23  ;   1  Thes.  v.  19  ;  Acts  ii.  13. 

4  If  men  could  but  see  the  fair  face  of  wisdom  with  mortal  eyes,  they  would  be  in  love 
with  her,  saith  Plato.  6  Sine prudentia  simplicitas  stultitiaest — Drusius. 

6  Malim  prxidentice  guttam  qnam  fozeundioris  fortunes  pelagus,  said  Nazianzen.  A  ser- 
pent's eye  is  a  singular  ornament  in  a  dove's  head. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  159 

had  need  of  a  great  deal  of  heavenly  wisdom,  to  see  where  and  how 
Satan  lays  his  baits  and  snares  ;  and  wisdom  to  find  out  proper  reme- 
dies against  his  devices,  and  wisdom  to  apply  those  remedies  season- 
ably, inwardly,  and  effectually  to  your  own  hearts,  that  so  you  may 
avoid  the  snares  which  that  evil  one  hath  laid  for  your  precious  souls. 

The  fourth  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  with  any  of  Satan's 
devices,  then  make  present  resistance  against  Satan's  first  motions. 
It  is  safe  to  resist,  it  is  dangerous  to  dispute.  Eve  disputes,  and  falls 
in  paradise,  Gen.  iii. ;  Job  resists,  and  conquers  upon  the  dunghill. 
He  that  will  play  with  Satan's  bait,  will  quickly  be  taken  with  Satan's 
book.  The  promise  of  conquest  is  made  over  to  resisting,  not  to  dis- 
puting :  '  Resist  the  devil,  and  he  will  fly  from  you,'  James  iv.  7.  Ah, 
souls  !  were  you  better  at  resisting  than  at  disputing,  though  happily 
you  were  not  very  expert  at  either,  your  temptations  would  be  fewer, 
and  your  strength  to  stand  would  be  greater  than  now  it  is,  &c. 

The  fifth  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  with  any  of  Satan's  devices, 
then  labour  to  be  filled  with  the  Spirit.  The  Spirit  of  the  Lord  is  a 
Spirit  of  light  and  power ;  and  what  can  a  soul  do  without  light  and 
power  'against  spiritual  wickedness  in  high  places'?  Eph.  vi.  12.  It 
is  not  enough  that  you  have  the  Spirit,  but  you  must  be  filled  with  the 
Spirit,  or  else  Satan,  that  evil  spirit,  will  be  too  hard  for  you,  and  his 
plots  will  prosper  against  you.  That  is  a  sweet  word  of  the  apostle, 
'Be  filled  with  the  Spirit,  Eph.  v.  18  ;*  i.e.  labour  for  abundance  of  the 
Spirit.  He  that  thinks  he  hath  enough  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  will  quickly 
find  himself  vanquished  by  the  evil  spirit.  Satan  hath  his  snares  to 
take  you  in  prosperity  and  adversity,  in  health  and  sickness,  in  strength 
and  weakness,  when  you  are  alone  and  when  you  are  in  company,  when 
you  come  on  to  spiritual  duties  and  when  you  come  off  from  spiritual 
duties,  and  if  you  are  not  filled  with  the  Spirit,  Satan  will  be  too  hard 
and  too  crafty  for  you,  and  will  easily  and  frequently  take  you  in  his 
snares,  and  make  a  prey  of  you  in  spite  of  your  souls.  Therefore  labour 
more  to  have  your  hearts  filled  with  the  Spirit  than  to  have  your  heads 
filled  with  notions,  your  shops  with  wares,  your  chests  with  silver,  or 
your  bags  with  gold  ;  so  shall  you  escape  the  snares  of  this  fowler,  and 
triumph  over  all  his  plots,  &c.2 

The  sixth  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  in  any  of  Satan's  snares, 
then  keep  humble.  An  humble  heart  will  rather  lie  in  the  dust  than 
rise  by  wickedness,  and  sooner  part  with  all  than  the  peace  of  a  good 
conscience.  Humility  keeps  the  soul  free  from  many  darts  of  Satan's 
casting,  and  snares  of  his  spreading ;  as  the  low  shrubs  are  free  from 
many  violent  gusts  and  blasts  of  wind,  which  shake  and  rend  the  taller 
trees.  The  devil  hath  least  power  to  fasten  a  temptation  on  him  that 
is  most  humble.  He  that  hath  a  gracious  measure  of  humility,  is  neither 
affected  with  Satan's  proffers  nor  terrified  with  his  threatenings.3     I 

1  irXn^ovah.     To  be  filled  with  the  Spirit,  as  the  sails  of  a  ship  is  filled  with  wind. 

2  Luther  saith,  a  holy  gluttony  is  to  lay  on,  to  feed  hard,  and  to  fetch  hearty  draughts, 
till  they  be  even  drunk  with  loves,  and  with  the  abundance  of  the  Spirit.  Oh  that  there 
were  more  such  holy  gluttony  in  the  world  ! 

3  It  is  reported  of  Satan  that  he  should  say  thus  of  a  learned  man,  Tu  me  semper  vincis, 
thou  dost  always  overcome  me  ;  when  1  would  exalt  and  promote  thee,  thou  keepest  thy- 
self in  humility ;  and  when  I  would  throw  thee  down,  thou  liftest  up  thyself  in  assurance 
of  faith. 

160  PRECIOUS  REMEDIES  [2  COR.  II.  11. 

have  read  of  one  who,  seeing  in  a  vision  many  snares  of  the  devil  spread 
upon  the  earth,  he  sat  down,  and  mourned,  and  said  in  himself,  Quis 
peHransiet  ista  ?  who  shall  pass  through  these  ?  whereunto  he  heard  a 
voice  answering,  Humilitas  peiiransiet,  humility  shall.  God  hath 
said,  that  '  he  will  teach  the  humble/  and  that  '  he  will  dwell  with  the 
humble,'  and  that  'he  will  fill  and  satisfy  the  humble.'1  And  if  the 
teachings  of  God,  the  indwellings  of  God,  if  the  pourings  in  of  God,  will 
not  keep  the  soul  from  falling  into  Satan's  snares,  I  do  not  know  what 
will.  And  therefore  as  you  would  be  happy  in  resisting  Satan,  and 
blessed  in  triumphing  over  Satan  and  all  his  snares,  keep  humble ;  I 
say  again,  keep  humble,  &c. 

The  seventh  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  in  any  of  Satan's  snares, 
then  keep  a  strong,  close,  and  constant  watch,  1  Thes.  v.  6.'2  A  secure 
soul  is  already  an  ensnared  soul.  That  soul  that  will  not  watch  against 
temptations,  will  certainly  fall  before  the  power  of  temptations.  Satan 
works  most  strongly  on  the  fancy  when  the  soul  is  drowsy.  The  soul's 
security  is  Satan's  opportunity  to  fall  upon  the  soul  and  to  spoil  the 
soul,  as  Joshua  did  the  men  of  Ai.  The  best  way  to  be  safe  and  secure 
from  all  Satan's  assaults  is,  with  Nehemiah  and  the  Jews,  to  watch  and 
pray,  and  pray  and  watch.  By  this  means  they  became  too  hard  for 
their  enemies,  and  the  work  of  the  Lord  did  prosper  sweetly  in  their 
hands.  Remember  how  Christ  chid  his  sluggish  disciples,  '  What !  could 
you  not  watch  with  me  one  hour  V  what,  cannot  you  watch  with  me  ? 
how  will  you  then  die  with  me  ?  if  you  cannot  endure  words,  how  will 
you  endure  wounds  ?  drc.  Satan  always  keeps  a  crafty  and  malicious 
watch,  '  seeking  whom  he  may  devour  (xaram^  or  whom  he  may  drink 
or  sip  up,  as  the  apostle  speaks  in  that  1  Peter  v.  8.  Satan  is  very 
envious  at  our  condition,  that  we  should  enjoy  that  paradise  out  of 
which  he  is  cast,  and  out  of  which  he  shall  be  for  ever  kept. 

Shall  Satan  keep  a  crafty  watch,  and  shall  not  Christians  keep  a  holy 
spiritual  watch  ?3  Our  whole  life  is  beset  with  temptations.  Satan 
watches  all  opportunities  to  break  our  peace,  to  wound  our  consciences, 
to  lessen  our  comforts,  to  impair  our  graces,  to  slur  our  evidences,  and 
to  damp  our  assurances,  &c.  Oh !  what  need  then  have  we  to  be 
always  upon  our  watch-tower,  lest  we  be  surprised  by  this  subtle  ser- 
pent. Watchfulness  includes  a  waking,  a  rousing  up  of  the  soul.  It 
is  a  continual,  careful  observing  of  our  hearts  and  ways,  in  all  the  turn- 
ings of  our  lives,  that  we  still  keep  close  to  God  and  his  word. 

Watchfulness  is  nothing  else  but  the  soul  running  up  and  down,  to 
and  fro,  busy  everywhere ;  it  is  the  heart  busied  and  employed  with 
diligent  observation  of  quid  inde,  what  comes  from  within  us,  and  of 
quid  inde,  what  comes  from  without  us  and  into  us.  Ah,  souls  !  you 
are  no  longer  safe  and  secure  than  when  you  are  upon  your  watch. 
While  Antipater  kept  the  watch,  Alexander  was  safe;  and  while  we 

1  Ps.  xxv.  9  ;  Isa.  lvii.  15 ;  James  iv.  6. 

2  We  must  not  be  like  Agrippa's  dormouse,  that  would  not  awake  till  cast  into  boil- 
ing lead,  but  effectually  mind  lliese  following  scriptures,  wherein  this  duty  of  watchful- 
ness is  so  strictly  enjoined  : — Mat.  xxvi.  40  ;  Mark  xiii.  33,  34,  35,  37  ;  1  Cor.  xvi.  13  ; 
Col.  iv.  2 ;  1  Peter  iv.  7  ;  Rev.  ii.  3. 

8  Hannibal  never  rested,  whether  he  did  conquer  or  was  conquered.  It  is  so  with 
Satan.  Learn,  for  shame  of  the  devil,  said  blessed  Latimer,  to  watch,  seeing  the  devil  is 
so  watchful. 

2  Cor.  II.  11.]  against  satan's  devices.  161 

keep  a  strict  watch,  we  are  safe.  A  watchful  soul  is  a  soul  upon  the 
wing,  a  soul  out  of  gun-shot,  a  soul  upon  a  rock,  a  soul  in  a  castle,  a 
soul  above  the  clouds,  a  soul  held  fast  in  everlasting  arms. 

I  shall  conclude  this  seventh  head  with  this  advice,  Remember  the 
dragon  is  subtle,  and  bites  the  elephant's  ear,  and  then  sucks  his  blood, 
because  he  knows  that  to  be  the  only  place  which  the  elephant  cannot 
reach  with  his  trunk  to  defend  ;  so  our  enemies  are  so  subtle,  that  they 
will  bite  us,  and  strike  us  where  they  may  most  mischief  us,  and  there- 
fore it  doth  very  much  concern  us  to  stand  always  upon  our  guard. 

The  eighth  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  with  any  of  Satan's 
snares  and  devices,  then  keep  up  your  communion  with  God.1  Your 
strength  to  stand  and  withstand  Satan's  fiery  darts  is  from  your  com- 
munion with  God.  A  soul  high  in  communion  with  God  may  be 
tempted,  but  will  not  easily  be  conquered.  Such  a  soul  will  fight  it 
out  to  the  death.  Communion  with  God  furnisheth  the  soul  with  the 
greatest  and  the  choicest  arguments  to  withstand  Satan's  temptations. 
Communion  is  the  result  of  union.  Communion  is  a  reciprocal  ex- 
change between  Christ  and  a  gracious  soul.  Communion  is  Jacob's 
ladder,  where  you  have  Christ  sweetly  coming  down  into  the  soul,  and 
the  soul,  by  divine  influences,  sweetly  ascending  up  to  Christ.  Com- 
munion with  Christ  is  very  inflaming,  raising  and  strengthening.  While 
Samson  kept  up  his  communion  with  God,  no  enemy  could  stand 
before  him,  but  he  goes  on  conquering  and  to  conquer ;  but  when  he 
was  fallen  in  his  communion  with  God,  he  quickly  falls  before  the  plots 
of  his  enemies.  It  will  be  so  with  your  souls.  So  long  as  your  com- 
munion with  God  is  kept  up,  you  will  be  too  hard  for  '  spiritual  wicked- 
ness in  high  places  ;'  but  if  you  fall  from  your  communion  with  God, 
you  will  fall,  as  others,  before  the  face  of  every  temptation.2  David,  so 
long  as  he  kept  up  his  communion  with  God,  he  stands,  and  triumphs 
over  all  his  enemies ;  but  when  he  was  fallen  in  his  communion  with 
God,  then  he  falls  before  the  enemies  that  were  in  his  own  bosom,  and 
flies  before  those  that  pursued  after  his  life.  It  will  be  so  with  your 
souls,  if  you  do  not  keep  up  your  communion  with  God.  Job  keeps  up 
his  communion  with  God,  and  conquers  Satan  upon  the  dunghill ; 
Adam  loses  his  communion  with  God,  and  is  conquered  by  Satan  in 
paradise.  Communion  with  God  is  a  shield  upon  land,  as  well  as  an 
anchor  at  sea ;  it  is  a  sword  to  defend  you,  as  well  as  a  staff  to  support 
you  ;  therefore  keep  up  your  communion. 

The  ninth  help.  If  you  would  not  be  taken  in  any  of  Satan's  snares, 
then  engage  not  against  Satan  in  your  own  strength,  but  be  every 
day  drawing  new  virtue  and  strength  from  the  Lord  Jesus.3  Cer- 
tainly that  soul  that  engages  against  any  old  or  new  temptation  without 

1  1  Cor.  vi.  19.  The  words  are  very  significant  in  the  original.  There  are  two  ins, 
as  though  God  could  never  have  near  enough  communion  with  them. 

2  The  sea  ehhs  and  flows,  the  moon  increases  and  decreases;  so  it  is  with  saints  in  their 
communion  with  God.  Plutarch  tells  of  Eudoxus,  that  he  would  be  willing  to  be  burnt 
up  presently  by  the  sun,  so  he  might  be  admitted  to  come  so  near  it  as  to  learn  the 
nature  of  it.  What!  should  not  we  be  content  to  suffer  for  the  keeping  up  communion 
with  Christ? — [Eudoxus  :  Delambre,  His